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•A verb is that part of a speech used to indicate the state of
being. It is also used to describe an occurrence or an action.
In most cases, a verb is well understood by the work it does
rather than talking about it or trying to describe it. For
instance, the word “rain” can be taken as a verb or a noun;
and therefore, what a verb does will clearly bring out the
difference. Simply, a verb will move sentences along in
many different ways hence, different kinds of verbs.
•A verb is an important part of an English question or
sentence. Actually, it is likely that all questions and
Transitive Verbs
• Verbs that are used together with a direct object.The
object can be a thing or a person.
• Here are some example:
*Owe *Make *Feed *Drive
*Lift
• 1. Richard owes Jimmy some money.
• 2. He feeds his children while their mother is away.
• 3. She makes jewelry to sell at the market
Intransitive Verbs
• Verbs that don’t have a direct object for their meaning to be
communicated. In most cases, they are followed by an adverb,
adjective, verb complement or a preposition.
• Here are some example:
*Die *Arrive *Respond
*Wait *Sit *Look
• 1. His sister died of Malaria.
• 2.We arrived at school very late.
• 3. Mary responded to all questions in the exam.
Auxiliary Verbs
• Verbs that come before main verbs in a verb phrase.
• Here are some example:
*Be *Shall *May *Could
• 1. If all goes well, I will be going home today.
• 2. We shall meet tomorrow in the afternoon and discuss the
matter we left pending.
• 3. We may go shopping anytime from now because the rains
have stopped.
VERB
ACCORDING
TO ITS FORM
REGULAR VERB
• A verb whose past participle and past tense is attained
by adding –d or –ed or –t for some. It is sometimes
called a weak verb.
• Here are some example:
*Accept *Arrive *Fence *Deliver
• 1. I accepted the offer.
• 2. He has just arrived.
IRREGULAR VERBS
•Also called a strong verb. It does not usually follow
the rules for common verb forms. They usually do
not have the predictable –ed ending.
•Here are some example:
*Get *Go *Say *See
*Come
•1. He got his business running at the right time.
•2. We went (go) home early.
• There are three basic tenses: past,
present, and future. They show whether a simple action
or condition occurred, occurs, or will occur in the past,
present, or future.
• There are three perfect tenses: past perfect, present
perfect, and future perfect. They show whether an
action or condition had occurred relative to the past, has
occurred relative to the present, or will have
occurred relative to the future.
• There are six progressive tenses: past progressive,
present progressive, future progressive, past perfect
progressive, present perfect progressive, and future
perfect progressive. They show a continuous action or
condition that was occurring in the past, is occurring in the
Basic Tenses
• The basic or simple tenses are the three tenses which are
the simplest in the English language--past, present, future,
without any other condition or character.
• The basic present tense uses the same verb as the verb part
of the infinitive. In the third person singular an -s or -es is
added. There are a number of irregular verbs, but they all
have an s or z sound at the end of the third person singular.
• The basic past tense is a single word. Usually a -d or -ed is
added to the root verb to put it in the past. However, there are
many irregular verbs. All persons, singular and plural are the
same except for the verb to be in which all persons
are were but first and third person singular are was.
Perfect Tenses
• The three perfect tenses in English are the three verb tenses
which show action already completed. (The word perfect literally
means "made complete" or "completely done.")
• They are formed by the appropriate tense of the verb to
have plus the past participle of the verb.
• Present Perfect: I have seen it.
(Present tense of to have plus participle. Action is completed with
respect to the present.)
• Past Perfect: I had seen it.
(Past tense of to have plus participle. Action is completed with
respect to the past.)
• Future Perfect: I will have seen it.
Progressive Tenses
• The progressive tenses are the six tenses in English which
show continuous or repeated actions. Sometimes the past
progressive is called the imperfect.
• The six progressive tenses correspond to the three basic and
three perfect tenses. They are formed by the appropriate basic
or perfect tense of the verb to be followed by the present
participle.
• Present Progressive: I am coming.
• Past Progressive: I was coming.
• Future Progressive: I will be coming.
• Present Perfect Progressive: I have been coming.
