Malcolm X <br />
Summary<br />1°Introduction <br />2°  Childhood<br /> - Youth<br /> - Delinquency<br /> - Education in jail<br /> - The en...
Introduction <br />   Malcolm Little alias Malcolm X, alsoknown as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎ in arab) ...
2°Childhood<br />
Youth<br />Malcolm Little was the son of Earl Little and Louise Little. He lived a short time in 1909, Pinkney Street in N...
Delinquency<br />After leaving Boston, Malcolm saw some time in Michigan. In 1943 he moved to New York where he worked bri...
Education in jail<br />In prison, Malcolm earned the nickname "Satan" because of his unquenchable hatred for the Bible, Go...
   The end of hisincarcerationafterconverting to Islam<br />     Until the end of his incarceration, Malcolm regularly cor...
3°  Malcolm X and Nation of Islam<br />
      Shortly after his release, Malcolm Little met Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, which marked its complete integration with...
Flag of Nation of Islam. The letters mean Justice, Freedom , Equality, Islam.<br />
Responsibility<br />       Later that year, Malcolm left home of her half-sister Ella went to live with Elijah Muhammad in...
Privacy<br />     January 14, 1958, Malcolm married Betty X (born Sanders) in Lansing, Michigan. They had six daughters, a...
Conversion of Cassius Clay<br />Malcolm X plays an important role in the conversion of the boxer Cassius Clay, who officia...
Meeting with Fidel Castro<br />     In September 1960, Fidel Castro visits the United States in order to address the UN Ge...
Pressures and separation    1/6<br />From the early 1960s, several controversies go away progressively Malcolm X Elijah Mu...
Pressures and separation2/6<br />According to the official position of the Nation, Malcolm X criticized the March on Washi...
Pressures and separation3/6<br />      In November 1963, after the assassination of President Kennedy, all differences bur...
Pressures and separation4/6<br />On 12 March, he announced the founding of his own religious organization, "The Muslim Mos...
Pressures and separation5/6<br />     But Malcolm X remains faithful to action tour disproportionately to black people. He...
Pressures and separation6/6<br />In November 1963, after the assassination of President Kennedy, all differences burst int...
Assassination<br />     The tension between Malik El-Shabazz and Nation of Islam continues to grow then. On 14 February 19...
End<br />this homework was realize them by YasinBattal,<br />© 2011,BATTAL Yasin, All rights reserved <br />
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Malcolm x homework_yasin-battal

  1. 1. Malcolm X <br />
  2. 2. Summary<br />1°Introduction <br />2° Childhood<br /> - Youth<br /> - Delinquency<br /> - Education in jail<br /> - The end of hisincarcerationafterconverting to Islam <br />3° Malcolm X and Nation of Islam<br /> - Responsibility<br /> - Privacy<br /> - Conversion of Cassius Clay <br /> - Meeting with Fidel Castro <br /> - Pressures and separation<br /> - Assassination<br />
  3. 3. Introduction <br /> Malcolm Little alias Malcolm X, alsoknown as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎ in arab) is an African-American preacher, speaker and activist for humanrights. To hisadmirers, heis a courageous defender of humanAfricanAmericanswhoindicted the U.S. for his crimes against the black community. However, hisdetractors accuse him of preachingracism, the black supremacist and violence<br />
  4. 4. 2°Childhood<br />
  5. 5. Youth<br />Malcolm Little was the son of Earl Little and Louise Little. He lived a short time in 1909, Pinkney Street in North Omaha neighborhood. Malcolm's father is a Baptist preacher outspoken supporter of Marcus Garvey and carpenter. This then calls for the return of Afro-American in Africa (Liberia), refusing to integrate into American society, which has largely characterized the political views of Malcolm on the subject. Earl Little was a member of the World Association of improving the status of blacks (Universal Negro Improvement Association, UNIA). Malcolm, in his Autobiography of Malcolm X As Told to Alex Haley, described his father as an imposing black man blind (but wearing a glass eye). Four of his uncles were killed by whites, including a lynched.<br /> Louise Norton was born in Grenada in the Caribbean, a father of Scottish origin, and which, according to Malcolm, was more like a white woman. She married Earl Little, among others, because he had very dark complexion. She hated her pale complexion, her white blood, and wanted a lot more black children. His grandfather was a white man whom Malcolm knew nothing except what he described as "the shame of my mother. " It was from him that Malcolm held his light complexion. He thought at first, being mixed was a chance, a "status symbol". Later, he said he "hated every drop of blood rapist" in him. Being that children who had the complexion clearer, he thought that his father favored him, but his mother was all the harder with him for the same reason. One of its nicknames, "Red, " it came from the freckles of her hair. At birth, he was described as having "... ash-blonde hair dyed with cinnamon, and at four years of hair" blond-red. "Her hair charged down with time, but resembled those of her paternal grandmother, "red under the summer sun. "<br />Depending his autobiography, his