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Naming Nouns
Prepared by:
Group III,BSEd 3-B
What is a Noun?
A noun is a part of speech that
denotes a person, animal, place,
thing, or idea.
The English word noun has its roots in
the Latin word nomen, which means
“names”.
PERSON
He is a person to see.
John started to run.
Plato was an influential Greek
philosopher.
Sharon admires her grandmother.
My mother looks a lot like my
grandmother, and I look very much
like them.
ANIMAL
The dog barked at the cat.
Elephants are huge mammals.
Sophie is my favourite horse.
PLACE
The restaurant is open.
Let’s go to the beach.
Harvard and Yale are two famous
universities.
Look! There’s the Eiffel Tower.
THING:
Throw the ball.
Please close the door when you
leave.
Use words properly to
understand.
The lamp sits on a table next to
the sofa.
Money doesn’t grow on trees.
IDEA
Follow the rules.
The theory of existence is a
very important concept.
Love is a wonderful emotion.
Remember that all nouns are words naming
people, animals, places, things, and ideas. Every
noun can be further classified as either common or
proper noun.
Proper Nouns
Proper nouns have two distinct functions:
they name specific one-of-a-kind items and they
begin with capital letters, no matter where they occur
within a sentence.
For example:
Bicol University
Anne Curtis
TWO BASIC TYPES OF NOUNS
Common Nouns
Common nouns are words used to
name general items rather than specific
ones.
For example:
tower
city
university
artist
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Countable nouns can be singular or
plural (e.g. animal/animals, cat/cats,
man/men, child/children) or simply anything
that can be counted whether singular – a
dog, a house, a friend, etc. or plural – a few
books, lots of orange, etc.
For example:
These are at least twenty Filipino restaurants
country.
Other Kinds of Noun
Anything that cannot be counted
is called uncountable noun. Even
though uncountable nouns are not
individual objects, they are always
singular and one must always use
singular verbs, in conjunction with
uncountable nouns.
For example:
Let’s get rid of the garbage.
Other Kinds of Noun
Concrete noun can be defined as
“ the name of an object which may be
perceived by one or more of the five
senses.”
For example:
He loves playing drums.
Other Kinds of Noun
Abstract nouns are words that name
things that are not concrete. Your five
physical senses cannot detect an abstract
noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it,
hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract
noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or
maybe even an event.
For example:
The Filipinos cried for Liberty.
Other Kinds of Noun
Mass nouns are uncountable by a number.
Mass nouns are quantified by a word that signifies
amount.
A few examples:
Materials, food, metals, and natural qualities:
bread, cotton, wood, lightness, adolescence
Names of liquids, gases, and substances made
of many small particles: cappuccino, oil, smoke,
oxygen, rice, sugar, salt, cement, gravel
Names of languages: English, Spanish, French,
Latin, Sanskrit, Chinese
Remember
a number cannot be used to quantify a mass noun.
Incorrect: four woods, one rice, three courages.
Other Kinds of Noun
Count nouns are nouns that can be
quantified or counted with a number.
For example:
Names of persons, animals, plants,
insects, and their parts: a boy, a kitten,
a rose, an ear
Objects with a definite shape: a
building, a balloon, an octopus, four
buildings, four houses, two octopi
Units of measurement and words of
classification: a gram, a pound, a piece,
an item.
Other Kinds of Noun
Collective nouns are names for a
collection or a number of people or things.
Words like group, herd, and array are
collective noun examples.
Examples:
Our class took a field trip to the natural
history museum.
We waited anxiously for the jury to come
to a verdict.
Other Kinds of Noun
Other Kinds of Noun
List of Common Collective Nouns
Herd – A group of herbivore animals
Pack – A group of canine animals such
as wolves or dogs; also used to describe
playing cards and packages containing
multiple objects
Flock – A group of birds; also used to
discuss small hooved animals such as
sheep or goats
Swarm – A group of insects
School – A group of fish
Other Kinds of Noun
Compound nouns are words for
people, animals, places, things, or
ideas, made up of two or more words.
Most compound nouns are made with
nouns that have been modified by
adjectives or other nouns.
Compound nouns can either be
separated, hyphenated, or combined.
Genders of Nouns
Gender tells us about the sex of the noun.
Noun has three genders, masculine, feminine,
and neuter.
Masculine gender
refers to a male character or member of a
species.
Feminine gender
refers to a female member of a species.
Neuter gender
refers to a member of a species which is
neither a male nor a female(lifeless objects)
Genders of Nouns
SAMPLE SENTENCES
Masculine:
A boy is playing in the play-ground.
Hero of the movie is not a native of this country.
Feminine:
A girl is playing in the play-ground.
Heroine of the movie is not a native of this
country.
Neuter:
Computer has brought about drastic changes in
our lives.
Books are our best friends.
Cases of Nouns
The CASE of a noun tells us
about the position of that noun in a
sentence. In English there are three
CASES.
They are:
Nominative case
Objective case (or Accusative case)
Possessive case (or Genitive case)
Cases of Nouns
Nominative case
A noun is said to be in the Nominative
case if it is the subject of a verb. (SUBJECT
is the person or the thing who or which
carries out the action of the verb in the
sentence)
Example:
I am buying vegetables for my family.
