Outline• A definition of Evaluation andAssessment.• What is “Formative Assessment”and “Summative Assessment”?• Formative Assessment:• Mentoring Students‟ Progress.• Assessment for Learning(AfL).• Assessment for Motivation(feedback):• How much do I write?(for feedback)• The power of verbalmotivation.• Working with Individuals andSmall groups.• Self- and Peer Assessment.• Quick tips for a successfulclassroom management whendoing a written quiz / test.• Developing an Effective“Homework” Routine (Childrenand teens):• Homework Setting and Time.• Homework Rules.• Doing the Homework andRewarding with privilege.• Providing Assistance.
1. Formative Assessment Vs.Summative Assessment• 1.1. Formative Assessment:• Informative type of assessment.• it explains where a piece of work is located at aparticular time and what action is needed toimprove that piece of work before a finalassessment.• Gauge Ss level of understanding.
1. Formative Assessment Vs.Summative Assessment• Help raise Ss motivation.• Demonstrates the effectiveness of teaching1.2. Summative Assessment:• Designed to determine what Ss know after aspecific learning time. The feedback is used toinform future work, but not the piece of work weare assessing.
2. Formative Assessment:2.1. Monitoring Ss Progress.• T is required to track and monitor his Ss progressbased on academic, social and behavioral criteria.• Helps them make better-informed instructionaldecisions grounded on data (Collected beforehand and analyzed)• This requires frequent individual monitoring ofSs.
2. Formative Assessment:2.1. Monitoring Ss Progress.• Helps T adjusts his lessons and increase accuracyin formative classroom assessment➔ Increase in Ss achievement.• Grades are not an accurate and reliable measureof Ss progress.
2. Formative Assessment:2.2. Assessment for Learning (AFL).• “AFL is the process of seeking and interpretingevidence for use by learners and their teachers todecide where the learners are in their learning,and where they need to go and how to get there”Assessment Reform Group (2002)• Sometimes formative assessment is referred to asAFL.
2. Formative Assessment:2.2. Assessment for Learning (AFL).• “Acknowledges the critical importance of theinstructional decisions made by students and theirteachers working as a team”. (Stiggings 2005)
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• One of the frequently neglected uses ofassessment is –for motivation, as it can affectclassroom management.• The way T handles written assessment can impactpositively or negatively Ss self-esteem andmotivation;• Written assessment should be continuous toreflect Ss progress.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• T should respect Ss work and give it neededattention, and the benefit of his expertise.• when grading, a written work, T needs to investfor the future;• It is recommended to accompany the grade with awritten feedback.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Be Positive. Never start with a Negative commentin your comment on the work.• “Pupils who encounter difficulties and poor resultsare led to believe that they lack ability, and this beliefleads them to attribute their difficulties to a defect inthemselves about which they cannot do a great deal.So they „retire hurt‟ avoid investing effort in learningwhich could only lead to disappointment. And willtry to build up their self-esteem in other ways”(Black & William 1998, P.9)
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Write something positive, informative andconstructive about S work.• Do not overload S with much suggestions.• Acknowledge the progress made after S has madethe changes you suggested.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• This has short- / long-term benefit for S:1. Quality of work will be improving as S willbe willing to implement T suggestions.2. More in-class engagement,3. S self-esteem and Self-confidence rise.4. Risk-taker.5. Self-critical.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• “Feedback has shown to improve learning whereit gives each pupils specific guidance on strengthsand weaknesses, preferably without and overallmarks” (Black & William 1998, P.12)• Using grades alone without feedback can be withno benefit to S.• Avoid negative comments ➔ Demotivation anddisengagement from learning.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.A/ How to present assessment grades?:• Respect the confidentiality of S grades.• Reduce the status of how you display the grade toS, put much emphasis on the feedback.• Careful and sensitive sharing of S grades can turnout to be effective and motivational.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.B/ How much T should write for a comment?:• Be concise and succinct; do not write more thanwhat you can write on post it note.• Start with a positive comment, than suggest fewcomments for improvement.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.C/ The power of verbal motivation.• There should be a correlation between instructionand assessment.• Starter Activity: should be as much as possiblelinked to what you will teach, to grab Ss attentionand calm them.• It is the first opportunity to assess Ss ➔ create apositive working environment.
2. Formative Assessment:2.3. Assessment for Motivation.• Be verbally positive to your Ss responseswhatever they are.• Lesson: Direct appropriate question to the right S.Praise for right answers.• Safe learning environment: Encourage lessconfident Ss to participate.• Establish a class participation routine.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Class activities may vary b/w individual work andsmall groups (Pair / group work).• It is a good opportunity to raise self-esteem ofindividuals and encourage shy students toparticipate.• Develop Ss social skills.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.How to manage group work activities:• Time group work activities,• Move between groups to monitor their work:prompt questions, check which Ss are active andwhich are not.• Ensure individuals do not dominate groups, assigntasks.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Determine the size and the make-up of the group:(mix genders, abilities, and known opinions.)• Bad making of groups will push timid students towithdraw, because of the fear to make mistakes.• When groups share their findings, Targetquestions to within the group itself and not to thegroup.
3. Working with Individual& Small Groups.• Make sure to give anappropriate feedbackto the group.• Assess within thegroup not all thegroup: how eachindividual understandsand says what he haslearnt.• Be supportive, checkunderstandingconstantly, offersuggestions andencouragements, givedirections and clarifyambiguities before thestudent submits his finalwork ➔ FormativeAssessment.
4. Self- & Peer Assessment• Self-Assessment:Gives an opportunity to a S to step back and look athis own work, assess his own progress anddeficiencies, set their own targets with a providedclear framework ➔ Autonomous learning• Peer Assessment:A good way to look at individuals‟ work and assessthrough swapping it between two Ss.
Developing An EffectiveHomework RoutineHomework Problems are various:• Not willing to or not doing the homework.• Not staying on task.• Depending on others to do the homework….Homework-related problems are caused by variousfactors related to:- School and Classroom instruction- The Home
• An effective strategy to address homework-related problems require a combination ofinterventions to be implemented within theclassroom and at the home.Present yourself as a person who is willing tohelp not a blaming person!
Methods of AddressingHomework-related ProblemsI. Homework Setting & Time:A. Homework Setting:It should be conductive to effective homeworkcompletion!Kids Teenagers- Free from distractions- Close enough to parents- Quiet but not isolated- …- Free from distractions- Private place and Quiet- …
B. Homework Time:Keep it consistent from day to day!Kids Teenagers- Same homework time everyday- Times which work best: (Half anhour after kids get home fromschool/ an hour before diner/immediately after diner)- Times which do not work: (beforebedtime, late in the day, in themorning before going to school…)- Flexible homework time- May change from day to day- Parents can work out a dailyschedule with teenagers.HOWEVER…Do everything BUT Homework!- Establishing a study period byteachers for students with history ofhomework-related completionproblems.
• II. Homework Journal (Checklist):It is an affective means of regular writtencommunication between the teachers and theparents.It is a system of assisting students keepingtrack of homework.*Homework Journal can be in form of:- Daily or weekly homework journals orplanners (notebook)
- Daily or weekly assignments record sheet.NB: By experience, most of teenagers resist theidea of having a Homework Journal, insteadthey rely on their memory or on their notes.Thus, Teachers are to present the HomeworkJournal to teenagers as a tool grown-ups /adults use just like a Calendar.
III. Homework Rules:The rules are to be set after the homeworkjournal has been arranged with students andparents.- Students must bring the homework journalhome each day with all the work to be done (Handouts, books, notebooks…)
- Parents are to check the homework journal atthe beginning of homework time.- Students would not get any sort of help orassistance if they forget to bring back homematerials needed to complete the homework.
VI. Doing The Homework and Rewarding withPrivilege:• When doing the homework, parents can helptheir kids or adolescents organize theassignments by:- locating and categorizing , by subject, all workto be done.- grouping all needed materials.
• Students should show their parents eachcompleted assignment to check briefly if it iscorrect, legible and neat.• Parents should consider the after-homeworkprevilige by rewarding their kids after thecompletion of each assignement or a set ofassignments.• Parents are to restrict certain priviliges if theirkids did not complete their assignments.
V. Providing Assistance:• Parents can provide assistance occasionally. Iftheir kids keep asking for assistance everytimethey sit down to do the homework, parentsshould inform the teacher to check the natureof the problem.• Parents should not complete the assignmentfor the students. They should just do a starteritem…