• Past Perfect Progressive: I had been coming.
• Future Perfect Progressive: I will have been coming.
Active voice
• In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject
performs the action denoted by the verb.
• These examples show that the subject is doing the
verb's action.
Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such
sentences, the sentences are said to be in the active
voice.
Passive voice
• One can change the normal word order of many active
sentences (those with a direct object) so that the subject
is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by
the verb - or passive.
Note in these examples how the subject-verb
relationship has changed.
Because the subject is being "acted upon" (or is passive),
such sentences are said to be in the passive voice.
• 1. Move the active sentence's direct object into
the sentence's subject slot
•
2. Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase
beginning with the preposition by
•
• 3. Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main
verb and change the main verb's form
•
• Because passive voice sentences necessarily add
words and change the normal doer-action-
receiver of action direction, they may make the
reader work harder to understand the intended
meaning.
• As the examples below illustrate, a sentence
in active voice flows more smoothly and is easier
to understand than the same sentence in passive
voice.
•
It is generally preferable to use the ACTIVE voic
• To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice
sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above.
• 1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the
active sentence's direct object slot
•
• 2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and
change main verb's form if needed
•
• 3. Place the passive sentence's object of the
preposition by into the subject slot.
•
• Because it is more direct, most writers prefer to use
the active voice whenever possible.
• The passive voice may be a better choice, however,
when
• The doer of the action is unknown, unwanted, or
unneeded in the sentence
• Examples
•
• The writer wishes to emphasize the action of the
sentence rather than the doer of the action
• Examples
•
• The writer wishes to use passive voice for sentence
variety.
ADJECTIVE
S
• An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by limiting its
meaning.
Examples:
• three dollars purple balloons sunny park
• interesting books happy boy blessed
freedom
Types of Adjectives
Limiting Adjectives
- The limiting adjectives describes how many, how much,
which one, and whose.
- The adjectives don't really describe things in detail; they
just point out nouns.
Limiting Adjectives may be:
• Articles
• There are three articles: a an the
A An The
- "A" is called indefinite
article because it do not point
nouns out as specifically
- "A" can only be used
singular nouns.
Ex. a book
- "A" must be used before
consonant sounds
Ex. a duck a uniform
- "An" is called indefinite
article because it do not point
nouns out as specifically
- "An" can only be used
singular nouns.
Ex. an accident
- "An" must be used before a
vowel sounds.
Ex. an umbrella an excuse
- "The" is called a definite
article because it points out
nouns more specifically.
- "The" can be used before
both singular and plural nouns.
Ex. the cat the houses
- "The" can be used before
both vowels and consonants.
Ex. the ant the car
Demonstratives
• - Demonstrative adjectives are adjectives that are used to modify a noun
so that we know which specific person, place, or thing is mentioned.
List of demonstrative adjectives:
• This (modifies singular nouns/pronouns)
• That (modifies singular nouns/pronouns)
• Those (modifies plural nouns/pronouns)
Examples of demonstrative adjectives used in a sentence:
• Those pants are not very comfortable.
• Do you like this soup?
• That dress looks good on you.
• - When you list two items, you can separate them with a
conjunction. Remember that a conjunction is a word that
joins two words, phrases, or sentences.
• - When you list more than two items, you separate them
as follows:
• - Put a comma between all items, and put a comma + and
before the last item.
• - Items in a series can be single words or phrases. In
addition, items in a series can be short sentences joined
with commas and and.
Example of sentences containing items in a series:
•For breakfast, I had cereal, juice, and toast.
•My best friends are Paul, Amanda, and Quinn.
•The moon, the stars, and the sun all appear in the
sky.
•Brush your teeth, wash your face, and go to bed.
•Christmas trees, cozy sweaters, and warm hot
chocolate are three of my favorite things about
December.
Numbers
- Adjectives of number are the adjectives that are
used to depict either the number of nouns or their
position or place in a certain order. Adjective which
states the number of persons or things is called the
Adjective of Number or Numeral Adjective.
List of Adjectives of Number
• - We will classify the list of adjectives of number according to their
categories that are definite, indefinite and distributive.