“I" is a pronoun in Nominative case.
Cases of Nouns
Objective case
Nouns or pronouns are said to be in
Objective cases if they are the direct objects
of verbs or if they are the objects of
preposition. (Direct object is the person or
the thing upon whom or upon which the
action of the verb is carried out).
Examples:
The book is on the table.
“Table" is in objective case.
Cases of Nouns
Possessive case
A noun is said to be in possessive
case, if it denotes possession or ownership.
A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is
governed by the noun that follows it.
Example:
John’s sister has been hospitalized.
“John’s" is in possessive case.
Understanding
Pronouns
Understanding Pronouns
A Pronoun is a word that
replaces a noun. It identifies
persons, places, things, and ideas
without restating them. In narrow
sense, pronouns are used to avoid
repeatedly using a noun.
What is a Pronoun?
Understanding Pronouns
For example;
Daniel is one of the promising
actors of his generation. He is well-known
for his charismatic appeal.
(In this sentence, we use the pronouns he
and his to substitute for the noun Daniel.
Hence, it avoids redundantly using the noun.)
Understanding Pronouns
Along with the pronoun is the
ANTECEDENT. An antecedent is a
word for which a pronoun stands.
For example;
Aldrin brought his book to school.
(In this sentence, Aldrin is the antecedent of
HIS)
KINDS OF PRONOUNS
Personal Pronouns
refer to the speaker (First person), the person
spoken to (second person), and the person spoken
about (third person).
First person
( I, me, us, my, mine, our, ours)
Second person
( you, your, yours)
Third person
( he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, hers, its, their,
theirs)
CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUN
Nominative
Case
Objective
case
Possessive
case
SINGULAR
First person i me my, mine
Second person you you your, yours
Third person he,she,it him,her,it his, her, hers, its
PLURAL
First person we us our, ours
Second person you you your, yours
Third person they them their, theirs
Cases of Pronouns
The nominative Case
A pronoun is in nominative case
when it acts as the subject of the verb.
Example:
She has the most enticing appeal.
(In this sentence, the pronoun she is in
nominative case for it functions as the subject
in the sentence)
Cases of Pronouns
A pronoun is in nominative
case when it is used as a
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (also
known as Subject Complement)
after any form of the verb (is, am,
are, was, were, been) and other
linking verbs.
Cases of Pronouns
Example:
The architect of the mansion is
She.
In this example, the pronoun
she complements the subject ‘The
architect’.
Cases of Pronouns
The Objective Case
A. The Objective case is used
as Direct object of a verb.
Example:
Joey summoned her.
(In this example, the pronoun me is
used as a direct object of a verb)
Cases of Pronouns
B. The objective case is used as
object of a preposition.
Example:
The teacher complained that he
never reported to him.
(In this sentence, the pronoun him
serves as the object of the preposition
to)
Cases of Pronouns
The Possessive Case
The possessive case is used
obviously to show POSSESSION.
(Possessive pronouns followed by nouns
are also called Possessive Adjective)
Examples:
Their car is in the repair shop.
This book is hers.
Other Types of Pronouns.
Interrogative Pronouns
are used to ask questions.
(who, whom, whose, which,what)
For example;
Who is that girl standing beside
Jeffrey?
Other Types of Pronouns.
Take note:
The Interrogative and relative
pronouns who, whose, and whom are
used to refer to persons, which to
animals or things, whose to animals or
persons.
Example:
For whom are those lovely red
roses?
Other Types of Pronouns.
Demonstrative Pronouns
point out the person or thing
referred to (this that those these). When
these words modify a substantive, they
function as Adjectives.
For example;
This is my responsibility
Other Types of Pronouns.
Take note:
this (singular), these (plural)
that (singular), those (plural)
Other Types of Pronouns.
Indefinite pronouns
(each, either, neither, one, none,
some, other, another, few, all, many,
several, and both) refer to persons,
places, or things.
For example;
Each should do his work.
Other Types of Pronouns.
Compound nouns
are formed by adding -SELF or
-SELVES to some of the simple
personal pronouns: myself,
yourself, himself, herself, itself,
ourselves, themselves.
Other Types of Pronouns.
1. A compound personal pronoun is
used correctly as a reflexive to refer
back to the subject of the sentence.
For example;
Anica finished her work by
herself.
Other Types of Pronouns.
2. It is also used as an INTENSIVE
for emphasis.
For example;
He HIMSELF is wrong.
Other Types of Pronouns.
Relative Pronoun
is not only a pronoun but also a
connecting word. Because a relative pronoun
connects the subordinate clause to the main
cause, it is also called conjunctive pronoun
(who, whom whose, which, that)
For example;
The contestant whose shirt is red is my
favorite of them all.
Finding out
Prepositions
What is preposition?
Preposition can be defined as “A word
governing, and usually preceding, a noun or
pronoun and expressing a relation to another
word or element in the clause, as in ‘the man
on the platform’, ‘she arrived after dinner’,
‘what did you do it for?
