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Construction Supply Chain Management (Group Assignment) - BIM 7D

Building Information Modelling (BIM) 7D

1 of 33


SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN
BACHELOR OF QUANITY SURVEYING (HONOURS)
GROUP ASSIGNMENT
CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
(MGT 60803)
GROUP MEMBERS
HENRY KHOO SZE HAU
YAP YUEN THONG
WAN YEE LEN
LEE SIAW CHYI
LIM CHIN SHEN
LECTURER
MS. TAY SHIR MEN
0331769
0326557
0330764
0330451
0326770
- TABLE OF CONTENT -
No. Content Page
1 Cover	Sheet 1
2 Table	of	Content 2
3 Introduction	to	BIM 3-5
4 3D	BIM 6-9
5 4D	BIM 10-13
6 5D	BIM 14-20
7 6D	BIM 21-24
8 7D	BIM 25-29
9 Recommendations 30
10 Conclusion 31
11 References 32-33
- INTRODUCTION TO BIM -
Brief Introduction
BIM stands for Building Information Modeling. BIM is the current trend in the
construction industry. Even though the technology has been around for quite a
while, a lot of news has been created about BIM in the field for the past two years.
Generally,
BIM is the process spanning the generation and management of the physical
and functional information of a project. The output of the process are what we
refer to as BIMs or building information models which are ultimately digital files
that describe every aspect of the project and support decision-making
throughout a project cycle.
BIM and the subsets of BIM systems and similar technologies feature more than
just 3D (width, height, and depth) but may include further dimensions such as 4D
(time), 5D (cost), 6D and even 7D.
Important Aspects to Know:
There is a common misconception that BIM means 3D design. In fact, it's much
more. BIM is a process for creating and managing all of the information on a
project – before, during and after construction. The output of this process is the
Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the built
asset.
The growth of BIM:
The use of BIM in construction and engineering is not new, but the rate of growth
becomes clear when we look at the number of BIM files stored on the Aconex
collaboration platform. In 2009, fewer than 10,000 models were being managed on
Aconex. By the start of 2013, clients were managing over 270,000 models – a growth
of 2,600% in just three years. The size of the average model has almost doubled to
54MB over the past five years.

The benefits of BIM
BIM provides a set of interrelated and cross-referenced information. For
example, objects in the model are linked to related information including manuals,
specifications, commissioning data, photos, and warranty details. This allows the
owner or facility manager to efficiently and accurately manage the asset. Also, we
have broken down the benefits of BIM in the diagram below throughout the years
since it began.
Fields/Industries that benefits from BIM
1. Architecture
2. MEP (Mechanical, Electronical, Plumbing)
3. Civil
4. Plant
5. Construction
6. Structures

Benefits of BIM
PROCESS
Conflict Detection
and Risk Mitigation
Coordination and
Collaboration
Faster Drafting
without loss of Cost
and Quality
Easy Maintenance
of Building Life
Cycle
Optimization of
Schedule and Cost
High Level of
Customization and
Flexibility
The challenges that BIM creates
For all its benefits, BIM brings new challenges around creating and collaborating
on models:
I. Taking the model beyond the design team – The true value of BIM can only be
realized when it is taken beyond the design team – to subcontractors, the owner
and facility manager. Providing access to the model and allowing them to
contribute and link other information are key.
II. Viewing the model– How can a subcontractor be given a view of a particular part
of the model to resolve an issue without having to download and install
software? How can people collaborate around that view quickly and easily? How
can they view it on the tablet when standing on the site?
III. Linking models to other data – A lot of project information, like drawings, RFIs
and spec sheets, lives outside the model. Owners may insist on receiving a 3D
model but, for the full picture, it should be linked to all of the other data created
and collated on the project.
The importance of BIM Collaboration
The volume of information created and managed on BIM projects can create
confusion if participants are not connected in a meaningful way. And like any
construction or engineering project, a project that uses BIM requires an audit trail
of every exchange, every decision and every approval point.

- 3D BIM-
Generally,
3D BIM represents a physical body using a collection of points in 3D space,
connected by various geometrric enties such as lines, curved surfaced and
traignels. It is the most commonly known dimension, which refers to “visible” part
of a bIM model.
Services provided by 3D BIM
3d BIM can generate views and informations according to the needs. It enables
participants to:
I. see the building in 3 dimensions
II. automatically update views along the project life cycle, from earliest conception
to demolition
3D Modeling Suitability
3D modeling software is the most general of the 3D design categories. All 3D
design software will have some method of 3D modeling, but 3D modeling software
is primarily used to create 3D assets for animation. The most basic 3D modeling
software will only permit you to create 3D models, but most programs often include
tools for animation, texture painting or rendering.
3D modeling suites such as 3ds Max Design, Cinema 4D and Modo often offer a
variety of methods for sculpting. Polygonal modeling, spline modeling, digital
sculpting, procedural modeling and 3D scanning are all methods available to users
of 3D modeling software.
How it differs from traditional software?
One of the key differences between modern BIM technology and traditional
software is that the objects created within BIM models represent actual
elements within a construction project. Therefore, the information in the BIM
model becomes more useful to designers, installers and cost consultants. This
information becomes useful when extracted by design teams and cost
management teams.


