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Demystifying Quality Management
for Large-Scale Manufacturing
in Modern Context
19th Feb 2021
ConTEST 2021 Online
Yasuharu NISHI
The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo
@YasuharuNishi / Yasuharu.Nishi@uec.ac.jp
Who is Nishi?
• University (assistant) professor on software testing and QA
• Consultant on software testing and QA
for hardware manufacturers in Japan
– Automotive, industrial automation, consumer electronics, medical devices etc.
– 20+ years experiences
• Serial community-founder on software testing in Japan
– Mailing list, Conference, Volunteer organization, ISTQB Japan, ISO domestic committee etc.
• A goodfella in “TQM Mafia” for hardware manufacturers in Japan
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.2
Quality manufacturers in Japan
• You have a vague impression about
high quality in Japanese hardware manufacturers
– automotive industry, industrial automation etc.
• They have established sets of principles of quality management
– TQM (Total Quality Management)
– TPS (Toyota Production System)
– Taguchi methods
– Other companys’ own quality management frameworks
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.3
History of TQM in Japan
• Dr. Edward Deming
– came to Japan in 1947
to teach statistical quality control to Japanese factories
• Dr. Joseph Juran
– came to Japan in 1954
to teach company-wide application of concepts of quality control
• Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa
– constructed TQM (formerly called TQC) principles
expanding concepts taught by Deming and Juran
– Dr. Ishikawa is the godfather of TQM mafia in Japan
• Dr. Kano (a.k.a. Kano model) is a great guru in TQM mafia
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.4
https://www.juse.or.jp/deming_en/award/
https://www.juse.or.jp/qc_circle/case/
https://www.agilityiq.io/product-management/the-kano-model-for-prioritization/
https://www.sme.org/technologies/articles/2005/
masters-of-manufacturing-joseph-m.-juran/
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.5 https://www.qc-ep.com/copy-of-lean-manufacturing-1
Concepts of TQM in Japan
• 品質
• 品質第一
• カイゼンサイクルと標準化
• 方針管理
• 目的指向とプロセス主義
• 水平展開による品質の作り込み
• 全員参加と「後工程はお客様」
• 事実に基づく管理と5ゲン主義
• 自律と小集団活動
• 人間性尊重
• 悪さの知識
© NISHI, Yasuharu
6
Concepts of TQM in Japan
• Interpretation of Quality
• Quality first
• Kaizen cycle (a.k.a. PDCA cycle) and standardization
• Management by policy
• Purpose-oriented and process-oriented
• Frontloading insight by reuse of lessens learned
• Involvement with everyone and internal customer
• Management by fact and data, and 5-gen methodology
• Teamwork based on personal autonomy
• Respect and warmth
• Negative insight
© NISHI, Yasuharu
7
Mindsets in high quality manufacturers in Japan
• Journey into quality forever
• Make everyone perseveringly smarter
• Enhance co-confidence
• Nestle weakness
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.8
Journey into quality forever
• What is quality?
– In software development, people often say “Only users can judge quality”
– Gerry Weinberg said “Quality is value to some person”
• Japanese TQM thinks “all qualities matter”
– Dr. Ishikawa said “Quality of products, quality of work, quality of services, quality of information,
quality of process, quality of organization, quality of people from front-lines to executives,
quality of system, quality of policy, quality of management etc.”
– QA people think exhaustively what quality and whose quality
• Do users know quality?
– Of course
• Japanese manufacturers has constructed process of getting feedbacks from users
– Yes
• But as immediate feedback is technically impossible, they have “simulated” users
– Partly no
• Users sometimes say “I have never imagined such a product! I really want this!”
