The central idea behind behaviorism is that only observable behaviors are worthy of research since other abstraction such as a person’s mood or thoughts are too subjective.
Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
It is the cognitive theory of learning that describes the processing, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind. It seeks to explain human learning as the development of networked memory stuctures. The human brain is seen as a neural computer of sorts as opposed to the "black box" of Behaviourism.
Piagets theory of cognitive development proposes that humans cannot be "given" information which they immediately understand and use. Instead, humans must "construct" their own knowledge. They build their knowledge through experience. Experiences enable them to create mental models in their heads. These schemas are changed, enlarged, and made more sophisticated through two complimentary assimilation and processes: accommodation
Social Development Theory argues that social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior. the zone of proximal development is the range of abilities that a person can perform with assistance, but cannot yet perform independently.
Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation; the main cause of behavior lies in unconscious mind. Freud believed that all thoughts, emotions and actions are determined. In other words nothing is an accident, if we probe deeply we will find the causes of every thought or action.
In 1950, Humanistic psychology gave rise after the first and second forces of psychology, Behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic psychology, the third force, was popularised during the 1950s and 1960s following WWII and the cold war.
During this time period, psychologists were seeking a more optimistic and nurturing approach in response to the stresses that came with war. Humanism was largely influenced by early Greek and Hebrew phillosophers, as well as Europeans of the Renaissance era, who believed that human beings were unique.
Humanism claims that people have the ability to shape their own destiny, and this is not driven by bioligical, instinctive influences. It emphasises the wholeness or completness of personality, rather than focussing on its structural parts. What matters is how people view themselves. the founders: Abraham Maslow & Carl Rodgers
Biography Abraham Harold Maslow was born April 1908 in Brooklyn, New York. he first studied law at the City College of New York (CCNY). moved to Wisconsin so that he could attend the University of Wisconsin. Here, he became interested in psychology. He received his BA in 1930, his MA in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of Wisconsin. Considered to be the founder of humanistic psychology. Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs theory that remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. He spend his final years in California, until, 1970, he died of a heart attack after years of ill health.
Maslow’s theory One of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career, was that some needs take precedence over others.
Physiological needs These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs.
Safety needs Much like physiological needs require maintenance throughout life, so does the need to feel secure. This need is more psychological. these include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.
The love and belongingneeds When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to show up. You begin to feel the need for friends,husband/wife, children, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community.
The esteem needs After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one
S E L F - A C T U A L I ZA T I ON This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested in fulfilling their potential. "What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization…It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.
Characteristics of Self-Actualized People Acceptance and Realism. Problem-centering. Spontaneity. Continued Freshness of Appreciation. Peak Experiences
Some criticism Maslow’s hierarchy is only a theory and might not apply to everybody. The circumstances of an individual will determine their needs. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is merely a basic guideline. Some people are able to achieve self- actualization without having some of what Maslow defines as "needs" fulfilled first.
Others might speculate that some of the things he defined as needs arent needs at all. No one can deny that food, air, shelter and such are needs, but may argue that esteem, love, artistic expression are not needs but desires. Some may even argue that self-actualization is not imperative to being a happy or successful person.
Suggestions for Application ofMaslows Theory to EducationPhysiological lunch time correct room temperatures restroom breaks drink breaks
Love & Belonging teacher personality: empathetic, considerate & interested in the individual, patient, fair, positive attitude, good listener. use one-on-one instruction. provide positive comments & feedback rather than negative. get to know students (likes, dislikes, concerns). be available for students in need. listen to students. be supportive.. show that you value students thoughts, opinions & judgments. show trust of students by providing situation where it is necessary (ex.classroom leader).
class meetings class discussions provide situations requiring mutual trust Showing , sharing
EsteemSelf-esteem develop new knowledge based on background knowledge so as to help ensure success . pace instruction to fit individual need. focus on strengths & assets. take individual needs & abilities into account when planning lessons and carrying them out.
develop a classroom environment where students are positive &nonjudgmental. award programs for jobs well done.. recognition programs for special effort (ex. helpful citizens of the week). develop & carry out a curriculum to encourage children to be empathetic& good listeners. employ cooperative learning in such a way as to develop trust between group members. involve students in activities of importance & worthiness (ex. Cleaning up the environment, carrying out a food drive for the needy).