List of prepositions
about, till, out, above, against, below,
beneath, beside, besides, between, through,
up, upon, within, during, except, for, from, in,
off, on, onto, opposite, near, of, behind,
inside, into, outside, around, before, among,
to, along, at, toward, under, underneath,
across, like, until, with, beyond, by, down,
since, without, after, etc.
For Example:
My class teacher laughed.
(this is a correct sentence, however
does not provide much detail about the
situation without a preposition word)
My class teacher laughed at the joke.
(in this sentence, preposition word is
used properly which gives us much detail
about the situation)
TYPES OF PREPOSITION
There are various types of prepositions
described below with proper definition and examples:
Simple Preposition
Compound Preposition
Phrase Preposition
Participle Preposition
Double Preposition
Other Preposition (preposition of place, preposition
of time, preposition of direction)
Simple preposition
Simple prepositions are used in the simple
sentences. Some of the simple prepositions are
in, on, at, to, from, with, by, about, over, under,
off, of, for, etc.
For example:
I am not going with you.
She is waiting in the park.
Dad is going to the market.
Compound preposition
Compound prepositions are used to join two
nouns, pronouns or phrases. Some of the compound
prepositions are about, across, among, beside, before,
above, along, inside, between, around, behind, below,
beneath, etc.
For example:
My city is located between two mountains.
I will finish the lunch before 12 o’clock.
I want to know about my former teacher
more.
Phrase preposition
Prepositional phrases are groups of
words having prepositions indicating
relationships among various elements in the
sentence. Some of the phrase prepositions
are according to, an account of, in spite of, in
front of, for the sake of, in order to, by means
of, with reference to, in addition to, due to,
etc.
For example:
I work hard in order to maintain
my position in the class.
Participle preposition
A participle preposition is a participle (like an,
ed, or ing verb) which acts as a preposition such as
assuming, considering, barring, given, concerning,
notwithstanding, pending, during, regarding,
respected, provided, etc.
For example:
I get sick during summer season.
I would like to
speech regarding healthy food.
My project work is still pending.
I think I can pass the exam
easily considering my hard work.
Double preposition
Double prepositions are words having two
prepositions (joined together to make a whole new
one) such as into, onto, outside of, out of, within,
from behind, because of, etc.
For example:
We need to solve three questions out
of five.
We won the game just because of
Ronnie.
I need to complete my
project within four days.
Preposition of place
Prepositions of place are used to show the
place where something is located such as at, in, on,
while, during, near, over, under, between, behind,
etc.
For example:
Dog is on the floor.
My home is near to the office.
My home is behind the metro station.
Mom is in the room.
Preposition of time
Prepositions of time are used to
indicate time of an action or time relationship
between nouns in the sentence. Such as at,
to, in, etc.
For example:
I go to school daily at nine
o’clock.
My result gets declared in March.
Preposition of direction
Prepositions of direction are used to
indicate direction of someone or something
in the sentence such as over, under, to, on,
into, in, onto, right, left, etc.
For example:
It's time to go to school.
The train is going into the tunnel.
We are going over the bridge.
Object of
prepositions
The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun
governed by a preposition.
The object of a preposition is usually but not always
the noun or pronoun immediately to the right of
the preposition.
Prepositions often begin prepositional phrases. To
complete the phrase, the preposition usually teams
up with a noun, pronoun, or gerund, or the object of
the preposition.
In English grammar, the object of a preposition is
a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that follows
a preposition and completes its meaning. The object
of a preposition is in the objective case.
Here are some examples of objects of
prepositions
This is one small step for a man, one giant
leap for mankind. (Neil Armstrong)
(The word a before man is a modifier. The object of a
preposition is often accompanied by modifiers that
precede it or follow it.)
The ants get in your ears when you are sleeping.
(The word your is a modifier.)
Inside every cynical person, there is a disappointed
idealist. (George Carlin)
(The words every and cynical are modifiers.)
List of prepositions
While there are only about 150
prepositions in the English language, these 5
words are among the most important.
Without them, the sentences we speak, read,
and write would be difficult to understand.
The following list of prepositions is not a
complete one, however it is among the most
comprehensive lists of prepositions available
anywhere.
ON
Used to express a
surface of something:
I put an egg on the
kitchen table.
Used to specify days
and dates:
The garbage truck
comes on
Wednesdays.
I was born on the 14th
day of June in 1988.
Used to indicate a
device or machine, such
as a phone or computer:
He is on the phone
right now.
She has been on the
computer since this
morning.
My favorite movie will
be on TV tonight.
AT
Used to point out
specific time:
The bus will stop here
at 5:45 p.m.
Used to indicate a place:
There is a party at the
club house.
We saw a baseball
game at the stadium.
Used to indicate an
email address:
Please email me at
abc@defg.com.
Used to indicate an
activity:
He laughed at my
acting.
IN
Used for unspecific
times during a day,
month, season, year:
The new semester will
start in March.
Used to indicate a
location or place:
She looked me directly
in the eyes.
Used to indicate a
shape, color, or size:
This painting is mostly
in blue.
The students stood in a
circle.
Used to indicate a belief,
opinion, interest, or
feeling:
I believe in the next life.
TO
Used to indicate
Place/direction
Who is going to
market?
They are going to
America in May.