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Construction Supply Chain Management (Group Assignment) - BIM 7D

  • 1. 
 SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) GROUP ASSIGNMENT CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (MGT 60803) GROUP MEMBERS HENRY KHOO SZE HAU YAP YUEN THONG WAN YEE LEN LEE SIAW CHYI LIM CHIN SHEN LECTURER MS. TAY SHIR MEN 0331769 0326557 0330764 0330451 0326770
  • 2. - TABLE OF CONTENT - No. Content Page 1 Cover Sheet 1 2 Table of Content 2 3 Introduction to BIM 3-5 4 3D BIM 6-9 5 4D BIM 10-13 6 5D BIM 14-20 7 6D BIM 21-24 8 7D BIM 25-29 9 Recommendations 30 10 Conclusion 31 11 References 32-33
  • 3. - INTRODUCTION TO BIM - Brief Introduction BIM stands for Building Information Modeling. BIM is the current trend in the construction industry. Even though the technology has been around for quite a while, a lot of news has been created about BIM in the field for the past two years. Generally, BIM is the process spanning the generation and management of the physical and functional information of a project. The output of the process are what we refer to as BIMs or building information models which are ultimately digital files that describe every aspect of the project and support decision-making throughout a project cycle. BIM and the subsets of BIM systems and similar technologies feature more than just 3D (width, height, and depth) but may include further dimensions such as 4D (time), 5D (cost), 6D and even 7D. Important Aspects to Know: There is a common misconception that BIM means 3D design. In fact, it's much more. BIM is a process for creating and managing all of the information on a project – before, during and after construction. The output of this process is the Building Information Model, the digital description of every aspect of the built asset. The growth of BIM: The use of BIM in construction and engineering is not new, but the rate of growth becomes clear when we look at the number of BIM files stored on the Aconex collaboration platform. In 2009, fewer than 10,000 models were being managed on Aconex. By the start of 2013, clients were managing over 270,000 models – a growth of 2,600% in just three years. The size of the average model has almost doubled to 54MB over the past five years.

  • 4. The benefits of BIM BIM provides a set of interrelated and cross-referenced information. For example, objects in the model are linked to related information including manuals, specifications, commissioning data, photos, and warranty details. This allows the owner or facility manager to efficiently and accurately manage the asset. Also, we have broken down the benefits of BIM in the diagram below throughout the years since it began. Fields/Industries that benefits from BIM 1. Architecture 2. MEP (Mechanical, Electronical, Plumbing) 3. Civil 4. Plant 5. Construction 6. Structures
 Benefits of BIM PROCESS Conflict Detection and Risk Mitigation Coordination and Collaboration Faster Drafting without loss of Cost and Quality Easy Maintenance of Building Life Cycle Optimization of Schedule and Cost High Level of Customization and Flexibility
  • 5. The challenges that BIM creates For all its benefits, BIM brings new challenges around creating and collaborating on models: I. Taking the model beyond the design team – The true value of BIM can only be realized when it is taken beyond the design team – to subcontractors, the owner and facility manager. Providing access to the model and allowing them to contribute and link other information are key. II. Viewing the model– How can a subcontractor be given a view of a particular part of the model to resolve an issue without having to download and install software? How can people collaborate around that view quickly and easily? How can they view it on the tablet when standing on the site? III. Linking models to other data – A lot of project information, like drawings, RFIs and spec sheets, lives outside the model. Owners may insist on receiving a 3D model but, for the full picture, it should be linked to all of the other data created and collated on the project. The importance of BIM Collaboration The volume of information created and managed on BIM projects can create confusion if participants are not connected in a meaningful way. And like any construction or engineering project, a project that uses BIM requires an audit trail of every exchange, every decision and every approval point.

