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Training and development


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Training and development

  2. 2. LEARNING <ul><li>Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in cognition (ie understanding and thinking) that results from experience and directly influence one’s behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of which persist and recur over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Is strengthened by repetition and practice. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Training <ul><li>Training is a process of learning and unlearning- to acquire or enhance skills and knowledge and put it into practice to enable the trainee to do the job efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Is about behaving differently </li></ul><ul><li>It is a process of attitudinal change that integrates with life ,work and self development </li></ul>
  4. 4. Training <ul><li>Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Training Vs Development <ul><li>Training is about acquiring skills through organized learning </li></ul><ul><li>Process of imparting specific skills </li></ul><ul><li>Short term by nature </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow focus </li></ul><ul><li>It is for acquiring or sharpening the KSA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Development provides general knowledge & attitud helpful to employees in higher positions </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on personal drive & ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Long term by nature </li></ul><ul><li>Broader focus </li></ul><ul><li>It takes the route of discovery or exploration of the potential </li></ul>
  6. 6. Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge is an organised collection of facts,principles,procedures & information acquired over time </li></ul><ul><li>Declarative Knowledge : The information we acquire and place in our memory </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural knowledge : How information is organised for use into what we already know </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Knowledge : Our understanding of how, when and why information is used and and is useful </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skills <ul><li>It refers to the general capacities to perform a set of tasks developed as a result of training and experience </li></ul><ul><li>There are two levels of skill acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Compilation (Lower level) </li></ul><ul><li>Automaticity (Higher level ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Attitudes <ul><li>It refers to the employee beliefs and opinion that supports or inhibit behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude affects one’s motivation level </li></ul>
  9. 9. Competency <ul><li>This is a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that enable a person to be successsful at a number of similar tasks </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to use the integrate and use the KSAs to perform a task successfully. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why one needs training ? <ul><li>Pre-service training </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An individual may posses skills not relevant to the intended job and with training he acquire the necessary skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For improving the level of performance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For dealing with complex organizational problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For tackling human problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For creating favourable attitudes and motivation to the employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assignment of new responsibilities/role dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of new strategies and working methods in the organization </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why one needs training ? <ul><li>Advancement in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational policy </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing organizational effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Fit into the company culture </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classification of training programmes <ul><li>Based on content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on behavioral or soft skills training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on the work life stage of the employee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refresher training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role transformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual training </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The process begins with some type of triggering event </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of operational performance deficiency(OPD) </li></ul><ul><li>When actual operational performance(AOP) is less than expected operational performance(EOP) then OPD exists </li></ul><ul><li>When the OPD exists and if the firm believes that training is a solution to that, one goes for that……….. </li></ul>Training process
  14. 14. TRAINING PROCESS MODEL <ul><li>It is an open systems model </li></ul><ul><li>Systems external environment </li></ul><ul><li>It has a dynamic relationship with the environment </li></ul>Open system Input Process Output
  15. 15. Design phase Development phase Implementation phase Evaluation phase Needs analysis phase Triggering event
  16. 16. Need 0 Current State Desired State MEANS END END <ul><ul><li>The gap or discrepancy between a present state (what is) and a desired end state (What should be) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Identify the deficiency in the system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: profitability shortfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower level of customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Once the deficiency is identified then cause must be determined </li></ul><ul><li>If deficiency is due to inadequate KSA’s then training becomes the solution </li></ul>Needs analysis phase
  18. 18. <ul><li>There are three levels of assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task/operational analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual/person analysis </li></ul></ul>NEEDS ASSESSMENT
  19. 19. ANALYSIS PHASE Organisational Analysis Operational Analysis Expected Performance (EP) <ul><ul><li>Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual Performance (AP) </li></ul></ul>Identify performance discrepancy (PD =EP-AP) Non Training Needs Training Needs
  20. 20. Sources of information for organisational analysis
  21. 21. <ul><li>Determines exactly what is required of employees in order for them to be effective </li></ul><ul><li>It provides data about a job or group of jobs and KSA’s to achieve optimum performance </li></ul>Task /operational analysis
  22. 22. Task /operational analysis : sources
  23. 23. <ul><li>Determines how well the employee does the job and determines which employee needs training and what kind </li></ul>Individual analysis
  24. 24. Individual analysis : sources
  25. 25. <ul><li>KSA Deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose appropriate remedy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job Aid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change the job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer or terminate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward / Punishment Incongruence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change contingency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide proper feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obstacles in the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove obstacles </li></ul></ul>Performance Discrepancy
  26. 26. <ul><li>Training needs along with the organizational and operational analysis is done </li></ul><ul><li>Look into the constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Develop training objectives </li></ul>Design phase
  27. 27. <ul><li>Formulate the instructional strategy to meet the training objective </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><li>Training program etc </li></ul>Development phase
  28. 28. <ul><li>Actual training happens at this stage </li></ul><ul><li>At times a dry run is done </li></ul><ul><li>Or a pilot training group,consists of a representative population </li></ul>Implementation phase
  29. 29. <ul><li>Output of the training become the input for the evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is done for </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul></ul></ul>Evaluation phase
  30. 30. Reference <ul><li>Effective training ; systems strategies and practices, P Nick Blanchard,James W Thacker </li></ul><ul><li>Every Trainers Handbook , Devendra Agochiya </li></ul>