Used before a verb
He wants to go there.
To take exercise is
good for health.
Used to indicate Time
He works from 9am to
7pm.
They lived in our house
from April 1996 to June
1999.
It is ten minutes to five.
FROM
Used to indicate Place
They have just come
from Mumbai.
Withdraw money from
the bank.
For Person
You can borrow money
from your friend.
I have taken this book
from Raja.
Indicate Time
He works from morning
till evening.
We shall start this work
from Monday.
For Source
The light comes from
the sun.
She has taken the
story from this book.
Understanding Conjunction
What is a Conjunction?
 A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect
words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Conjunctions are
considered to be invariable grammar particle, and they may or
may not stand between items they conjoin.
Conjunction Rules
There are few important rules for using conjunctions. Remember
them and you will find that your writing flows better:
 Conjunctions are for connecting thoughts, actions, and ideas as
well as nouns, clauses, and other parts of speech.
 For example: Mary went to the supermarket and bought oranges
 Conjunctions are useful for making lists.
 For example: We made pancakes, eggs and coffee for the
breakfast.
 When using conjunctions make sure that all parts of your
sentences agree.
 For example: “I work busily yet am careful” does not agree. “ I work
busily yet carefully” shows agreement.
Conjunctions List
 There are only a few common conjunctions yet these words perform many
functions: they present explanations, ideas, exceptions, consequences and
contrasts. Here is a list of conjunctions commonly used in American English.
 And
 As
 Because
 But
 For
 Just as
 Or
 Neither
 Nor
 Not only
 So
 Whether
 Yet
Examples of Conjunctions
In the following examples, the conjunctions are in
bold for easy recognition:
 I tried to hit the nail but hit my thumb instead.
 I have two goldfish and a cat.
 I’d like a bike for commuting to work.
 You can have peach ice cream or a brownie
sundae.
 Neither the black dress northe gray one looks
right on me.
 My dad always worked hard so we could afford
the things we wanted.
 I tried very hard in school yet I am not receiving
good grades.
Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main
clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic
importance. Also known as coordinators, coordinating conjunctions are used to
give equal emphasis to a pair of main clauses.
Coordinating Conjunction Rules
As there are only seven of these words there are just a few rules for using
coordinating conjunction correctly.
1. It’s a good idea to use the mnemonic “FANBOYS” to memorize
coordinating conjunctions so you’ll never forget them. They are:
 F = for
 A = and
 N = nor
 B = but
 O = or
 Y = yet
 S = so
2. Coordinating conjunctions always connect phrases, words and clauses. For
example: this batch of the mushroom stew is a savory and delicious.
3. Some instructors warn that starting a sentence with a coordinating
conjunctions is incorrect. Mostly this is because they are attempting to help
prevent you from writing fragments rather than complete sentences;
sometimes though, it’s just a personal preference. The fact is, you can begin
sentences with coordinating conjunctions as long as you follow these three
rules for doing so:
 Ensure that the coordinating conjunction is immediately followed by a main
clause.
 Don’t use coordinating conjunctions to begin of all your sentences. Do so
only when it makes your writing more effective.
 Although commas typically follow coordinating conjunctions used in areas
other the beginning of the sentence, they should not be used after
coordinating conjunction used to open sentences unless an interrupter
immediately follows.
Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions
 In the following examples, the coordinating conjunctions have
been italicized for easy identification.
1. You can eat your cake with a spoon or fork.
2. My dog enjoys being bathed but hates getting his nails
trimmed.
3. Bill refuses to eat peas nor will he touch carrots.
4. I hate to waste a drop of gas, for it is very expensive these
days.
Subordinating conjunctions
 Subordinating conjunctions are parts of speech that join
dependent clauses to independent clauses. Sometimes
referred to as subordinators or subordinate conjunctions,
these important words and phrases may also
introduce adverb clauses.
 Subordinating conjunctions are essential parts of complex sentences with
include at least two clauses, with one of the clauses being main
(independent) and the other being subordinate (dependent).
 There is only one rule to remember about using subordinate
conjunctions:
 A subordinate conjunction performs two functions within a sentence. First,
it illustrates the importance of the independent clause. Second, it provides a
transition between two ideas in the same sentence.
 The transition always indicates a place, time, or cause and
effect relationship. For example: We looked in the metal canister,
where Ginger often hides her candy.
Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions
 In the following examples, the subordinating conjunctions
are in bold for easy identification:
1. As Sherri blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she
caught her hair on fire.
2. Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to
get a breath of fresh air.
3. When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.
After Although
As As soon as
Because Before
By the time even if
Even though Every time
If in case
Now that Once
Why
So
Unless
Until
Correlative Conjunctions
What is a correlative conjunction?
 As suggested by their name,
correlative conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join
phrases or words that carry equal importance within a
sentence. Like many of the most interesting parts of speech,
correlative conjunctions are fun to use. At the same time,
there are some important rules to remember for using them
correct
 When using correlative conjunctions, ensure verbs agree so
your sentences make sense. For example: Every
night, either loud music or fighting neighbors wake John
from his sleep.
 When you use a correlative conjunction, you must be sure
that pronouns agree. For
example: Neither Debra nor Sally expressed her
annoyance when the cat broke the antique lamp.