  • 6. - 3D BIM- Generally, 3D BIM represents a physical body using a collection of points in 3D space, connected by various geometrric enties such as lines, curved surfaced and traignels. It is the most commonly known dimension, which refers to “visible” part of a bIM model. Services provided by 3D BIM 3d BIM can generate views and informations according to the needs. It enables participants to: I. see the building in 3 dimensions II. automatically update views along the project life cycle, from earliest conception to demolition 3D Modeling Suitability 3D modeling software is the most general of the 3D design categories. All 3D design software will have some method of 3D modeling, but 3D modeling software is primarily used to create 3D assets for animation. The most basic 3D modeling software will only permit you to create 3D models, but most programs often include tools for animation, texture painting or rendering. 3D modeling suites such as 3ds Max Design, Cinema 4D and Modo often offer a variety of methods for sculpting. Polygonal modeling, spline modeling, digital sculpting, procedural modeling and 3D scanning are all methods available to users of 3D modeling software. How it differs from traditional software? One of the key differences between modern BIM technology and traditional software is that the objects created within BIM models represent actual elements within a construction project. Therefore, the information in the BIM model becomes more useful to designers, installers and cost consultants. This information becomes useful when extracted by design teams and cost management teams.

  • 7. 3D BIM Modeling Projects and Customer Types: There are several fields where 3d BIM Modeling Projects come into use. These are some of the examples for the following project and customer types. BIM for Retail Revit BIM retail design models that are used to develop retail construction drawings and models for retail BIM modelling, including detailed plans, sections and elevations as well as accurate equipment and fixture schedules. BIM for Homebuilders Construction drawing sets directly from BIM models designed for each house as a part of residential Revit 3D BIM Modelling services. In addition to accurate schedules, a full set of drawings required by construction teams is created from the BIM models for residential BIM modelling. BIM for Architects Models during the design development, tender and construction stages of architectural design projects. As a part of Architectural BIM Modeling service, provided clash free models with accurate building materials and detailed construction schedules from the models. BIM for MEP Designers & Consultants BIM models during early concept stages for MEP consultants to fit into the overall design schedule. BIM for MEP Trade Contractors 3D MEP (M&E) coordinated models using BIM software for detailed spatial coordination. Creating installation standard BIM models that are efficiently laid out and allow ease of installation. Spatially coordinated MEP (M&E) BIM models also take into account fitting requirements, lagging, access and efficiency of services/ system runs. BIM is also able to work within a modular or pre-fabricated MEP environment, creating detailed fabrication and module drawings using Revit’s fabrication features. The BIM models include CoBie data and output for schedules and material information.

  • 8. List of softwares for 4D Modelling 
 1. SketchUp 2. Blender 3. AutoCad 4. AutoDesk Revit 5. 3Ds Max 6. Maya 7. Infrawork 360 8. RhinoBIM 9. ZBrush
  • 9. Advantages of 3D BIM 1. Maintain Control The digital-model-based workflow involves aids such as autosave and connections to project history so that users can be certain they’ve captured their time spent working on the model. The connection to the version history of the model’s evolution can help you avoid disastrous disappearances or corruption of files that can make blood boil and impinge productivity. 2. Simulate and Visualize Another of the advantages of BIM is the increasing number of simulation tools that allow designers to visualize such things as the sunlight during different seasons or to quantify the calculation of building energy performance. The intelligence of the software to apply rules that are based on physics and best practices provides a complement for engineers and other project team members. Disadvantages of 3D BIM 1. High Software Cost The upfront cost for hardware, software, training and implementation can be pretty hefty. This causes small and medium companies will not be interested in implementing bIM and thus it might be a barrier to communicate with other parties. 2. Corruption in transmission Electronically transmitted information becoming corrupted or altered is also a main concern. Such concerns are not exclusive to BIM projects but because of their nature an corruption will be compounded and could therefore have an enormous impact on the success or failure of the project.

  • 10. - 4D BIM - Generally, 4D Model: Time Model 4D modelling is a term frequently used in the construction sector. It is the process of converting a 3D BIM model to a 4D model. In this context 4D modelling refers to the fourth dimension of time, in other words 4D is a 3D model that includes the construction schedule. Main Purpose: I. enable teams to analyse the sequence of events on a time-line and visualise the time it takes to complete tasks within the construction process. II. enables members to separate and visualize the progress of their activities through the lifetime of the project Services Provided by 5D BIM: 4D BIM allows various participants from designer, architects, mechanical building design specialists, structural engineers contractors to owners of a construction project to visualise the entire duration of a series of events and display the progress of construction activities through the lifetime of the project. 4D BIM provides methods for: 1. managing and visualizing site status data, 2. change impacts 3. supporting communication in various situations Construction sequences can be reviewed as a series of issues using 4D BIM, enabling clients to explore more choices, manage solutions and optimize results. It enables construction product development and collaborative and transparent project implementation. Participants will be able to make sound decisions and changes to the projects based on multiple sources of accurate real-time information with the help of schedule visualization. ———>4D BIM shows the critical way and the dependency of project sequences in chart form. When there is some changes in the project design, advanced BIM model will consequently identify all the chances that will affect the critical path and will indicate what the corresponding impact will be on the overall delivery of the project.

