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French borrowings in Middle English


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French borrowings in Middle English

  1. 1. 2011 spring semester<br />The Development of the English Language <br />French borrowings <br />in Middle English<br />2008130554 Yeokyung Jo<br />2007130000 Daewon Kim<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br /><ul><li>the Historical background </li></ul> of French loanwords<br /><ul><li>the Process of French loanwords
  3. 3. Changing from NF to CF</li></ul>- Norman French<br /> - Central French<br /><ul><li>Comparison between NF and CF</li></li></ul><li>Historical background<br /><ul><li> AD 1066,Norman Conquest</li></ul>- Normans:<br /> the Danes who settled in France <br /> Normandyin 8~10thC<br />- William 1won the Hastings battle <br />and dominated most of <br />the England<br />
  4. 4. Historical background<br /><ul><li> From 1066, the dark ages of </li></ul> English over 333 years<br /> - the Normans occupied most of <br />the top officials<br />- the decline the English language <br />as the political, economic, social <br />and cultural revolutions occurred <br />
  5. 5. Historical background<br /><ul><li> The Hundred Years War </li></ul>between France and England <br /> - the loss of Normandy in 1200<br /> - the decline of the French after the <br /> Hundred Years War<br /> - the Black plague swept through <br /> Europe, which brought about the <br /> elevation of the status of laborers<br /> - the beginning of English <br />education at school in late 14thC<br /> - the emperor Henry Ⅳ in 1399<br />
  6. 6. the Process of French loanwords<br /><ul><li>Diglossia
  7. 7. A situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a </li></ul> single language community <br />the high variety(H, official contexts or documents)<br /> the low variety(L, ordinary conversation)<br />F<br />E<br /><ul><li> example1 – English words for common things </li></ul> vs. French loanwords for classy ones <br />cloth(a casual clothes E.) vs. dress(a fine clothes F.)<br /> cow, bull, ox, deer (animals E.) vs. beef (a meat dish F.) <br />
  8. 8. the Process of French loanwords<br /><ul><li> example2 – English words for ordinary conversation </li></ul> vs. French loanwords for formal situation <br />doom (E.) vs. judgment (F.)<br /> hearty (E.) vs. cordial (F.) <br /><ul><li> example3 - Reduction or extinction of the meaning of Old English words</li></ul>deer(animal E.) + beast(animal F.) deer(deer E.)<br /> stink(smell E.) + odor, aroma, scent(smell F.) stink(a bad smell E.) <br /><ul><li>Doublets phenomena</li></ul>- the state that a speaker has a command of <br /> two languages ordialectsgreatly<br />F<br />E<br />
  9. 9. Conclusion <br />Loss of Norman(1204)<br />Norman conquest(1066)<br />
  10. 10. Changing from NF to CF<br /><ul><li>The figures of French loanword</li></ul>Norman conquest(1066)<br />year<br />year<br />The loss of Normandy(1204)<br />subtotal <br />subtotal <br />(J: Otto Jespersen / K: A.kaszal)<br />total <br />
  11. 11. Changing from NF to CF – Norman French<br />Norman French(NF)<br />After Norman conquest(1066)<br />One of the dialect in the midsection of France<br />Everyday language of upper classes for 200 years<br />Used in royal court, lawer court, school, official notice<br /> “The French used for the legal terminology”<br />
  12. 12. Changing from NF to CF – Norman French<br /><ul><li>The decline of Norman French (After 1200 years)
  13. 13. The Loss of Normandy(1204) / The Hundred Years War(1337-1453)
  14. 14. The Black plague (1348-1350) : the spread of the status of laborers
  15. 15. The stadardization of Central French(CF) in Franc(13C)</li></ul>The appearance of Central French in English<br />
  16. 16. Changing from NF to CF – Central French<br />The decline 0f NF The frequent use of CF<br /> (Not perfect decline of French)<br />Central French(CF)<br />Continuouse mutual interchane in upper classes<br /> (Usage of CF = Evidence of chic and elegant class)<br />Standard Frech in the capital of France, Paris<br />Usage in various field like culture, art, fashion<br />The appearance of Doublets(NF&CF)<br />
  17. 17. The appearance of doublet in borrowing French <br /><ul><li>Question 1</li></ul>The appearance of the doublet<br /><ul><li>Question 2</li></ul>The difference between NF & CF<br />
  18. 18. Comparison between NF and CF<br />The system of pronouciation and spelling<br />The pronunciation<br />The exchange between w & g<br />
  19. 19. Comparison between NF and CF<br />The spelling ‘s’<br />The pronounciation of ‘Qu’<br />The change of ending in latin<br />
  20. 20. Comparison between NF and CF<br />The change in vowel<br />
  21. 21. Thank you <br />for Listening!<br />