 When using correlative conjunctions, be sure to keep
parallel structure intact. Equal grammatical units need to be
incorporated into the entire sentence. For example: Not
only did Mary grill burgers for Michael, but she also fixed a
steak for her dog, Vinny.
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions
In the following examples, the correlative
conjunctions have been italicized for easy
identification.
1. She is both intelligent and beautiful.
2. I will either go for a hike or stay home and watch
TV.
3. Jerry is neither rich nor famous.
4. He is not only intelligent, but also very funny.
5. Would you rather go shopping or spend the day at
the beach?

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Understanding the parts of speech

  • 2. What is a Noun? A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. The English word noun has its roots in the Latin word nomen, which means “names”.
  • 3. PERSON He is a person to see. John started to run. Plato was an influential Greek philosopher. Sharon admires her grandmother. My mother looks a lot like my grandmother, and I look very much like them.
  • 4. ANIMAL The dog barked at the cat. Elephants are huge mammals. Sophie is my favourite horse.
  • 5. PLACE The restaurant is open. Let’s go to the beach. Harvard and Yale are two famous universities. Look! There’s the Eiffel Tower.
  • 6. THING: Throw the ball. Please close the door when you leave. Use words properly to understand. The lamp sits on a table next to the sofa. Money doesn’t grow on trees.
  • 7. IDEA Follow the rules. The theory of existence is a very important concept. Love is a wonderful emotion.
  • 8. Remember that all nouns are words naming people, animals, places, things, and ideas. Every noun can be further classified as either common or proper noun. Proper Nouns Proper nouns have two distinct functions: they name specific one-of-a-kind items and they begin with capital letters, no matter where they occur within a sentence. For example: Bicol University Anne Curtis TWO BASIC TYPES OF NOUNS
  • 9. Common Nouns Common nouns are words used to name general items rather than specific ones. For example: tower city university artist
  • 10. Countable and Uncountable Nouns Countable nouns can be singular or plural (e.g. animal/animals, cat/cats, man/men, child/children) or simply anything that can be counted whether singular – a dog, a house, a friend, etc. or plural – a few books, lots of orange, etc. For example: These are at least twenty Filipino restaurants country. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 11. Anything that cannot be counted is called uncountable noun. Even though uncountable nouns are not individual objects, they are always singular and one must always use singular verbs, in conjunction with uncountable nouns. For example: Let’s get rid of the garbage. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 12. Concrete noun can be defined as “ the name of an object which may be perceived by one or more of the five senses.” For example: He loves playing drums. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 13. Abstract nouns are words that name things that are not concrete. Your five physical senses cannot detect an abstract noun – you can’t see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it. In essence, an abstract noun is a quality, a concept, an idea, or maybe even an event. For example: The Filipinos cried for Liberty. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 14. Mass nouns are uncountable by a number. Mass nouns are quantified by a word that signifies amount. A few examples: Materials, food, metals, and natural qualities: bread, cotton, wood, lightness, adolescence Names of liquids, gases, and substances made of many small particles: cappuccino, oil, smoke, oxygen, rice, sugar, salt, cement, gravel Names of languages: English, Spanish, French, Latin, Sanskrit, Chinese Remember a number cannot be used to quantify a mass noun. Incorrect: four woods, one rice, three courages. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 15. Count nouns are nouns that can be quantified or counted with a number. For example: Names of persons, animals, plants, insects, and their parts: a boy, a kitten, a rose, an ear Objects with a definite shape: a building, a balloon, an octopus, four buildings, four houses, two octopi Units of measurement and words of classification: a gram, a pound, a piece, an item. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 16. Collective nouns are names for a collection or a number of people or things. Words like group, herd, and array are collective noun examples. Examples: Our class took a field trip to the natural history museum. We waited anxiously for the jury to come to a verdict. Other Kinds of Noun
  • 17. Other Kinds of Noun List of Common Collective Nouns Herd – A group of herbivore animals Pack – A group of canine animals such as wolves or dogs; also used to describe playing cards and packages containing multiple objects Flock – A group of birds; also used to discuss small hooved animals such as sheep or goats Swarm – A group of insects School – A group of fish
  • 18. Other Kinds of Noun Compound nouns are words for people, animals, places, things, or ideas, made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns are made with nouns that have been modified by adjectives or other nouns. Compound nouns can either be separated, hyphenated, or combined.
  • 19. Genders of Nouns Gender tells us about the sex of the noun. Noun has three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine gender refers to a male character or member of a species. Feminine gender refers to a female member of a species. Neuter gender refers to a member of a species which is neither a male nor a female(lifeless objects)
  • 20. Genders of Nouns SAMPLE SENTENCES Masculine: A boy is playing in the play-ground. Hero of the movie is not a native of this country. Feminine: A girl is playing in the play-ground. Heroine of the movie is not a native of this country. Neuter: Computer has brought about drastic changes in our lives. Books are our best friends.