  • 11. List of softwares for 4D Modelling 1. Synchro Professional Software 2. Navisworks 3. Vico Control Software 4. Navigator 5. iTWO 6. Bentley Navigator 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
  • 12. Advantages to Construction Supply Chain Management (CSCM) i) Improve construction planning, scheduling and production control as well as the onsite management of safety, workspaces and waste. The increasing use of 4D BIM in construction highlights opportunities for utilising these capabilities in new digital management systems replete with role reorganization, new practices and workflows, and not solely as a tool for construct ability analysis and onsite monitoring of construction progress. Continued focus on construction-based environmental impacts provides an impetus to leverage 4D BIM to improve communication and information flow throughout environmental planning and management tasks. This paper explores how environmental planning and management can be supported by 4D capabilities. ii) Basis for developing a tailored framework for environmental planning and management. It is a challenge for every project stakeholder to explain their concerns to others involved in the trade in the meeting room. Also this is the routine for as many times as there are design revisions. But with 4D BIM meeting in place, not only the design intents become clear but stakeholders can also keep a track of all the changes made, and owner of each change, to minimise conflicts between the teams. Moreover, 4D models provide a seamless display of how your projects progress over time which allows managers to predict project times even during design.  iii) Choose alternatives and optimize labor over time. When companies lose money when they can't properly allocate resources and project managers have trouble selecting the best resources for a project, 3D BIM assists on that. iv) Allow planners to improve time management. They can see exactly when certain resources or tools are required. This limits the need for investment in equipment, materials, and labor. With 4D models, schedulers can see the entire construction site over time. They can look at all aspects of the actual build and verify its progress. This allows schedulers to identify inconsistencies as well. If real aspects of the project don't match the 4D model, they will notice right away. This prevents backtracking, future delays, or even accidents.

  • 13. Advantages of 4D BIM • Improved design documents by testing design against the construction sequence • Better site planning and coordination • Lean Scheduling • Analysing hold points • Improved lead time identification for more effective just in time deliveries • More effective safety issue identification • Monitoring actual vs planned progress, which helps teams to identify potential issues more quickly, reducing claims • Enhanced connection with stakeholders with better understanding • Reduce crew size Disadvantages and Costs involved i) When ordering items that require a long lead time, BIM can disrupt the general procurement and development process. Example scenario: For instance, a contractor may need to order material depends on the dimensions of the design. Requesting the material may need to take a few weeks or months. In the situation that the dimensions change, it may happen when various contractors are inputting information into a model on a continual basis, the contractor may be left with deficient time to order the material. ii) Manage resource and information is one of the difficulties of implementing BIM, after the complete implementation of BIM and network based integration. Example scenario: The company which is executing BIM has to ensure that the suppliers and subcontractors will lead to management of more information. Besides, mapping and management of resources is still done in a traditional way. New legal and construal processes are to be set up for the effective implementation of BIM. The firm has to choose an experienced and skilled partner that can support with proficiency, experience, knowledge and resources.

