We inhabit in two worlds
One is the natural world of plants, animals, soils, air and
The other is the world of social institutions and artifacts
that we create for ourselves using science, technology,
and political organizations.
Both worlds are essential to our lives, integrating
them successfully causes enduring tensions.
Where earlier people had limited ability to alter their
surroundings, we now have power to extract and consume
resources, produce wastes, and modify our world in ways that
threaten both our continued existence and that of many
organisms with which we share our planet.
Remedies are now well
understood; the problem is to
make them socially, economically
and politically acceptable.
Barbara Ward, Economist
“Foresters know how to plant trees, but not how to establish conditions under
which villagers in developing countries can manage plantations for themselves.
Engineers know how to control pollution, but not know how to persuade
factories to install the necessary equipment. City planners know how to design
urban areas, but not know how to make them affordable to the poorest
members of society. The solutions to these problems increasingly involve human
social systems as well as natural science.”
To ensure a sustainable future for ourselves and future
generations, we need to understand something about how our
world works, what we are doing to it, and what we can do to
protect and improve it.
What is Environmental Education?
A process by which people develop awareness, concern and
knowledge of the environment and learn to use this
understanding to preserve, conserve and utilize the
environment in a sustainable manner for the benefit of
present and future generations
It is intended for all types of learners, students, out-of-
school youth, community leaders, policy makers and general
public to develop appropriate environment-related skills
It aims to provide different groups of people as well as
graduates in a variety of professional fields with the
knowledge needed to develop a sense of responsibility
towards the environment and the rational utilization of its
SUSTAINING THE EARTH
WE SHOULD CONSIDER
THIS QUESTION FROM
• The environment and human health
• A stable economy that uses energy and resources
• Social and political systems
that lead to a just society
IN A SUSTAINABLE
• Technologies used for production of
needed goods are not harmful to the
environment or to human health.
• Renewable resources (such as plant-
based substances or solar energy) are
used rather than those, like
fossil fuels, that will eventually run
IN A SUSTAINABLE
• Materials are recycled at the end of their use
if they are not biodegradable (easily broken
down into harmless substances in the
IN A SUSTAINABLE
• Manufacturing processes are either designed so
as not to produce waste products,
– OR –
• Waste products are recycled or biodegradable.
WHILE WE HAVE MADE SOME PROGRESS
THESE GOALS, WE STILL
HAVE A LONG WAY TO GO…
• Mountains of solid waste are piling up—
particularly in industrialized nations.
• Air and water pollution continue to be problems
in many places.
What Is Environment?
Can be defined as the circumstances and conditions that
surround an organism or group of organism
The social and cultural conditions that affect an individual
Ecology and Environmental Science
Ecology and environmental science are closely related
disciplines, and familiarity with the principles of one is
essential to fully understanding another.
What is Environmental Science?
A systematic study of our environment and our place in it
A relatively new field, environmental science is a highly
interdisciplinary, which means that it involves many fields of
One important foundation of environmental science is ecology.
What is Ecology?
the study of how living things interact with each other
For example, an ecologist might study the relationship between bees
and the plants bees pollinate. However, an environmental scientist
might investigate how the nesting behavior of bees is influenced by
human activities such as the planting of suburban landscaping.
Levels of Organization in Ecology
Organism is an individual living thing. A species is a group of
organisms that are closely related with the same genetic
characteristics and that can mate to produce fertile offspring.
Population is all the members of the same species that live in
the same place at the same time.
Community is a group of various populations that live in the
same place and interact with each other.
Ecosystem is different communities working as a unit,
interacting with both its physical and biological environment
Biosphere is the region of the earth, which is made up of
interacting ecosystems and where all possible life exists
The Scientific Method
Define or State a Problem
Test the Hypothesis
Formulate a Conclusion or Generalization