  • 21. Cases of Nouns The CASE of a noun tells us about the position of that noun in a sentence. In English there are three CASES. They are: Nominative case Objective case (or Accusative case) Possessive case (or Genitive case)
  • 22. Cases of Nouns Nominative case A noun is said to be in the Nominative case if it is the subject of a verb. (SUBJECT is the person or the thing who or which carries out the action of the verb in the sentence) Example: I am buying vegetables for my family. “I" is a pronoun in Nominative case.
  • 23. Cases of Nouns Objective case Nouns or pronouns are said to be in Objective cases if they are the direct objects of verbs or if they are the objects of preposition. (Direct object is the person or the thing upon whom or upon which the action of the verb is carried out). Examples: The book is on the table. “Table" is in objective case.
  • 24. Cases of Nouns Possessive case A noun is said to be in possessive case, if it denotes possession or ownership. A noun or pronoun in the possessive case is governed by the noun that follows it. Example: John’s sister has been hospitalized. “John’s" is in possessive case.
  • 26. Understanding Pronouns A Pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. It identifies persons, places, things, and ideas without restating them. In narrow sense, pronouns are used to avoid repeatedly using a noun. What is a Pronoun?
  • 27. Understanding Pronouns For example; Daniel is one of the promising actors of his generation. He is well-known for his charismatic appeal. (In this sentence, we use the pronouns he and his to substitute for the noun Daniel. Hence, it avoids redundantly using the noun.)
  • 28. Understanding Pronouns Along with the pronoun is the ANTECEDENT. An antecedent is a word for which a pronoun stands. For example; Aldrin brought his book to school. (In this sentence, Aldrin is the antecedent of HIS)
  • 29. KINDS OF PRONOUNS Personal Pronouns refer to the speaker (First person), the person spoken to (second person), and the person spoken about (third person). First person ( I, me, us, my, mine, our, ours) Second person ( you, your, yours) Third person ( he, she, it, they, him, her, them, his, hers, its, their, theirs)
  • 30. CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUN Nominative Case Objective case Possessive case SINGULAR First person i me my, mine Second person you you your, yours Third person he,she,it him,her,it his, her, hers, its PLURAL First person we us our, ours Second person you you your, yours Third person they them their, theirs
  • 31. Cases of Pronouns The nominative Case A pronoun is in nominative case when it acts as the subject of the verb. Example: She has the most enticing appeal. (In this sentence, the pronoun she is in nominative case for it functions as the subject in the sentence)
  • 32. Cases of Pronouns A pronoun is in nominative case when it is used as a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (also known as Subject Complement) after any form of the verb (is, am, are, was, were, been) and other linking verbs.
  • 33. Cases of Pronouns Example: The architect of the mansion is She. In this example, the pronoun she complements the subject ‘The architect’.
  • 34. Cases of Pronouns The Objective Case A. The Objective case is used as Direct object of a verb. Example: Joey summoned her. (In this example, the pronoun me is used as a direct object of a verb)
  • 35. Cases of Pronouns B. The objective case is used as object of a preposition. Example: The teacher complained that he never reported to him. (In this sentence, the pronoun him serves as the object of the preposition to)
  • 36. Cases of Pronouns The Possessive Case The possessive case is used obviously to show POSSESSION. (Possessive pronouns followed by nouns are also called Possessive Adjective) Examples: Their car is in the repair shop. This book is hers.
  • 37. Other Types of Pronouns. Interrogative Pronouns are used to ask questions. (who, whom, whose, which,what) For example; Who is that girl standing beside Jeffrey?
  • 38. Other Types of Pronouns. Take note: The Interrogative and relative pronouns who, whose, and whom are used to refer to persons, which to animals or things, whose to animals or persons. Example: For whom are those lovely red roses?
  • 39. Other Types of Pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns point out the person or thing referred to (this that those these). When these words modify a substantive, they function as Adjectives. For example; This is my responsibility
  • 40. Other Types of Pronouns. Take note: this (singular), these (plural) that (singular), those (plural)
  • 41. Other Types of Pronouns. Indefinite pronouns (each, either, neither, one, none, some, other, another, few, all, many, several, and both) refer to persons, places, or things. For example; Each should do his work.
  • 42. Other Types of Pronouns. Compound nouns are formed by adding -SELF or -SELVES to some of the simple personal pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.
  • 43. Other Types of Pronouns. 1. A compound personal pronoun is used correctly as a reflexive to refer back to the subject of the sentence. For example; Anica finished her work by herself.
  • 44. Other Types of Pronouns. 2. It is also used as an INTENSIVE for emphasis. For example; He HIMSELF is wrong.
  • 45. Other Types of Pronouns. Relative Pronoun is not only a pronoun but also a connecting word. Because a relative pronoun connects the subordinate clause to the main cause, it is also called conjunctive pronoun (who, whom whose, which, that) For example; The contestant whose shirt is red is my favorite of them all.
  • 47. What is preposition? Preposition can be defined as “A word governing, and usually preceding, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element in the clause, as in ‘the man on the platform’, ‘she arrived after dinner’, ‘what did you do it for?
  • 48. List of prepositions about, till, out, above, against, below, beneath, beside, besides, between, through, up, upon, within, during, except, for, from, in, off, on, onto, opposite, near, of, behind, inside, into, outside, around, before, among, to, along, at, toward, under, underneath, across, like, until, with, beyond, by, down, since, without, after, etc.