– No
• Users can’t know internal quality like product-line-friendly architecture
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.9
From his twitter
Journey into quality forever
• Japanese manufacturers has constructed process of getting feedbacks
from customers by customer-support division or marketing division
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.10
Development
User Support
/ Marketing
Journey into quality forever
• Some consumer electronics company built a house in its factory
– QA engineers lived in the house as various “simulated” families
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.11
Journey into quality forever
• Some Japanese manufacturers have already constructed
or are starting to construct IT-based large feedback cycles
– Some construction, mining and agricultural machinery companies automatically collects field data
and use them to improve machinery and their customers’ business
– Some automotive companies have started to build CI/CD and DevOps cycles with real-world driving data
– Some have begun to apply Scrum-like iterative hardware development with modular hardware design
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.12
Journey into quality forever
• Japanese quality manufacturers struggle to realize all qualities in the long term
– Temporally they have to make compromise and trade-off
– They have a strong will to realize all qualities in the long term
by continuous kaizen and innovation
• QA people always walk around
and do whatever is necessary for quality
– To talk to all stakeholders
– To understand them
– To make all people understand each other
– To make all people think quality is everyone’s mission
– To make all people realize all qualities
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.13
Conflict
Journey into quality forever
• It’s a never ending journey of us, QA people
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.14
Make everyone perseveringly smarter
• Japanese TQM thinks “all qualities matter” incl. quality of organization and people
• QA people should ensure the organization makes itself perseveringly smarter
– Involvement with everyone
– Teamwork
– Internal customers
– Multi layered feedback cycles and Frontloading
• QA people should ensure people make themselves perseveringly smarter
– TQM in Japan says people will get perseveringly smarter in their journey into quality
– TQM in Japan includes methodologies which make people perseveringly smarter
• Statistics
• 5 whys
• 5-gen methodology
• Anti-patterns
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.15
Make organization perseveringly smarter
• Involvement with everyone
– Beware of little unconcern about quality; A small leak will sink a great ship (modified Benjamin Franklin)
– Break silos of “I’m a developer, so quality isn’t my business”
• Silos are not limited to developer’s silo and tester’s silo.
• Teamwork
– Pair or mob work will encourage people to kaizen quality by close conversations
– “Quality circle” is a scheme of mob-kaizen in TQM
• Internal customers
– Next process knows a lot of things to kaizen your process
• If you treat the next process as customers, you will be encouraged to kaizen your process
• Multi-layered feedback cycles
– Japanese quality manufacturers maintain several layers of feedback cycle
1. Whole business layer
2. Inter-divisional layer
3. Neighborhood process layer
4. Single process layer
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.16
From Wikipedia
Make organization perseveringly smarter
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.17
Development
User Support
/ Marketing
• Feedback cycle on whole business layer, e.g. by building lean and open organization
Make organization perseveringly smarter
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.18
Development User Support
/ Marketing
Design Production
• Feedback cycle on inter-divisional layer, e.g. by concurrent engineering
Make organization perseveringly smarter
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.19
Design
Review
Design
Development User Support
/ Marketing
Production
• Feedback cycle on neighborhood process layer, e.g. by frontloading a.k.a. shift-left
Make organization perseveringly smarter
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.20
Design
Review
Development User Support
/ Marketing
Production
• Feedback cycle on single process layer, e.g. by mob-kaizen a.k.a quality circle
Make people perseveringly smarter
• Feedback? Frontloading? Shift-left? How? Is it just an early starting?
– One way for successful feedback is to give insight
• Without any methodology, you could just make a shallow idea
– TQM in Japan provides methodologies to extract insights
• Statistics / 5 Whys / 5-gen methodology / Anti-patterns
• Statistics
– Statistics make insights from iterative work, e.g. mass production
• Statistics sometimes give wrong impressions
• 5 whys (a root cause analysis)
– Multiple whys guides essential causes and insights
• Too many whys will lead meaningless cause, e.g. “because we are human”
• 5-gen methodology
– A set of words helps to extract insights by shaking abstraction level
• 3 reality: Actual location (Gemba in Japanese)
/ Actual object (Gembutsu) / Actual situation (Genjitsu)
• 2 essence: Nature (Genri) / Principle (Gensoku)
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.21
Make people perseveringly smarter
• Anti-patterns matter to QA people
– Expert engineers have both “positive insights” and “negative insights”
• Positive insights are patterns how you can success, e.g. design patterns in software dev.
• Negative insights are patterns how you will fail, e.g. code smells in software dev.
– Developers will avoid, hate and forget negative insights
• QA people will focus on, re-use and love negative insights
– Japanese quality manufacturer store and re-use anti-patterns
• Various failure modes for FMEA which is far from Western FMEA
• Bad design patterns in 3D-CAD
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.22
Conflict
https://interfaces.com/blog/2013/08/some-examples-of-design-failure-on-physical-space/
Make people perseveringly smarter
• We have maintained “software trap” as negative insights
that shows bug-prone requirement or design
– “Rip Van Winkle” trap (“Urashima-taro” in Japanese)
• RVW is an American short story written in 1819
– After Rip returned from a walk into a mountain, everything is changed
• “Process that requires physical time forked from short-lived process will lost the original position”
– “Eject disc” process forked from “Navigation” process can’t return and fails by GPF
because Navigation process ends during mechanical ejection movement
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.23
From Wikipedia
Make people perseveringly smarter
• Embrace conflicts and make insights
– All the methodologies to extract insights includes conflicts insides
• Statistics / 5 Whys / 5-gen methodology / Anti-patterns
– Conflict is a source of insight, though trade-off is necessary
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.24
Conflict
Enhance co-confidence
• Test and process can’t assure quality
– Exhaustive testing is impossible though expert testers can do their best
– Process tends to be bureaucratic though people there know it’s bureaucratic
• Quality Assurance work only needs everyone’s co-confidence
– If everyone gains confidence in doing the best
and they knows others did the best each other,
they can achieve as high quality as they can
– Insight can increase confidence
– Discomfort and uneasiness are signs of lack of confidence
• Mission of QA people is to gain and keep everyone’s co-confidence
– Not to make everyone compliant to rules, standards and processes
– Testing is a melting pot of insights extracted and created by everyone
– Process is a tool to share insight with everyone
– In other words, mission of QA people is
to circulate and expand insights in people and organization
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.25
Nestle weakness
• To err is human
– “To Err is Humane; to Forgive, Divine” (Alexander Pope)
– Bounded rationality – Everyone is imperfect, everyone has weakness
– Everyone alone can’t overcome his/her weakness
• QA people should nestle everyone’s weakness
and support everyone in overcoming his/her weakness
– Penalty or punishment doesn’t work or avoid any failure
– Don’t throw bug information in order to make developers fix it
– Talk to developers who made bugs.
Ask them if they have co-confidence.
Listen to reasons why they couldn’t tell discomfort or uneasiness.
– Support them in extraction of negative insight
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.26
From Wikipedia
What are differences between QA and tester
• Mindsets in high quality manufacturers in Japan are very similar to
mindsets in modern testing and agile testing
– Journey into quality forever
– Make everyone perseveringly smarter
– Enhance co-confidence
– Nestle weakness
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.27
QA is an unchained tester from testing activities
• Journey into quality forever
– Do whatever is necessary for quality
• Make everyone perseveringly smarter
– Construct multi-layered feedback cycles and extract anti-patterns
• Enhance co-confidence
– Don’t make everyone compliant to rules, standards and processes
• Nestle weakness
– Talk to developers who made a bug
– Ask them if they have co-confidence
– Listen to reasons why they couldn’t tell discomfort or uneasiness.
