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Dive into SObjectizer 5.5. Fifth part: Timers

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Next part of Dive into SObjectizer-5.5. Usage of timers explained.

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Dive into SObjectizer 5.5. Fifth part: Timers

  1. 1. Dive into SObjectizer-5.5 SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016 Fifth Part: Timers (at v.5.5.15)
  2. 2. This is the next part of the series of presentations with deep introduction into features of SObjectizer-5.5. This part is dedicated to usage of timers. In particular: ● delayed messages; ● periodic messages; ● cancellation of delayed/periodic messages; ● timer thread and timer mechanisms. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  3. 3. Timers are actively used in typical SObjectizer’s based applications. That's why SObjectizer provides easy to use tools for dealing with timers: ● delayed messages; ● periodic messages. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  4. 4. A delayed message is delivered after a specified time interval since the message was sent. It means that if a delayed message is sent at some time point T and the delay is 150ms then it will be pushed to subscribers’ event queues at time point (T+150ms). SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  5. 5. A periodic message is repeatedly delivered after a specified amount of time. It means that if a periodic message is sent at some time point T with delay of 150ms and repetition period of 250ms then it will be pushed to subscribers’ event queues first time at time point (T+150ms), then at time point (T+400ms), then at (T+650ms) and so on. A periodic message will be repeated until it canceled. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  6. 6. Delayed Messages SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  7. 7. There are three ways for sending a delayed messages. The simplest one is to use send_delayed() function. A reference to SO Environment instance is necessary for sending a delayed message. That’s why the first argument of send_delayed() is a reference to environment_t or some object from which that reference could be obtained. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  8. 8. Sending a delayed message from ordinary agent: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { ... virtual void so_evt_start() override { so_5::send_delayed< some_message >( so_environment(), // SO Environment to be used. dest, // Destination mbox. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // Delivery delay in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to some_message constructor. } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  9. 9. Sending a delayed message from ad-hoc agent: env.introduce_coop( []( so_5::coop_t & coop ) { coop.define_agent().on_start( [&coop] { so_5::send_delayed< some_message >( coop.environment(), // SO Environment to be used. dest, // Destination mbox. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // Delivery delay in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to some_message constructor. ... } ); } ); SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  10. 10. Function send_delayed can be used to sending a delayed message to the direct mbox of agent-receiver. SO Environment in which the receiver is registered will be used in that case. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  11. 11. Sending a delayed message to the direct mbox of the agent- receiver: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { ... void evt_request( const request & evt ) { initiate_request_processing( evt ); so_5::send_delayed< check_request >( *this, // Destination for message. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // Delivery delay in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to check_request constructor. } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  12. 12. Function send_delayed() also accepts an ad-hoc agent proxy: env.introduce_coop( []( so_5::coop_t & coop ) { auto a = coop.define_agent(); a.event( a, [a]( const request & evt ) { initiate_request_processing( evt ); so_5::send_delayed< check_request >( a, // Destination for message. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // Delivery delay in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to check_request constructor. } ); } ); SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  13. 13. The second way is to use single_timer() method of environment_t class: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { ... void evt_request( const request & evt ) { initiate_request_processing( evt ); auto delayed_msg = std::make_unique< check_request >( ... ); so_environment().single_timer( std::move(delayed_msg), // Message instance. so_direct_mbox(), // Destination for message. std::chrono::milliseconds(125) ); // Delivery delay in ms. } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  14. 14. Usage of single_timer() is not as easy as usage of send_delayed(). But single_timer() can be useful if a message instance is created somewhere else... SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  15. 15. A case where single_timer() can be useful: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { ... void evt_request( const request & evt ) { initiate_request_processing( evt ); so_environment().single_timer( create_check_request_message( evt ), // Message instance. so_direct_mbox(), // Destination for message. std::chrono::milliseconds(125) ); // Delivery delay in ms. } std::unique_ptr< check_request > create_check_request_message( const request & evt ) { ... // Some complex logic. return std::make_unique< check_request >( ... ); } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  16. 16. The third way is to use schedule_timer() method of environment_t class. Method schedule_timer() returns timer ID which can be used for timer cancellation. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  17. 17. An example of delayed message cancellation: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { so_5::timer_id_t m_check_timer; ... void evt_request( const request & evt ) { initiate_request_processing( evt ); m_check_timer = so_environment().schedule_timer( create_check_request_message( evt ), // Message instance. so_direct_mbox(), // Destination for message. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // Delivery delay in ms. std::chrono::milliseconds::zero() ); // No repetition. } void evt_request_processed() { // There is no need for delayed message anymore. m_check_timer.release(); // Cancellation of delivery. ... } std::unique_ptr< check_request > create_check_request_message( const request & evt ) { ... } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  18. 18. Periodic Messages SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  19. 19. Periodic message are repeated again and again until it will be cancelled. The same message instance is delivered every time. It means that message instance is not deallocated after processing. Deallocation will occur when message will be cancelled. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  20. 20. There are two ways for sending a periodic message. The simplest one is to use send_periodic() function. As for delayed messages the access to SO Environment is necessary for sending a periodic message. That’s why the first argument of send_periodic() must be a reference to environment_t or some object from which that reference could be obtained. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  21. 21. Sending of a periodic message from ordinary agent: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { so_5::timer_id_t m_status_timer; ... virtual void so_evt_start() override { m_status_timer = so_5::send_periodic< update_status >( so_environment(), // SO Environment to be used. dest, // Destination mbox. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // First delivery delay in ms. std::chrono::milliseconds(250), // Repetition period in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to update_status constructor. } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  22. 22. Function send_periodic() can send a message to the direct mbox of the agent-receiver: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { so_5::timer_id_t m_status_timer; ... virtual void so_evt_start() override { m_status_timer = so_5::send_periodic< update_status >( *this, // Destination. SO Environment of target agent will be used. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // First delivery delay in ms. std::chrono::milliseconds(250), // Repetition period in ms. ... ); // Arguments to be forwarded to update_status constructor. } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  23. 23. The second way is to use schedule_timer() method of environment_t class: class my_agent : public so_5::agent_t { so_5::timer_id_t m_status_timer; ... virtual void so_evt_start() override { m_status_timer = so_environment().schedule_timer( create_status_message(), // Message to be sent periodically. so_direct_mbox(), // Destination. std::chrono::milliseconds(125), // First delivery delay in ms. std::chrono::milliseconds(250) ); // Repetition period in ms. } std::unique_ptr< update_status > create_status_message() { ... } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  24. 24. The most important moment in periodic messages sending ‒ is storing the result value of send_periodic() and schedule_timer(). If the result value is not saved then periodic message will be cancelled immediately. This is because the destructor of timer_id_t does timer cancellation. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  25. 25. The so_5::timer_id_t class works like a smart pointer. Destruction of the last timer_id_t pointed to a timer will destroy the timer and periodic (or delayed) message will be cancelled. That’s why at least one timer_id_t object for periodic message must exist while message delivery is necessary. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  26. 26. Delayed/Periodic Messages Cancellation SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  27. 27. There are three ways of delayed/periodic messages cancellation. All of them use timer_id_t objects. It means that cancellation is only possible for messages sent via send_periodic() or schedule_timer(). SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  28. 28. The first way is to call release() method of timer_id_t class. auto id = so_5::send_periodic< Msg >(...); ... id.release(); // Delivery canceled. Please note that explicit call of release() method cancels a message regardless of count of remaining timer_id_t objects pointed to that timer. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  29. 29. The second way is destruction of all timer_id_t objects pointing to the same timer. If release() method is not called explicitly it will be called in the destructor of the last timer_id_t object pointing to a timer. This way is often used in ordinary agents: class request_processor : public so_5::agent_t { so_5::timer_id_t m_check_request; ... void evt_request( const request & evt ) { m_check_request = so_5::send_periodic< check_request >( *this, ...); // Timer will be cancelled automatically in // the destructor of request_processor. ... } }; SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  30. 30. The third way is assignment of new value to timer_id_t object. If this object was the last timer_id_t pointed to a timer then the timer will be destroyed and message will be cancelled: auto id = so_5::send_periodic< Msg >(...); ... // Some actions. id = so_5::send_periodic< Sig >(...); // Cancellation of Msg. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  31. 31. There is a trick moment with cancellation of delayed messages... Delayed message will be cancelled only if it is still under control of timer thread. If message already leaved timer thread and is waiting in event queues of recipients then message delivery will not be cancelled and message will be processed by subscribers. For example if delay was 125ms and cancelaction is initiated after 125ms after call to send_delayed there is a high probability that message will be delivered anyway. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  32. 32. Timer Thread SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  33. 33. SO Environment starts a special thread for handling timers. This thread is known as timer thread. All timers are controlled and processed by that timer thread. Timer thread can efficiently process big amount of timers: tens and hundreds of millions. Even billions of timers. A user can choose a timer mechanism most appropriate for application needs. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  34. 34. Three timer mechanisms are supported. Each has its strengths and weakness: ● timer_wheel ● timer_list ● timer_heap SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  35. 35. timer_wheel mechanism: Can support very big amount of timers efficiently (tens, hundreds of millions, billions). It also equally efficient for delayed and periodic messages. Because of that timer_wheel mechanism should be used when the application needs a big number of timers. But there are some costs... SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  36. 36. Drawbacks of timer_wheel mechanism: ● this mechanism is not very precise (there is a step of timer wheel which could be configured, but small step decrease effectiveness); ● this mechanism consumes some resources even if there are no ready to use timers (this overhead is small but it is still here). SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  37. 37. timer_list mechanism: Works very well only if new timers will be added to the end of list of timers. Therefore this mechanism should be used in applications where there are many similar delayed messages with the same delays. This mechanism does not consume resources when there are no ready to use timers. It also handles timers cancellation very efficiently. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  38. 38. timer_heap mechanism: Has very fluent overall performance, especially on relative small amounts of timers (thousands, tens of thousands timers). It also does not consume resources if there are no ready to use timers. Because of that timer_heap mechanism is used in SO Environment by default. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  39. 39. For more information about timer mechanisms, their strengths and weakness see description of Timer Template Thread (timertt) library. This library is used for implementation of delayed and periodic messages in SO- 5.5. SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  40. 40. Timer mechanism can be specified in Environment’s parameters before start of SO Environment: so_5::launch( []( so_5::environment_t & env ) { // Some initialization stuff... }, // SObjectizer Environment parameters tuning. []( so_5::environment_params_t & params ) { // Use timer_wheel mechanism with wheel size 10000 // and timer step size of 5ms. params.timer_thread( so_5::timer_wheel_factory( 10000, std::chrono::milliseconds(5) ) ); ... } ); SObjectizer Team, Jan 2016
  41. 41. Additional Information: Project’s home: http://sourceforge.net/projects/sobjectizer Documentation: http://sourceforge.net/p/sobjectizer/wiki/ Forum: http://sourceforge.net/p/sobjectizer/discussion/ Google-group: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/sobjectizer GitHub mirror: https://github.com/masterspline/SObjectizer

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