  • 49. For Example: My class teacher laughed. (this is a correct sentence, however does not provide much detail about the situation without a preposition word) My class teacher laughed at the joke. (in this sentence, preposition word is used properly which gives us much detail about the situation)
  • 50. TYPES OF PREPOSITION There are various types of prepositions described below with proper definition and examples: Simple Preposition Compound Preposition Phrase Preposition Participle Preposition Double Preposition Other Preposition (preposition of place, preposition of time, preposition of direction)
  • 51. Simple preposition Simple prepositions are used in the simple sentences. Some of the simple prepositions are in, on, at, to, from, with, by, about, over, under, off, of, for, etc. For example: I am not going with you. She is waiting in the park. Dad is going to the market.
  • 52. Compound preposition Compound prepositions are used to join two nouns, pronouns or phrases. Some of the compound prepositions are about, across, among, beside, before, above, along, inside, between, around, behind, below, beneath, etc. For example: My city is located between two mountains. I will finish the lunch before 12 o’clock. I want to know about my former teacher more.
  • 53. Phrase preposition Prepositional phrases are groups of words having prepositions indicating relationships among various elements in the sentence. Some of the phrase prepositions are according to, an account of, in spite of, in front of, for the sake of, in order to, by means of, with reference to, in addition to, due to, etc. For example: I work hard in order to maintain my position in the class.
  • 54. Participle preposition A participle preposition is a participle (like an, ed, or ing verb) which acts as a preposition such as assuming, considering, barring, given, concerning, notwithstanding, pending, during, regarding, respected, provided, etc. For example: I get sick during summer season. I would like to speech regarding healthy food. My project work is still pending. I think I can pass the exam easily considering my hard work.
  • 55. Double preposition Double prepositions are words having two prepositions (joined together to make a whole new one) such as into, onto, outside of, out of, within, from behind, because of, etc. For example: We need to solve three questions out of five. We won the game just because of Ronnie. I need to complete my project within four days.
  • 56. Preposition of place Prepositions of place are used to show the place where something is located such as at, in, on, while, during, near, over, under, between, behind, etc. For example: Dog is on the floor. My home is near to the office. My home is behind the metro station. Mom is in the room.
  • 57. Preposition of time Prepositions of time are used to indicate time of an action or time relationship between nouns in the sentence. Such as at, to, in, etc. For example: I go to school daily at nine o’clock. My result gets declared in March.
  • 58. Preposition of direction Prepositions of direction are used to indicate direction of someone or something in the sentence such as over, under, to, on, into, in, onto, right, left, etc. For example: It's time to go to school. The train is going into the tunnel. We are going over the bridge.
  • 60. The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun governed by a preposition. The object of a preposition is usually but not always the noun or pronoun immediately to the right of the preposition. Prepositions often begin prepositional phrases. To complete the phrase, the preposition usually teams up with a noun, pronoun, or gerund, or the object of the preposition. In English grammar, the object of a preposition is a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that follows a preposition and completes its meaning. The object of a preposition is in the objective case.
  • 61. Here are some examples of objects of prepositions This is one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. (Neil Armstrong) (The word a before man is a modifier. The object of a preposition is often accompanied by modifiers that precede it or follow it.) The ants get in your ears when you are sleeping. (The word your is a modifier.) Inside every cynical person, there is a disappointed idealist. (George Carlin) (The words every and cynical are modifiers.)
  • 62. List of prepositions While there are only about 150 prepositions in the English language, these 5 words are among the most important. Without them, the sentences we speak, read, and write would be difficult to understand. The following list of prepositions is not a complete one, however it is among the most comprehensive lists of prepositions available anywhere.
  • 63. ON Used to express a surface of something: I put an egg on the kitchen table. Used to specify days and dates: The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays. I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988. Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer: He is on the phone right now. She has been on the computer since this morning. My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.
  • 64. AT Used to point out specific time: The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m. Used to indicate a place: There is a party at the club house. We saw a baseball game at the stadium. Used to indicate an email address: Please email me at abc@defg.com. Used to indicate an activity: He laughed at my acting.
  • 65. IN Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year: The new semester will start in March. Used to indicate a location or place: She looked me directly in the eyes. Used to indicate a shape, color, or size: This painting is mostly in blue. The students stood in a circle. Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling: I believe in the next life.
  • 66. TO Used to indicate Place/direction Who is going to market? They are going to America in May. Used before a verb He wants to go there. To take exercise is good for health. Used to indicate Time He works from 9am to 7pm. They lived in our house from April 1996 to June 1999. It is ten minutes to five.
  • 67. FROM Used to indicate Place They have just come from Mumbai. Withdraw money from the bank. For Person You can borrow money from your friend. I have taken this book from Raja. Indicate Time He works from morning till evening. We shall start this work from Monday. For Source The light comes from the sun. She has taken the story from this book.
  • 68. Understanding Conjunction What is a Conjunction?  A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences. Conjunctions are considered to be invariable grammar particle, and they may or may not stand between items they conjoin.