• Definite Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that denote specific
amount or position or a part of something.
One Sixth Fifth Double
Two Fifty five Second Triple
Seven Eleven Seventy fifth
Fifteen One third Five seventh First
Twenty Third Ninth Quadruple
• Indefinite Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that do not tell the
specific amount but gives an idea of the amount.
• Distributive Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that refer to
subjects as individual from the bulk. These are similar to distributive
adjectives.
Some Few Any Many
All None Several Too many
Certain Most More Too much
Each Every
Either Neither
Examples of Adjectives of Number
• Who was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Mathematics?
• I have bought some chocolates.
• Neither answer seems appropriate.
• Every one of us must attend the seminar.
• He stood first in the class.
Similarly each of, every one of, either of and neither of are also
distributive adjectives of number. The adjectives either of, neither
of, every one of, each of must be used with plural noun and
singular verb always.
Possessive Adjectives
•- Possessive Adjectives are the words used to show a form
of possession/ ownership or are used to express a close
relationship with someone or something. Moreover, just like
the article “the,” a possessive adjective also implies
definiteness.
•- Some of the most basic possessive adjectives that are
commonly used in the English language are: my, your, our,
its, her, his, their, and whose (interrogative).
1) Whose bag is this?
In this interrogative sentence, the italicized word “whose” is used to express ownership for the noun “bag.”
1) That is his baseball cap.
In the sentence above, the possessive adjective “his” shows who owns the noun “baseball cap.”
1) I think Lea will miss her
Although the possessive adjective “her” is used in the sample sentence above, it does not necessarily mean that
Lea owns the “flight.” The phrase “her flight” just refers to the flight that Lea will take and travel on.
1) My mother is here.
Obviously, one cannot own a specific person. So in this example, the possessive adjective “my” indicates a close
personal relationship with the noun “mother.”
1) I really like your jacket.
In the sentence above, the possessive adjective “your” shows who owns the noun “jacket.”
Examples:
Possessive Adjectives
 1st Person My Our
 2nd Person Your
 3rd Person His Her
Its Their
Different forms of Possessive Adjectives:

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Adjectives and verbs

  • 1.
  • 2. •A verb is that part of a speech used to indicate the state of being. It is also used to describe an occurrence or an action. In most cases, a verb is well understood by the work it does rather than talking about it or trying to describe it. For instance, the word “rain” can be taken as a verb or a noun; and therefore, what a verb does will clearly bring out the difference. Simply, a verb will move sentences along in many different ways hence, different kinds of verbs. •A verb is an important part of an English question or sentence. Actually, it is likely that all questions and
  • 3.
  • 4. Transitive Verbs • Verbs that are used together with a direct object.The object can be a thing or a person. • Here are some example: *Owe *Make *Feed *Drive *Lift • 1. Richard owes Jimmy some money. • 2. He feeds his children while their mother is away. • 3. She makes jewelry to sell at the market
  • 5. Intransitive Verbs • Verbs that don’t have a direct object for their meaning to be communicated. In most cases, they are followed by an adverb, adjective, verb complement or a preposition. • Here are some example: *Die *Arrive *Respond *Wait *Sit *Look • 1. His sister died of Malaria. • 2.We arrived at school very late. • 3. Mary responded to all questions in the exam.
  • 6. Auxiliary Verbs • Verbs that come before main verbs in a verb phrase. • Here are some example: *Be *Shall *May *Could • 1. If all goes well, I will be going home today. • 2. We shall meet tomorrow in the afternoon and discuss the matter we left pending. • 3. We may go shopping anytime from now because the rains have stopped.
  • 8. REGULAR VERB • A verb whose past participle and past tense is attained by adding –d or –ed or –t for some. It is sometimes called a weak verb. • Here are some example: *Accept *Arrive *Fence *Deliver • 1. I accepted the offer. • 2. He has just arrived.
  • 9. IRREGULAR VERBS •Also called a strong verb. It does not usually follow the rules for common verb forms. They usually do not have the predictable –ed ending. •Here are some example: *Get *Go *Say *See *Come •1. He got his business running at the right time. •2. We went (go) home early.