Knowledge & Understanding allow students time to explore areas of curiosity. provide lessons that are intellectually challenging. plan lessons that connect areas of learning & have students compare andcontrast to search for relationships. use a discovery approach to learning whenever possible.
Aesthetic organize classroom materials in a neat & appealing way. display student art work in an appealing manner. put up interesting & colorful wall hangings. replace overly worn classroom materials periodically. create varied appealing & interesting learning centers. rooms painted in pleasing colors. large window areas. well maintained physical surroundings (ex. keeping walls painted, desksclean & repaired etc.). clean rooms. fresh smelling rooms.
Self-actualization expect students to do their best. give students freedom to explore & discover on their own. make learning meaningful--connect to "real" life. plan lessons involving activities. get students involved in self-expressive projects. allow students to be involved in creative activities & projects.
Exercise The purpose of this exercise is to help you understand how Maslow’s ideas apply to life’s experience.1/ for each of the situations in the next statements, state which motive is taking precedence and which is being sacrificed.
1/ A woman who had been betrayed 2 years ago, is still having problems in forming new friendships,especially with men. Need taking precedence: Safety and security. Need being sacrified: Love and Belonging.
2/ A woman recently diagnosed with Diabetes, is making several changes in her usual diet and is short tempered and irritate with her family. Need taking precedence:safety(she’s digging a whole and hiding in it). Need being sacrificed:Love and belonging ( she’s afraid to care again or get involved in life)
3/ A very wealthy talented writer gives up writing because he hasn’t been able to get his last four novels published. Need taking precedence:Esteem(He’s embarassed about being rejected) Need being sacrificed:Self-actualization(He’s giving up his chance to be the most he can be)living up to his potential.
4/ an Uneducated very unhappy mother and wife stays married to her abusive husband because she was an orphan. Need taking precedence:Love and belonging(She loves her children and doesn’t want to split her family nor take them from their home) Need being sacrificed:Physiological (she will no doubt continue to be abused)
ROGERS•Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8,1902 – February 4, 1987) was aninfluential American psychologist.He is among the founders of the•humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology.
INTRODUCTION• Rogers agreed with most of what Maslow believed, but he added that for a healthy personality to grow it needs an environment consist of:Genuineness acceptance empathy
Concepts and theory Self Actualization Carl Rogers believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize (to fulfill ones potential and achieve the highest level of “human-beingness” we can). Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self- actualization they must be in a state of congruence. This means that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image).
The Fully Functioning Person For Rogers, people who are able be self-actualise, and that is not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing. In many ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that people do not
The Fully Functioning Person(continue) Open to experienc e Fulfilled Existenti life five al living characteristi cs of the fully functioning person: Trust Creativity feelings
The Fully Functioning Person (continue) Critics claim that the fully functioning person is a product of Western culture. In other cultures, such as Eastern cultures, the achievement of the group is valued more highly than the achievement of any one person.
Rogers personality theory self-concept It is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others.
The self-concept includes three components Self image:Self worth: How we see Ideal self: the ourselves. It person who we(or self-esteem) includes the would like to be. Itwhat we think about influence of our includes our goalsourselves. body image on inner and ambitions. personality.
Self Worth and Positive Regard Carl Rogers viewed the child as having two basic needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. As a child grows older, interactions with significant others (teachers) will affect feelings of self-worth.
Self Worth and Positive Regard (continue)A person with low self- A person with high self-worth worthHe avoids challenges in he has confidence andlife, doesn’t accept that positive feelings aboutlife can be painful and him or her self, facesunhappy at times, and challenges in life,will be defensive and accepts failure andguarded with other unhappiness at times,people. and is open with people.
Rogers believed that we need to be regarded positively by others; we need to feel valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. He made a distinction between unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. • Is where parents, significant others unconditional accept and love the person for what he or she is. positive • The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels regard free to try things out and make mistakes. • is where positive regard, praise and conditional approval, depend upon the child. • the child is not loved for the person he or positive she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the regard parent(s).