  • 14. - 5d BIM - Generally, 5D-BIM (fifth-dimensional building information modelling) is the integrated sum of 3D model, schedule and cost estimation. The dominant models in 5D-BIM are :
 1. Quantity Extraction 2. Prefabrication Solution 3. Real Time Conceptual Model 4. Trade Verification 5. Cost Planning 6. Value Engineering
 Services provided by 5D BIM 5D-BIM provides methods for budget tracking and cost analysis related activities. Being associated with 3D and 4D, it allows participants to visualize the progress of their activities, taking into account the conditions of the execution process (e.g. Imposed by the agreement, like commencement and completion date for the work, division into phases of the execution and the weather conditions) and also the related costs over time – costs associated with its implementation. The utilization of 5D-BIM technology can result in a greater accuracy and predictability of project’s estimates, scope changes and materials, equipment or manpower changes. With the help of 5D-BIM, participants will be able to generate an array of essential estimating information faster and more accurately, such as materials quantities, costs, size, area estimates and productivity projections, while project changes are made, estimating information will automatically adjusts, thus allowing a better construction productivity. Benefits provided: The benefits provided by the integration of BIM with 5D-CAD simulation models enables the development of more efficient, cost-effective and sustainable constructions.
  • 15. List of softwares for 5D modelling: 1. Autodesk Navisworks Manage A comprehensive project review solution that supports coordination , analysis , and communication of design intent and constructability. Multidisciplinary design data created in a broad range of Building Information Modelling (BIM), digital prototype, and process plant design applications can be combined into a single integrated project model. 2. Bentley Systems ConstructSim Uses models to simulate work based on construction constraints and priorities. Allow collaboration with project team via mobile devices and 24/7 web access. ConstructSim will also help to align engineering and construction for safer and repeatable projects. 3. Solibri Model Checker A quality assurance solution that analyses BIM and architectural and engineering designs for integrity, quality and physical safety. It also includes functionality for information take-out, analysing and extracting the information available in BIM models. 4. Glue (by Horizontal Systems) A web-based BIM solution for the construction industry that allows individuals to upload, merge, and browse building models , eliminating incompatibility issues between different software platforms while facilitating collaboration among project participants.
  • 16. 5. Tekla BIMSight A professional tool for construction project collaboration. The entire construction workflow can combine their models, check for conflicts and share information. It also enables project participants to identify and solve issues already in the design phase before construction. 6. Trimble Vico Office Progressive approach to estimating provides unprecedented flexibility when pricing a project. Whether a top-down estimate at the conceptual phase for target costing is preferred, or a detailed estimate for final bid, Vico’s cost workflows got it covered. 7. Synchro Professional Gives teams a medium to create, analyse, edit, report and manage projects through a single visual interface. 8. Innovaya Visual Estimating Performs cost estimating accurately, quickly, and intelligently by delivering objects from Autodesk’s and Tekla’s BIM applications to MC2 ICE and Sage Timberline. Consequently, it can increase the efficiency of the project estimating process by more than 300%
  • 17. Advantages to Construction Supply Chain Management 1. Positive return on investment One study found that 75 percent of those companies who have started using this added element to BIM has found a positive return on investment. (Rajat Agarwal, Shankar Chandrasekaran, Mukund Sridhar, 2016) 2. Shorter project cycles 5D-BIM technology has provided those using it shorter project cycles, savings on time with things like paperwork and even down to material costs. With such successful results, governments in countries like Britain, Finland and Singapore have decided this use of BIM for all public infrastructure projects. 3. Project scope understanding Visual and data modelling capabilities translate into a better understanding of project scope. Formulas drive costs on each building system based on the specific design, materials, site conditions, phasing and other parameters according to the owner’s timeline. All major project stakeholders can visualize the end product and understand exactly what’s included in the budget. For owners, transparency is crucial. 4. Productivity increase The entire project team develops and understanding of the proposed design, assumptions and cost drivers. They then have a concise and accurate description of scope, cost, and schedule – which directly impacts funding decisions. 5. Real-time data Data is provided in real time as the model is developed or changed. Alternative concepts can be easily explored; while owner and project team can see the cost and other data unfold instantaneously. This drastically shortens design and estimation cycle time.

  • 18. Disadvantages of 5D-BIM 1. 5D setup costs (i.e. software, training and hardware costs) Software and hardware upgrades are considered as significant barriers to BIM implementation, particularly for small-medium enterprises (SMEs) as it is fairly expensive. Besides that, a strong training requirement associated with BIM implementation, which although time-consuming and difficult (as only a number of users have expert knowledge in the resource), is considered critical to BIM’s adoption. 2. Incompatibility with industry recognized cost planning element formats 5D-BIM’s incompatibility with the industry recognized elemental format for cost planning, which prevents companies from adopting the software. BIM models currently contain numerous design errors and often have important information missing from them, which hinders BIM’s use for producing 5D cost services, as the data is too incomplete or inaccurate to use. (John Boon & Chris Prigg, 2012) 3. Lack of integration in the model The lack of integration in BIM models decreases the reliability and effectiveness of 5D (e.g. where each design discipline develops their own BIM model in isolation from each other). This underlying issue – lack of integration, where parties in the industry are said to work separately, and as a result this also separates the information required for BIM. (Bylund, C. & Magnusson, A., 2011) 4. Fragmented nature of the construction industry BIM, in particular 5D-BIM, requires the collaboration, database integration and commitment of companies to the use of BIM software, and that as these areas are still in a separated and fragmented state, it further limits the effectiveness of 5D- BIM. (Olantunji, O.A., Sher, W., Ogunsemi, D.R., 2010) 5. Lack of inter-operability The lack of inter-operability is a barrier to use 5D-BIM as there is no smooth exchange of information across all BIM disciplines involved. The fragmented and isolated construction industry, vendors often run software in proprietary type formats that restrict the exchange of critical building data between multiple organisations, and such incompatibility between the BIM model and estimating platforms. (Olantunji, 2011)

  • 19. Comparison between the 5D-BIM Cost Planning with the Traditional Cost Planning Method: 5D-BIM Cost Planning Traditional Cost Planning Gradually developed cost information Cost planning developed gradually, replacing each item one by one. Autonomous documents There is no connection between versions as one estimate is created per page. Binding two variance could be a difficult process. Infinite releases Cost information can be replaced gradually so that the results can be viewed at any time and creates infinite releases of cost plan. Limited number Amount of work in creating traditional estimate is limited due to the short of time. Model based and automated input Automated input and construction quantities derived from the 3D model. Traditional estimation drawing and manual take-off The quantity take-off is being performed manually or semi manually, resulting in a time- consuming process. Model and integration Model in 5D cost planning gives visual feedback for any selected cost item, thus the integration with the design allow better understanding as to where the cost is being raised. Paper and disconnection Cost estimating is paper-based. The input is disconnected and doesn’t have any relation with the results and 2D plane or design. Immediate feedback Provide immediate feedback on each design decision, much more dynamic and easier solution to keep budget on track. Comparison between budget versions needed Comparing versions with one another is not an easy task, any changes in description will make it difficult to find matches between two versions. Visualizing the model from different views Software generates a 3D model, allow easier plan and elevation from different directions. Two-dimension view Given physical 2D architectural and structural drawing. Participation in decision making The cost planning in 5D-BIM becomes part of the design process as it provides cost feedback immediately on each design decision made. Cost feedback on design Traditional cost estimating is typically performed after the design is completed. Work successfully with complicated projects Not recommended in complicated projects Create connections between the project stakeholders No connection between the project stakeholders Project participants work individually.
  • 20. Comparison between the cost planning process of 5D-BIM and traditional method 5D-BIM cost planning process: 1. First, import the 3D-BIM model to 5D-BIM tool. 2. Secondly, determine elements of cost planning for the 3D-BIM model. 3. Thirdly, calculate the quantities for the determined element. 4. Lastly, price the quantity for the 3D elements using the date base of pricing. Traditional cost planning process: 1. First, analyse the project by dividing the project into elements. 2. Secondly, extract quantities of the elements. 3. Thirdly, price the quantities by using company’s old records or similar estimates. 4. Lastly, complete the estimate by printing the estimated prices on the worksheet. 3D BIM Determinin g Elements Calculating Quantity Pricing elements of cost plan
  • 21. - 6D BIM - Generally, 6D BIM is an acronym for 6D Building Information Modelling and it is also a term commonly used in the construction industry where it refers on the project life-cycle management information. Services provided by 6D BIM: 6D BIM involves the inclusion of information to support facilities management and operation to drive better project outcomes. This data might include information on: I. the manufacturer of a component, II. installation date, III. required maintenance IV. details of how the item should be configured 
 Figure above illustrates the 6D BIM model as mentioned above 6D BIM also known as the project or building life-cycle management information therefore it can be clearly seen in the figure that all the elements portrayed from the first step to the sixth step are regarding about sustainability. Purpose: It allows an organisation to understand the methods and the cost for the sustainability of the project and allocate the finance accordingly.

  • 22. Advantages of 6D BIM i) Automating Existing Preventive Maintenance Program This benefit is where is an existing preventive maintenance program isn’t already automated then BIM can automate it automatically by connecting the existing software package to supplement the data and information that already exist to ensure there is a more robust maintenance program ii) Improve Space Management Using this 6D BIM, it allows the user to show and visual the maintaining element such as AHU etc quickly without even need to ultilise the space and able to use those spaces more efficiently iii) Assisting Building Analysis Because 6D BIM software enable the data and repository of the database to be constantly updated and therefore when referring back to the building model in the software, it ensures minimum mistake in gathering required information iv) Reduce Time Taken It has been proven that in the case studies report by the University of Southern California that 6D BIM able to save the maintenance time up to 80% as all the element that need to be maintained can be identified quickly with the software and locating the particular element therefore wastage of time on finding maintaining element is reduced hence saving time for the remaining part.
 i) ii) iii) iv)
  • 23. Disadvantage of 6D BIM i) High Setup Cost Setup cost for 6D BIM software is relevantly expensive to install and also to hire an expertise or verified trainer to train the people to use this program, the cost for it is high hence this would be the major disadvantage of this whole system. ii) Incompatibility Issue This happened mainly in Malaysia because construction industry in Malaysia still not on par with the current technology of construction as most of the construction company prefer to stick with the traditional method as it is more practical and economical to practice therefore most of the time, this software is having incompatibility where some people do not have to software to access the file etc. iii) Lack of Experts This contribute to the increase of the setup cost because this technology is somewhat new in the neighbourhood especially in Malaysia hence the number of existing experts that mastered the software is very less resulting in less amount of people that able to use this software. i) ii) iii)
  • 24. List of software using 6D Bim 1. Autodesk Revit Autodesk Revit is a building information modelling software for architects, landscape architects, structural engineers, MEP engineers, designers and contractors. This is a program that developed by Autodesk and it allows users to manipulate whole building or assemblies or individual 3D shape plan and track various stages in the building's lifecycle, from concept to construction and later maintenance or demolition. 2. AutoCAD Architecture AutoCAD Architecture is a flagship product of Autodesk. It is a product with tools tailored for architectural work. It is roughly the same function as the Autodesk Revit but this software is more advanced and more sophisticated to use. 3. ArchiCAD ArchiCAD is an architectural BIM CAD software developed by the Hungarian company Graphisoft, it offers computer with solution to handle common aspect of aesthetics and engineering during the whole process of designing of the built environment. 4. BricsCAD BricsCAD is a software application that developed by Bricsys. It includes with an advance 3D sketch modeler with full Industry Foundation Classes certified BIM functionality and keeping everything synced with the final construction document set.