© NISHI, Yasuharu
p.28

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Demystifying quality management for large scale manufacturing in modern context

  • 1. Demystifying Quality Management for Large-Scale Manufacturing in Modern Context 19th Feb 2021 ConTEST 2021 Online Yasuharu NISHI The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo @YasuharuNishi / Yasuharu.Nishi@uec.ac.jp
  • 2. Who is Nishi? • University (assistant) professor on software testing and QA • Consultant on software testing and QA for hardware manufacturers in Japan – Automotive, industrial automation, consumer electronics, medical devices etc. – 20+ years experiences • Serial community-founder on software testing in Japan – Mailing list, Conference, Volunteer organization, ISTQB Japan, ISO domestic committee etc. • A goodfella in “TQM Mafia” for hardware manufacturers in Japan © NISHI, Yasuharu p.2
  • 3. Quality manufacturers in Japan • You have a vague impression about high quality in Japanese hardware manufacturers – automotive industry, industrial automation etc. • They have established sets of principles of quality management – TQM (Total Quality Management) – TPS (Toyota Production System) – Taguchi methods – Other companys’ own quality management frameworks © NISHI, Yasuharu p.3
  • 4. History of TQM in Japan • Dr. Edward Deming – came to Japan in 1947 to teach statistical quality control to Japanese factories • Dr. Joseph Juran – came to Japan in 1954 to teach company-wide application of concepts of quality control • Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa – constructed TQM (formerly called TQC) principles expanding concepts taught by Deming and Juran – Dr. Ishikawa is the godfather of TQM mafia in Japan • Dr. Kano (a.k.a. Kano model) is a great guru in TQM mafia © NISHI, Yasuharu p.4 https://www.juse.or.jp/deming_en/award/ https://www.juse.or.jp/qc_circle/case/ https://www.agilityiq.io/product-management/the-kano-model-for-prioritization/ https://www.sme.org/technologies/articles/2005/ masters-of-manufacturing-joseph-m.-juran/
  • 5. © NISHI, Yasuharu p.5 https://www.qc-ep.com/copy-of-lean-manufacturing-1
  • 6. Concepts of TQM in Japan • 品質 • 品質第一 • カイゼンサイクルと標準化 • 方針管理 • 目的指向とプロセス主義 • 水平展開による品質の作り込み • 全員参加と「後工程はお客様」 • 事実に基づく管理と5ゲン主義 • 自律と小集団活動 • 人間性尊重 • 悪さの知識 © NISHI, Yasuharu 6
  • 7. Concepts of TQM in Japan • Interpretation of Quality • Quality first • Kaizen cycle (a.k.a. PDCA cycle) and standardization • Management by policy • Purpose-oriented and process-oriented • Frontloading insight by reuse of lessens learned • Involvement with everyone and internal customer • Management by fact and data, and 5-gen methodology • Teamwork based on personal autonomy • Respect and warmth • Negative insight © NISHI, Yasuharu 7
  • 8. Mindsets in high quality manufacturers in Japan • Journey into quality forever • Make everyone perseveringly smarter • Enhance co-confidence • Nestle weakness © NISHI, Yasuharu p.8
  • 9. Journey into quality forever • What is quality? – In software development, people often say “Only users can judge quality” – Gerry Weinberg said “Quality is value to some person” • Japanese TQM thinks “all qualities matter” – Dr. Ishikawa said “Quality of products, quality of work, quality of services, quality of information, quality of process, quality of organization, quality of people from front-lines to executives, quality of system, quality of policy, quality of management etc.” – QA people think exhaustively what quality and whose quality • Do users know quality? – Of course • Japanese manufacturers has constructed process of getting feedbacks from users – Yes • But as immediate feedback is technically impossible, they have “simulated” users – Partly no • Users sometimes say “I have never imagined such a product! I really want this!” – No • Users can’t know internal quality like product-line-friendly architecture © NISHI, Yasuharu p.9 From his twitter
  • 10. Journey into quality forever • Japanese manufacturers has constructed process of getting feedbacks from customers by customer-support division or marketing division © NISHI, Yasuharu p.10 Development User Support / Marketing
  • 11. Journey into quality forever • Some consumer electronics company built a house in its factory – QA engineers lived in the house as various “simulated” families © NISHI, Yasuharu p.11