  • 10.
  • 11. • There are three basic tenses: past, present, and future. They show whether a simple action or condition occurred, occurs, or will occur in the past, present, or future. • There are three perfect tenses: past perfect, present perfect, and future perfect. They show whether an action or condition had occurred relative to the past, has occurred relative to the present, or will have occurred relative to the future. • There are six progressive tenses: past progressive, present progressive, future progressive, past perfect progressive, present perfect progressive, and future perfect progressive. They show a continuous action or condition that was occurring in the past, is occurring in the
  • 12. Basic Tenses • The basic or simple tenses are the three tenses which are the simplest in the English language--past, present, future, without any other condition or character. • The basic present tense uses the same verb as the verb part of the infinitive. In the third person singular an -s or -es is added. There are a number of irregular verbs, but they all have an s or z sound at the end of the third person singular. • The basic past tense is a single word. Usually a -d or -ed is added to the root verb to put it in the past. However, there are many irregular verbs. All persons, singular and plural are the same except for the verb to be in which all persons are were but first and third person singular are was.
  • 13. Perfect Tenses • The three perfect tenses in English are the three verb tenses which show action already completed. (The word perfect literally means "made complete" or "completely done.") • They are formed by the appropriate tense of the verb to have plus the past participle of the verb. • Present Perfect: I have seen it. (Present tense of to have plus participle. Action is completed with respect to the present.) • Past Perfect: I had seen it. (Past tense of to have plus participle. Action is completed with respect to the past.) • Future Perfect: I will have seen it.
  • 14. Progressive Tenses • The progressive tenses are the six tenses in English which show continuous or repeated actions. Sometimes the past progressive is called the imperfect. • The six progressive tenses correspond to the three basic and three perfect tenses. They are formed by the appropriate basic or perfect tense of the verb to be followed by the present participle. • Present Progressive: I am coming. • Past Progressive: I was coming. • Future Progressive: I will be coming. • Present Perfect Progressive: I have been coming. • Past Perfect Progressive: I had been coming. • Future Perfect Progressive: I will have been coming.
  • 15.
  • 16. Active voice • In most English sentences with an action verb, the subject performs the action denoted by the verb. • These examples show that the subject is doing the verb's action. Because the subject does or "acts upon" the verb in such sentences, the sentences are said to be in the active voice.
  • 17. Passive voice • One can change the normal word order of many active sentences (those with a direct object) so that the subject is no longer active, but is, instead, being acted upon by the verb - or passive. Note in these examples how the subject-verb relationship has changed. Because the subject is being "acted upon" (or is passive), such sentences are said to be in the passive voice.
  • 18. • 1. Move the active sentence's direct object into the sentence's subject slot • 2. Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition by • • 3. Add a form of the auxiliary verb be to the main verb and change the main verb's form •
  • 19. • Because passive voice sentences necessarily add words and change the normal doer-action- receiver of action direction, they may make the reader work harder to understand the intended meaning. • As the examples below illustrate, a sentence in active voice flows more smoothly and is easier to understand than the same sentence in passive voice. •
  • 20. It is generally preferable to use the ACTIVE voic
  • 21. • To change a passive voice sentence into an active voice sentence, simply reverse the steps shown above. • 1. Move the passive sentence's subject into the active sentence's direct object slot • • 2. Remove the auxiliary verb be from the main verb and change main verb's form if needed • • 3. Place the passive sentence's object of the preposition by into the subject slot. •
  • 22. • Because it is more direct, most writers prefer to use the active voice whenever possible. • The passive voice may be a better choice, however, when • The doer of the action is unknown, unwanted, or unneeded in the sentence • Examples • • The writer wishes to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action • Examples • • The writer wishes to use passive voice for sentence variety.