  • 25. - 7D BIM - Generally, BIM 7D model: Facility Management Bim facility management organizes and access information like energy usage or output about a building in 3D format. The tool, also known as a “model”, is used to manage buildings or facilities through a custom-made database. Users can visually “move”, or search the database without requiring the users to understand the facility in depth. Evolution of 7D BIM Before, Before the use of BIM FM, users would have to get the unit and read the make/ model information physically. After, Now, users would go to the unit of the model instead and click on the unit to have access to all information. 
 Purpose: The purpose of this model is to provide our clients an innovative solution, while also making contributions to the construction related technology positively. The original objective of the 7D model is generally to: I. Enhance construction processes by providing access to all relevant project datas in a model based concept for construction teams to refer to on site II. Create a building model similar to what is desired. III. Protect the company’s design and construction efforts so that plagiarism is prevented.
  • 26. List of Software for 7D model: 1. Bentley Facilities Their mission is to create a well maintained campus infrastructure that is supported and to ensure that they provide the highest quality of service efficiently to all of their customers. Bentley facilities can be classified into three categories which are: 1. Bentley Facilities Planner, - Bentley Facilities Planner allows information to be obtained easily and quickly on location and state of space and asset. 2. Bentley Facilities Manager - Bentley Facilities Manager keeps all of the information related to the facilities in a powerful window and it also gives out authorities 3. Bentley Facilities Administrator. - Bentley Facilities Administrator is designed to be plug in to the ProjectWise Administrator. 2. EcoDomus EcoDomus is an IT firm that focuses on improving the ways a building is designed, built, managed, retrofitted using BIM. EcoDomus manages facility data via Common Data Environment(CDE). It enables internet of things by providing core facility information and integrating BIM with building automation systems and SCADA. It gives a 3D view of facilities without too much hassle for facility managers that links Asset Information Model in BIM with real time facility data operations acquired.
  • 27. 3. FM:Systems FM:Interact FM: Systems BIM software allows AEC and other professional facilities to connect Autodesk Revit models to cloud-based system to assist in managing spaces, propose the next maintenance and so on. FM:Interact maintains live integration between buildings models and the system, this enables AEC and FM professionals to share ideas during design, construction, and throughout building lifecycle. 4. Onuma System Onuma is an ecosystem of tools, platforms and services for buildings, cities and more. It is used for early planning, through design and construction and into operations. Onuma allows data to flow in many formats, to connect and synchronise with other systems well. It is also does not require any software installations. Data still flows from the system into cloud, offline applications, and into others such as Google, Sketchup, Revit, and more, regardless if it’s online or offline. 5. Vintocon ArchiFM (For ArchiCAD) ArchiCAD is the most widely used architectural design system. Its 3-dimensional CAD software is combined as an organic part to cooperate during graphic and database operations. ArchiFM is able to retrieve a lot of information from existing floor plans. This speeds up the process of uploading datas and serves as a starting point for graphic operation.
  • 28. Advantages to CSCM i) Effective operational cost BIM allows the incorporation of environmental considerations and life cycle operation, as well as the maintenance costs into the designing process cost effectively. In BIM, the workplace productivity factors will be taken into account equally based on statistical workplace performance data that is reliable.. The involvement of BIM minimizes losses as well as reduce operational costs in the near future. ii) Shorter time for decision making It allows the information and database for required analysis and evaluation to be obtained in a shorter time frame. FM models could be combined with building system controls to monitor building performances, allowing facility managers to improve building equipments to ensure they perform at their maximum potential. iii) Resource for decision making BIM FM provides well grounded facility information database and incorporated views of all the facility system to allow facility managers to be able to retrieve and analyse information about the whole system. It enables a new way of analyzing the behaviour of a building to plan the next maintenance and repair work in facilities. iv) Better documentation system Without the use of paper, data can be captured and modified using devices. This makes things easier for staffs. It also reduces the space for data storage and creates a sustainable environment in a workplace. Instead of using blueprints, 3D models can be used to reconcile real components.
  • 29. Collaboration and work flexibility Reliable building information can be shared with anyone who needs it throughout the lifecycle of the building easily. BIM allows collaboration with partners and customers easily so that both parties are satisfied. BIM also has the potential to eliminate inefficiencies and improve communication. BIM has been proposed as a multi-disciplinary collaboration platform. Use of technologies in today’s modern society makes things so much easier and faster. Updated information and clash detection BIM is able to compile and maintain all information of a building. Besides that, it is able to search and detect any clash from any location that is in conflict with each other. This prevents future troubles and lost of money when changes are needed to be made at a later stage. Disadvantages to CSCM Unfamiliar of the model BIM in facility management is still relatively new to the society, hence many people are unfamiliar with the system and needs more training because they can fully commence the use of this system. This is to avoid any troubles that come with poor management that might cause further trouble for the program operator, information lost, and may incur more cost. Requires professional This system requires a professional with management skills that will be able to handle all of the operation and maintenance of the facility throughout the operation or the building’s life cycle to prevent any mistakes. High initial cost To obtain the software and the license itself requires high cost. Other costs including setting up the system, updating the system from time to time and so on. 