  • 12. Journey into quality forever • Some Japanese manufacturers have already constructed or are starting to construct IT-based large feedback cycles – Some construction, mining and agricultural machinery companies automatically collects field data and use them to improve machinery and their customers’ business – Some automotive companies have started to build CI/CD and DevOps cycles with real-world driving data – Some have begun to apply Scrum-like iterative hardware development with modular hardware design © NISHI, Yasuharu p.12
  • 13. Journey into quality forever • Japanese quality manufacturers struggle to realize all qualities in the long term – Temporally they have to make compromise and trade-off – They have a strong will to realize all qualities in the long term by continuous kaizen and innovation • QA people always walk around and do whatever is necessary for quality – To talk to all stakeholders – To understand them – To make all people understand each other – To make all people think quality is everyone’s mission – To make all people realize all qualities © NISHI, Yasuharu p.13 Conflict
  • 14. Journey into quality forever • It’s a never ending journey of us, QA people © NISHI, Yasuharu p.14
  • 15. Make everyone perseveringly smarter • Japanese TQM thinks “all qualities matter” incl. quality of organization and people • QA people should ensure the organization makes itself perseveringly smarter – Involvement with everyone – Teamwork – Internal customers – Multi layered feedback cycles and Frontloading • QA people should ensure people make themselves perseveringly smarter – TQM in Japan says people will get perseveringly smarter in their journey into quality – TQM in Japan includes methodologies which make people perseveringly smarter • Statistics • 5 whys • 5-gen methodology • Anti-patterns © NISHI, Yasuharu p.15
  • 16. Make organization perseveringly smarter • Involvement with everyone – Beware of little unconcern about quality; A small leak will sink a great ship (modified Benjamin Franklin) – Break silos of “I’m a developer, so quality isn’t my business” • Silos are not limited to developer’s silo and tester’s silo. • Teamwork – Pair or mob work will encourage people to kaizen quality by close conversations – “Quality circle” is a scheme of mob-kaizen in TQM • Internal customers – Next process knows a lot of things to kaizen your process • If you treat the next process as customers, you will be encouraged to kaizen your process • Multi-layered feedback cycles – Japanese quality manufacturers maintain several layers of feedback cycle 1. Whole business layer 2. Inter-divisional layer 3. Neighborhood process layer 4. Single process layer © NISHI, Yasuharu p.16 From Wikipedia
  • 17. Make organization perseveringly smarter © NISHI, Yasuharu p.17 Development User Support / Marketing • Feedback cycle on whole business layer, e.g. by building lean and open organization
  • 18. Make organization perseveringly smarter © NISHI, Yasuharu p.18 Development User Support / Marketing Design Production • Feedback cycle on inter-divisional layer, e.g. by concurrent engineering
  • 19. Make organization perseveringly smarter © NISHI, Yasuharu p.19 Design Review Design Development User Support / Marketing Production • Feedback cycle on neighborhood process layer, e.g. by frontloading a.k.a. shift-left
  • 20. Make organization perseveringly smarter © NISHI, Yasuharu p.20 Design Review Development User Support / Marketing Production • Feedback cycle on single process layer, e.g. by mob-kaizen a.k.a quality circle
  • 21. Make people perseveringly smarter • Feedback? Frontloading? Shift-left? How? Is it just an early starting? – One way for successful feedback is to give insight • Without any methodology, you could just make a shallow idea – TQM in Japan provides methodologies to extract insights • Statistics / 5 Whys / 5-gen methodology / Anti-patterns • Statistics – Statistics make insights from iterative work, e.g. mass production • Statistics sometimes give wrong impressions • 5 whys (a root cause analysis) – Multiple whys guides essential causes and insights • Too many whys will lead meaningless cause, e.g. “because we are human” • 5-gen methodology – A set of words helps to extract insights by shaking abstraction level • 3 reality: Actual location (Gemba in Japanese) / Actual object (Gembutsu) / Actual situation (Genjitsu) • 2 essence: Nature (Genri) / Principle (Gensoku) © NISHI, Yasuharu p.21