  • 24. • An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun by limiting its meaning. Examples: • three dollars purple balloons sunny park • interesting books happy boy blessed freedom
  • 26. Limiting Adjectives - The limiting adjectives describes how many, how much, which one, and whose. - The adjectives don't really describe things in detail; they just point out nouns. Limiting Adjectives may be: • Articles • There are three articles: a an the
  • 27. A An The - "A" is called indefinite article because it do not point nouns out as specifically - "A" can only be used singular nouns. Ex. a book - "A" must be used before consonant sounds Ex. a duck a uniform - "An" is called indefinite article because it do not point nouns out as specifically - "An" can only be used singular nouns. Ex. an accident - "An" must be used before a vowel sounds. Ex. an umbrella an excuse - "The" is called a definite article because it points out nouns more specifically. - "The" can be used before both singular and plural nouns. Ex. the cat the houses - "The" can be used before both vowels and consonants. Ex. the ant the car
  • 28. Demonstratives • - Demonstrative adjectives are adjectives that are used to modify a noun so that we know which specific person, place, or thing is mentioned. List of demonstrative adjectives: • This (modifies singular nouns/pronouns) • That (modifies singular nouns/pronouns) • Those (modifies plural nouns/pronouns) Examples of demonstrative adjectives used in a sentence: • Those pants are not very comfortable. • Do you like this soup? • That dress looks good on you.
  • 29. • - When you list two items, you can separate them with a conjunction. Remember that a conjunction is a word that joins two words, phrases, or sentences. • - When you list more than two items, you separate them as follows: • - Put a comma between all items, and put a comma + and before the last item. • - Items in a series can be single words or phrases. In addition, items in a series can be short sentences joined with commas and and.
  • 30. Example of sentences containing items in a series: •For breakfast, I had cereal, juice, and toast. •My best friends are Paul, Amanda, and Quinn. •The moon, the stars, and the sun all appear in the sky. •Brush your teeth, wash your face, and go to bed. •Christmas trees, cozy sweaters, and warm hot chocolate are three of my favorite things about December.
  • 31. Numbers - Adjectives of number are the adjectives that are used to depict either the number of nouns or their position or place in a certain order. Adjective which states the number of persons or things is called the Adjective of Number or Numeral Adjective.
  • 32. List of Adjectives of Number • - We will classify the list of adjectives of number according to their categories that are definite, indefinite and distributive. • Definite Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that denote specific amount or position or a part of something. One Sixth Fifth Double Two Fifty five Second Triple Seven Eleven Seventy fifth Fifteen One third Five seventh First Twenty Third Ninth Quadruple
  • 33. • Indefinite Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that do not tell the specific amount but gives an idea of the amount. • Distributive Numeral Adjectives: These are the ones that refer to subjects as individual from the bulk. These are similar to distributive adjectives. Some Few Any Many All None Several Too many Certain Most More Too much Each Every Either Neither
  • 34. Examples of Adjectives of Number • Who was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Mathematics? • I have bought some chocolates. • Neither answer seems appropriate. • Every one of us must attend the seminar. • He stood first in the class. Similarly each of, every one of, either of and neither of are also distributive adjectives of number. The adjectives either of, neither of, every one of, each of must be used with plural noun and singular verb always.
  • 35. Possessive Adjectives •- Possessive Adjectives are the words used to show a form of possession/ ownership or are used to express a close relationship with someone or something. Moreover, just like the article “the,” a possessive adjective also implies definiteness. •- Some of the most basic possessive adjectives that are commonly used in the English language are: my, your, our, its, her, his, their, and whose (interrogative).
  • 36. 1) Whose bag is this? In this interrogative sentence, the italicized word “whose” is used to express ownership for the noun “bag.” 1) That is his baseball cap. In the sentence above, the possessive adjective “his” shows who owns the noun “baseball cap.” 1) I think Lea will miss her Although the possessive adjective “her” is used in the sample sentence above, it does not necessarily mean that Lea owns the “flight.” The phrase “her flight” just refers to the flight that Lea will take and travel on. 1) My mother is here. Obviously, one cannot own a specific person. So in this example, the possessive adjective “my” indicates a close personal relationship with the noun “mother.” 1) I really like your jacket. In the sentence above, the possessive adjective “your” shows who owns the noun “jacket.” Examples:
  • 37. Possessive Adjectives  1st Person My Our  2nd Person Your  3rd Person His Her Its Their Different forms of Possessive Adjectives: