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ENVI 6 community ecology FINAL

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ENVI 6 community ecology FINAL

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ENVI 6 community ecology FINAL

  1. 1. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY Chapter 6
  2. 2. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY The division of ecology that deals with the study of the interactions among species and interactions with the abiotic environment Composed of all population of a given area A group of populations interacting with one another within the same environment.
  3. 3. RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANISMS Symbiotic Relationship  two entire different organisms live in close association that benefits at least one of them. Kinds of Symbiotic Relationship Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism
  4. 4. MUTUALISM Both organisms are benefited and obligatory Double positive interaction (+,+) Lichens consists of algae and fungi. Algae produce food. Fungi provide water and habitat.
  5. 5. PROTOCOOPERATION Both organisms are benefited but not obligatory Double positive interaction (+,+) A sea anemone makes an ideal home for a clownfish. A clownfish can help an anemone catch its prey by luring other fish toward over so that the anemone can catch them.
  6. 6. COMMENSALISM One organism benefits while the other is neither benefited nor destroyed Positive-neutral interaction (+,0)
  7. 7. PARASITISM One organism (parasite) benefits and the other (host) is harmed Positive-negative interaction (+,-)
  8. 8. AMENSALISM One organism is inhabited or destroyed and the other is not affected Negative-neutral interaction (-,0) Algal bloom can lead to the death of fishes, however the algae do not benefit from these deaths.
  9. 9. PREDATION Predator species benefits while prey species is harmed One organism benefits at the expense of another Positive-negative interaction (+,-)
  10. 10. COMPETITION Both organisms are affected Organisms struggle with each other to obtain limited resources Can be interspecific or intraspecific Negative-negative interaction (-,-) Gause’s Principle (Interspecific Competition) If two populations of organisms occupy the same ecological niche, one of the populations will be eliminated.
  11. 11. INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION competition between different species fight for resources within an ecosystem
  12. 12. INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION competition between individual members of the same species fight for resources within an ecosystem These wolves are competing for food and for social dominance.
  13. 13. TYPES OF TWO-SPECIES INTERACTION INTERACTION SPECIES A SPECIES B DESCRIPTION Mutualism + + Both benefited and obligatory Protocooperation + + Both benefited and not obligatory Commensalism + O Species A is benefited while species B is Parasitism + – Species A is benefited while species B is harmed Amensalism – O Species A is harmed while species B is unaffected Competition – – Both are affected Predation + – Species A feeds on species B.
  14. 14. HOW ECOSYSTEMS CHANGE Ecological Succession
  15. 15. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION It is a gradual process of change and replacement of the types of species in a community In nature, the process of ecological succession may take hundreds or thousands of years. Each new community that arises often makes it harder for the previous community to survive.
  16. 16. PRIMARY SUCCESSION It is a type of succession that occurs on a surface where no ecosystem existed before. Primary succession can occur on rocks, cliffs, and sand dunes. Primary succession is much slower than secondary succession because primary succession begins where there is no soil. It can take several hundred to several thousand years to produce fertile soil naturally.
  17. 17. SECONDARY SUCCESSION It is the more common type of succession, occurs on a surface where an ecosystem has previously existed Secondary succession occurs in ecosystems that have been disturbed or disrupted by humans, animals, or by natural processes such as storms, floods, earthquakes, and volcanoes.
  18. 18. PIONEER SPECIES  The first organisms to colonize any newly available area and begin the process of ecological succession.  Over time, pioneer species will make the new area habitable for other species. Climax Community  It is a final stage and stable community.  Even though a climax community continues to change in small ways, this type of community may remain the same through time if it is not disturbed.
  19. 19.  Lichens (left) are colonizing a boulder. Over a long period of time, lichens can break down rock into soil.  Plants that grow through cracks in city sidewalks (right) can also be described as pioneers of primary succession.
  20. 20.  When Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, much of the forest around the volcano was destroyed.  The photo above was taken 12 years after the eruption of Mount St. Helens and shows evidence of secondary succession.
  21. 21.  This fire fighter is helping maintain a controlled fire in South Dakota.  Some fires are set on purpose by fire officials to bring nutrients to soil from burned vegetation.  These young lodge pole pine trees have started growing after a devastating forest fire.
  22. 22. OLD-FIELD SUCCESSION Another example of secondary succession is old- field succession, which occurs when farmland is abandoned.

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