  • 30. - RECOMMENDATIONS - The future of BIM The future of the construction industry is digital, and BIM is the future of design and long term facility management. Furthermore, it is government led and driven by technology and clear processes and it is implementing change across all industries. As hardware, software and cloud applications indicate greater capability to handle increasing amounts of raw data and information, we feel that the use of BIM will become even more important. “Government as a client can derive significant improvements in cost, value and carbon performance through the use of open shareable asset information.” Recommendations for better services: 1) Flexibility Changes Allowing more flexibility through different processes will therefore make even more changes and transfer into advantages. This can make the Bills of Quantities to be processed more accurately with the updated cost of the materials in the industry. 2) Resistant to Viruses or Corruption Electronically transmitted information becoming corrupted or altered is also a main concern. Such concerns should not be seen for future services to prevent progress of projects. 3) Ability to identify various file formats The technology these days uses different type of software/file formats to identify. As the file format that can be read for BIM is only the BIMfile, without a computer having the software, it will not be accessible. Therefore, if the file can be saved as PDF, an international format, information can be delivered easier.
  • 31. - CONCLUSION - Future Potential BIM is a relatively new technology especially in the construction sector, an industry typically slow to adapt to change. Therefore, we feel that BIM proponents claim that in the near future, it will offer a lot of value in terms of: 1. Improving visualization. 2. Improving productivity via easy information retrieval. 3. Increasing coordination of construction documents. 4. Linking of vital information such as vendors for specific materials, location of details and quantities required for tendering. 5. Increasing speed of delivery. 6. Reducing overall costs. Building information modelling can provide the industry with a lot opportunities to raise the quality of the industry to a much higher level. Overall conclusion But most important of it all, it can help us, quantity surveyors to speed up the estimating process compared to the traditional method. With the development of technology like BIM, the responsibilities of the professionals are starting to shift. BIM includes a series of cost management functions that could change the processes of cost management of construction projects. This benefits us, Quantity Surveyors to dig deeper into different parts of the cost management process, and thus, learn more and achieving more. Having the capability to simulate a range of data options with real-time cost advice and carry on throughout the detailed design, construction, and operational stages, BIM will surely place construction practices at a higher value.

  • 32. - REFERENCES - 1. http://www.bimpanzee.com/bim-3d-4d--5d--6d---7d.html 2. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140822053129-66002134-benefits-of-4d-bim-in- project-phasing 3. https://books.google.com.my/books?id=aCi7Ozwkoj0C&pg=PA180&dq=services+ +bim+4d&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjvobvyjc7bAhWMLY8KHYgZA- MQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=4d&f=false 4. https://bimestimate.eu/en/the-theory-of-evolution-bim-3d-7d/ 5. https://thebimhub.com/2014/09/16/bim-5d-tools-redefine-construction/ #.WyC9NPZuLIV 6. https://www.constructiontuts.com/bim-software/ 7. http://www.buildingincloud.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/BIM-Software-list.pdf 8. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/capital-projects-and-infrastructure/our- insights/imagining-constructions-digital-future 9. https://www.forconstructionpros.com/construction-technology/article/12286825/ how-5d-macro-bim-saves-time-money-in-preconstruction-and-early-design 10. http://i-rep.emu.edu.tr:8080/jspui/bitstream/11129/2922/1/AlsharqawiYazan.pdf 11. http://ascpro.ascweb.org/chair/paper/CPRT114002013.pdf 12. http://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB_DC25601.pdf 13. https://www.thenbs.com/knowledge/bim-dimensions-3d-4d-5d-6d-bim-explained 14. http://www.youbim.com/5-ways-bim-can-benefit-facility-management/ 15. http://ecodomus.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/ isarc2014_submission_122_davtalab.pdf 16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ArchiCAD 17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autodesk_Revit 18. https://engworks.com/services/6d-bim-for-facility-management/ 19. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AutoCAD_Architecture 20. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BricsCAD
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