V. IMPLICATIONS OF HUMANISTIC APPROACH IN EDUCATION.
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW? An approach that believes that learning is viewed as a personal act to fulfill one’s potential.
HOW IT IS USEDTeachers may implicate the “I think therefore I Am” theory in their classrooms For example: thinking one will do well , increases the chance that one may actually do well Teachers can encourage students to think this way,
KEY COMPONENTS• The humanistic theory could be described as the development of self-actualized people.• Learning is student centered and personalized, and the educator’s role is that of a facilitator.
IN THE CLASSROOMIt is the means to progress towards the pinnacle of self- development, which Maslow terms “Self-Actualization”• A child learns because they are inwardly driven, and derives their reward from the inside
Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers were key players in the evolution of the Humanistic approach
ABRAHAM MASLOW: LETCHILDREN GROW Parents and teachers are urged to trustchildren and let or help them grow. In other words trust children to make their own choices.
Maslow also stressed that classroom tasks should be challenging and encourage curiosity in order to help learners realise their full potential. He assumed that the importance of establishing a secure environment where learners feel that they belong and where they can build up self respect.
CARL ROGERS: LEARNERCENTERED EDUCATION: Suggests that it is important to provide optimum conditions for individualised and group learning of an authentic nature to take place. allows Ss to utilize their own learning styles and whatever helps them learn.
Teachers facilitate learning and relinquishes a great deal of authority. The learners need to be empowered and to have control over the learning process. peer teaching and self learning
IV. Humanism InELT Humanistic approaches have had a considerbale influence on English language teaching (ELT) methodology. The four methods which are generally considered to reflect the philospohy of the humanistic approach which were introduced as early as 1970s are : -The Silent Way -Suggestopedia -Community Language Learning -Total Physical Response
The Silent Wayby Caleb Gattengo (1972) Teacher is a Facilitator Teacher speaks very little Teacher creates an emotionally secure environment Teacher alleviates anxiety and fear of learning. Students are involved in learning Students are given full freedom.
Suggestopediaby George Lazanov (1979) Language can be learned three to five times faster than the traditional teaching methods if learners minds are clear of other things and free of anxiety. It is based on relaxation at a deep level… Much of the learning relies on Music, Games, Puzzles…to help learning. Classes include fine arts (especially music) as an integral part of of the lesson.
Community Language Learningby Charles Curran (1972) Learning takes place in an anxiety-free atmosphere The learners form a community and help each other to to learn the target language. The learners often sit in a circle as a community… The teacher takes a facilitator role and aids the learners to learn the language.
Counseling learning (Teacher as a counselor and student as a client) Student is considered as a « whole » person (their feelings, intellect, protective reactions, interpersonal relationships and desire to learn are considered with empathy and balance.)
Total Physical ResponseBy James Asher Much of the way a child learns the mother tongue could be duplicated in a foreign language situation. The brain has the biological capacity to acquire any natural language including the sign language of the deaf just as an infant who aquires first language by physically responding to their parents’ speeches.
The teacher taking the role of the parent helps the learners to get motivated easily and their self-confidence is boosted. This method consists of commands/imperatives which are followed by learners. HOWEVER, this method proved to be an excellent humanistic method of language teaching and learning only at the beginner level and miserably proves to be a failure at the advanced level.
No matter what methodology the teacher is following to suit the needs of their students, the value of humanism in language learning is seen as informing and enhancing the teacher’s practices in a variety of ways.
Great teachers whatever methodology theyfollow, provide us with a human connectionthat is more vital to education and whichmakes the learners self-actualize their learningprocess.
Humanism has a number ofmessages for the languageteacher: Create a sense of belonging Make the subject relevant to the learner Involve the whole person Encourage a knowledge of self Develop personal identity Encourage self-esteem Involve the feelings and emotions
Minimise criticism Encourage creativity Develop a knowledge of the process of learning Encourage self-initiation Allow for choice Encourage self-evaluation