  • 69. Conjunction Rules There are few important rules for using conjunctions. Remember them and you will find that your writing flows better:  Conjunctions are for connecting thoughts, actions, and ideas as well as nouns, clauses, and other parts of speech.  For example: Mary went to the supermarket and bought oranges  Conjunctions are useful for making lists.  For example: We made pancakes, eggs and coffee for the breakfast.  When using conjunctions make sure that all parts of your sentences agree.  For example: “I work busily yet am careful” does not agree. “ I work busily yet carefully” shows agreement.
  • 70. Conjunctions List  There are only a few common conjunctions yet these words perform many functions: they present explanations, ideas, exceptions, consequences and contrasts. Here is a list of conjunctions commonly used in American English.  And  As  Because  But  For  Just as  Or  Neither  Nor  Not only  So  Whether  Yet
  • 71. Examples of Conjunctions In the following examples, the conjunctions are in bold for easy recognition:  I tried to hit the nail but hit my thumb instead.  I have two goldfish and a cat.  I’d like a bike for commuting to work.  You can have peach ice cream or a brownie sundae.  Neither the black dress northe gray one looks right on me.  My dad always worked hard so we could afford the things we wanted.  I tried very hard in school yet I am not receiving good grades.
  • 72. Coordinating Conjunction Coordinating conjunctions coordinate or join two or more sentences, main clauses, words, or other parts of speech which are of the same syntactic importance. Also known as coordinators, coordinating conjunctions are used to give equal emphasis to a pair of main clauses. Coordinating Conjunction Rules As there are only seven of these words there are just a few rules for using coordinating conjunction correctly. 1. It’s a good idea to use the mnemonic “FANBOYS” to memorize coordinating conjunctions so you’ll never forget them. They are:  F = for  A = and  N = nor  B = but  O = or  Y = yet  S = so
  • 73. 2. Coordinating conjunctions always connect phrases, words and clauses. For example: this batch of the mushroom stew is a savory and delicious. 3. Some instructors warn that starting a sentence with a coordinating conjunctions is incorrect. Mostly this is because they are attempting to help prevent you from writing fragments rather than complete sentences; sometimes though, it’s just a personal preference. The fact is, you can begin sentences with coordinating conjunctions as long as you follow these three rules for doing so:  Ensure that the coordinating conjunction is immediately followed by a main clause.  Don’t use coordinating conjunctions to begin of all your sentences. Do so only when it makes your writing more effective.  Although commas typically follow coordinating conjunctions used in areas other the beginning of the sentence, they should not be used after coordinating conjunction used to open sentences unless an interrupter immediately follows.
  • 74. Examples of Coordinating Conjunctions  In the following examples, the coordinating conjunctions have been italicized for easy identification. 1. You can eat your cake with a spoon or fork. 2. My dog enjoys being bathed but hates getting his nails trimmed. 3. Bill refuses to eat peas nor will he touch carrots. 4. I hate to waste a drop of gas, for it is very expensive these days.
  • 75. Subordinating conjunctions  Subordinating conjunctions are parts of speech that join dependent clauses to independent clauses. Sometimes referred to as subordinators or subordinate conjunctions, these important words and phrases may also introduce adverb clauses.
  • 76.  Subordinating conjunctions are essential parts of complex sentences with include at least two clauses, with one of the clauses being main (independent) and the other being subordinate (dependent).  There is only one rule to remember about using subordinate conjunctions:  A subordinate conjunction performs two functions within a sentence. First, it illustrates the importance of the independent clause. Second, it provides a transition between two ideas in the same sentence.  The transition always indicates a place, time, or cause and effect relationship. For example: We looked in the metal canister, where Ginger often hides her candy.
  • 77. Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions  In the following examples, the subordinating conjunctions are in bold for easy identification: 1. As Sherri blew out the candles atop her birthday cake, she caught her hair on fire. 2. Sara begins to sneeze whenever she opens the window to get a breath of fresh air. 3. When the doorbell rang, my dog Skeeter barked loudly.
  • 78. After Although As As soon as Because Before By the time even if Even though Every time If in case Now that Once Why So Unless Until
  • 79. Correlative Conjunctions What is a correlative conjunction?  As suggested by their name, correlative conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence. Like many of the most interesting parts of speech, correlative conjunctions are fun to use. At the same time, there are some important rules to remember for using them correct
  • 80.  When using correlative conjunctions, ensure verbs agree so your sentences make sense. For example: Every night, either loud music or fighting neighbors wake John from his sleep.  When you use a correlative conjunction, you must be sure that pronouns agree. For example: Neither Debra nor Sally expressed her annoyance when the cat broke the antique lamp.  When using correlative conjunctions, be sure to keep parallel structure intact. Equal grammatical units need to be incorporated into the entire sentence. For example: Not only did Mary grill burgers for Michael, but she also fixed a steak for her dog, Vinny.
  • 81. Examples of Correlative Conjunctions In the following examples, the correlative conjunctions have been italicized for easy identification. 1. She is both intelligent and beautiful. 2. I will either go for a hike or stay home and watch TV. 3. Jerry is neither rich nor famous. 4. He is not only intelligent, but also very funny. 5. Would you rather go shopping or spend the day at the beach?