  • 22. Make people perseveringly smarter • Anti-patterns matter to QA people – Expert engineers have both “positive insights” and “negative insights” • Positive insights are patterns how you can success, e.g. design patterns in software dev. • Negative insights are patterns how you will fail, e.g. code smells in software dev. – Developers will avoid, hate and forget negative insights • QA people will focus on, re-use and love negative insights – Japanese quality manufacturer store and re-use anti-patterns • Various failure modes for FMEA which is far from Western FMEA • Bad design patterns in 3D-CAD © NISHI, Yasuharu p.22 Conflict https://interfaces.com/blog/2013/08/some-examples-of-design-failure-on-physical-space/
  • 23. Make people perseveringly smarter • We have maintained “software trap” as negative insights that shows bug-prone requirement or design – “Rip Van Winkle” trap (“Urashima-taro” in Japanese) • RVW is an American short story written in 1819 – After Rip returned from a walk into a mountain, everything is changed • “Process that requires physical time forked from short-lived process will lost the original position” – “Eject disc” process forked from “Navigation” process can’t return and fails by GPF because Navigation process ends during mechanical ejection movement © NISHI, Yasuharu p.23 From Wikipedia
  • 24. Make people perseveringly smarter • Embrace conflicts and make insights – All the methodologies to extract insights includes conflicts insides • Statistics / 5 Whys / 5-gen methodology / Anti-patterns – Conflict is a source of insight, though trade-off is necessary © NISHI, Yasuharu p.24 Conflict
  • 25. Enhance co-confidence • Test and process can’t assure quality – Exhaustive testing is impossible though expert testers can do their best – Process tends to be bureaucratic though people there know it’s bureaucratic • Quality Assurance work only needs everyone’s co-confidence – If everyone gains confidence in doing the best and they knows others did the best each other, they can achieve as high quality as they can – Insight can increase confidence – Discomfort and uneasiness are signs of lack of confidence • Mission of QA people is to gain and keep everyone’s co-confidence – Not to make everyone compliant to rules, standards and processes – Testing is a melting pot of insights extracted and created by everyone – Process is a tool to share insight with everyone – In other words, mission of QA people is to circulate and expand insights in people and organization © NISHI, Yasuharu p.25
  • 26. Nestle weakness • To err is human – “To Err is Humane; to Forgive, Divine” (Alexander Pope) – Bounded rationality – Everyone is imperfect, everyone has weakness – Everyone alone can’t overcome his/her weakness • QA people should nestle everyone’s weakness and support everyone in overcoming his/her weakness – Penalty or punishment doesn’t work or avoid any failure – Don’t throw bug information in order to make developers fix it – Talk to developers who made bugs. Ask them if they have co-confidence. Listen to reasons why they couldn’t tell discomfort or uneasiness. – Support them in extraction of negative insight © NISHI, Yasuharu p.26 From Wikipedia
  • 27. What are differences between QA and tester • Mindsets in high quality manufacturers in Japan are very similar to mindsets in modern testing and agile testing – Journey into quality forever – Make everyone perseveringly smarter – Enhance co-confidence – Nestle weakness © NISHI, Yasuharu p.27
  • 28. QA is an unchained tester from testing activities • Journey into quality forever – Do whatever is necessary for quality • Make everyone perseveringly smarter – Construct multi-layered feedback cycles and extract anti-patterns • Enhance co-confidence – Don’t make everyone compliant to rules, standards and processes • Nestle weakness – Talk to developers who made a bug – Ask them if they have co-confidence – Listen to reasons why they couldn’t tell discomfort or uneasiness. © NISHI, Yasuharu p.28