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Climatic parameters which form
Air / Ambient temperature (F/OC)
Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold the air is.
Solar radiation(kWh/m2 )
Solar radiation is the heat energy that is emitted from the Sun and radiated out to all parts
of the solar system.
Humidity is the level of water in the air, the more water vapour in the air the higher the
Air movement/ Wind (m/s)
Air pressure is simply the weight of the air above the Earth.
Precipation (rain, snow) (mm/year)
Precipitation is the term given to moisture that falls from the air to the ground.
A climate characterized by
COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of
the time during the year.
Antarctica is the coldest continent on earth, and
has a climate of extremes. The continent is snowand ice-covered, with freezing temperatures all
year round. So-called "Catabian winds“ can cause
violent snowstorms that can last for days, and
sometimes even weeks, making it very dangerous
to stay outside. Antarctica knows periods of
continual daylight an darkness, called "polar
summer" (end May - Sept) and "polar winter" (end
Nov - March).
The polar summer with daytime temperatures
between -20°C and -5°C is the only time to travel
to Antarctica, because the conditions are too bad
during the winter months, with extreme cold
temperatures, violent storms, continous darkness
and ice-bound seas.
The temperate climate occurs in a zone that
falls within the 40° and 60/70o latitudes. This
area normally experiences windy weather but
does not have excessive temperatures. In this
zone, the four seasons have clear
TEMPERATE (SUB TROPICAL)
● Low Air/ Ambient
● Small to Medium
● Low Relative
● High Air
● Small to Medium
Rains, Small to
The desert / arid
Temperatures exhibit daily extremes because the
atmosphere contains little humidity to block the
Sun's rays. Desert surfaces receive a little more than
twice the solar radiation received by humid regions
and lose almost twice as much heat at night. Many
mean annual temperatures range from 20-25° C. The
extreme maximum ranges from 43.5-49° C. Minimum
temperatures sometimes drop to -18° C.
● Medium to High
● High Solar
● Low Relative
Humidity/ Dry Air
● High Air
● Small to No
Semi arid climate
From left: Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, southern Nevada; sagebrush near
Bridger, Montana; Castle Valley, Utah, east of Arches National Park.
The summers are moderately long and dry, and like hot deserts, the winters normally bring
low concentrations of rainfall. Summer temperatures usually average between 21-27° C. It
normally does not go above 38° C and evening temperatures are cool, at around 10° C. Cool
nights help both plants and animals by reducing moisture loss from transpiration, sweating
and breathing. Furthermore, condensation of dew caused by night cooling may equal or
exceed the rainfall received by some deserts. As in the hot desert, rainfall is often very low
and/or concentrated. The average rainfall ranges from 2-4 cm annually.
Humid tropical climate
The humid tropical climate is characterised by season-long precipitation, which is
particularly intensive during the so called rain season in the spring and in the
autumn (when the sun stands directly above the equator)
GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF WARM HUMID TROPIC
● Medium to High Air/ Ambient Temperatures (22 to
● High Solar Radiation (3 to 6 kWh/m2day)
● High Relative Humidity/ Humid Air (60 to 100%)
● Low Air Movement/ Wind (<5m/s)
● Medium to Heavy Rains (500mm to 5000mm/years)
● Coastal/ Lowland regions (Medium to high
● Highland regions (Medium to low temperatures)
● Mountainous regions (Low temperature)
● Savannah regions (Little rain)
Coastal and low land region
The coast is where the land meets the sea. Thishighly variable region begins where
salt spray reaches and affects land-based plant communities and extends seaward
through the surf zone as far as wave action still disturbs the sea bottom, usually to
depths of about 200 ft. Indeed, the coast environment has the greatest diversity of
habitats and microhabitats on Earth.
Coastal life must be adapted to environmental factors that grade from one
extreme to another, especially from wet to dry; wave action; and particle sizes of
High land region
Highland climate is often also used to describe a particular mountain climate, fully
termed the highland zone. The highland zone is of relatively low altitude and is
distinguished by the growth of thick shrubs such as heater , tussock grasses, and
docidous trees and bushes . The ground in the highland zone is generally well irrigated.
This can be compared to the higher altitude alpine zone , which is generally drier and is
noted for the sparseness of trees (which are generally coniferous there) and shrubs,
and the growth of thinner grasses and small flowers
Savannas exist in areas where there is a 6 to 8 month wet summer season and
a dry winter season. Annual rainfall in savannas varies depending on the geographic
location. Some savannas get as little as 10 inches of rain annually while others can get as
much as 50 inches. The dry season is marked by months of drought and fire which are
essential to the maintenance of savannas. Without the period of drought and fire, some
scientists believe that tropical savannas would eventually change into tropical forests.
Flores, east nusa tenggara
Sumba, west nusa tenggara
Most of the larger islands are mountainous, with peaks ranging between 3,000 and 3,800
metres (9,843 and 12,467 ft) meters above sea level in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sulawesi,
and Seram. The country's tallest mountains are located in the Jayawijaya Mountains and
the Sudirman Range in Papua. The highest peak, Puncak Jaya (4,884 metres (16,024 ft)), is
located in the Sudirman Mountains.