mother had been threatened by members of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) while she was pregnant with him in December 1924. She recalled that the family had been ordered to leave Omaha because of his father's links with the UNIA, which, according to members of the KKK, "looking for trouble. “<br /> Shortly after the birth of Malcolm, in 1926 the family moved to Milwaukee (Wisconsin), then shortly after moved to Lansing, Michigan. In 1931, his father is found dead, a streetcar that ran him over. Malcolm stated that the cause of death had at the time was questioned by the black community. He refused himself later, saying that his family had often been the target of Black Legion, a group affiliated with white supremacist KKK, his father accused of having set fire to their house in 1929. The state of Michigan then had 70,000 members of the KKK, which is five times more than the Mississippi at the same time.<br />
  6. 6. Delinquency<br />After leaving Boston, Malcolm saw some time in Michigan. In 1943 he moved to New York where he worked briefly again to the New Haven Railroad. There is even a work Shoeshine Lindy Hop Nightclub. In his autobiography he claims to have polished shoes of Duke Ellington and other famous black musicians. Shortly after, in Harlem, where it is then called "Detroit Red", he takes part in activities of drug dealing, gambling, racketeering and burglary. Between 1943 and 1946, Malcolm trip between Boston and New York on three occasions. He was arrested in Detroit in 1946 for burglary and was jailed in Michigan.<br /> When during the Second World War is examined Malcolm for enlistment in the army, reforming the medical officers on the ground "4-F" ("mentally unfit for military service"). He explained in his autobiography that he had a role to be reformed, and military support to the physician that he was eager to organize with other black soldiers and get their hands on a weapon to "kill some crackers, that is to say Caucasian. In his dossier compiled by the FBI appears a letter in which he refers to as a communist and where he explains some reasons for his desire to be reformed: "I've always been a Communist. I tried to enlist in the Japanese army during the last war, now they accept me nor ever enlist in the U.S. Army. Everyone has always said ... Malcolm is crazy so it's not hard to convince people that I am. Now the Japanese army had never been a communist.<br /> In early 1946 he returned to Boston. He was arrested Jan. 12 for trying to steal a watch again nearly a thousand dollars he had left in a jewelry store for repair. Two days later, he was also prosecuted for carrying a weapon. On 16 January, he must face charges of theft and characterized forced entry. He was sentenced to ten years in prison (he did make that seven) in the Massachusetts state prison in Charleston, where he arrives February 27. Sexual relations with white women (there were two in his band, including his mistress) were nearly claimed him more convictions for rape, but they refuse to acknowledge, despite the incentives of the court. In addition, Malcolm was addicted to cocaine, which he had begun to eat when he was in the underworld.<br />
  7. 7. Education in jail<br />In prison, Malcolm earned the nickname "Satan" because of his unquenchable hatred for the Bible, God and religion in general [. He began to read the books of the prison library. He soon developed a voracious appetite for reading, and astigmatism.<br /> In several letters from prison, but later, Malcolm emphasize the importance of his education as an autodidact. Thus, in a letter dated February 15, 1950, he wrote to a certain Raymond: "My confinement is of a different nature, I finished my fourth year of a prison sentence of 8 to 10 years ... but those four years in prison proved to be the most rewarding of my 38 years on this earth and I feel that "this gift of Time"was a gift that Allah gave me, the way he rescued me from certain destruction to which I went along. “<br /> He also attributes the sentence: "Without education, we are not going anywhere in this world" or "Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today. "<br />
  8. 8. The end of hisincarcerationafterconverting to Islam<br /> Until the end of his incarceration, Malcolm regularly corresponds with Elijah Poole, said Elijah Muhammad, leader of the Nation. "According to his autobiography, Malcolm began to be renowned among the prisoners, while it remains under the close supervision of the authorities who recognize him as a potential source of unrest. We do not give him the opportunity to be released after five years for good behavior because the authorities thought it was too dangerous to release in advance.<br /> In February 1948, thanks to the efforts of his sister, Malcolm was transferred to a prison experimental Norfolk (Massachusetts), and a library that has provided much more than the state prison in Charleston. Malcolm later reflected on the time spent in prison: "Months passed, and it seemed not even be imprisoned. In fact, until then, I've never been so free in my life. "On August 7, 1952, Malcolm was finally released at his word.<br />
  9. 9. 3° Malcolm X and Nation of Islam<br />
  10. 10. Shortly after his release, Malcolm Little met Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, which marked its complete integration with Nation of Islam.Fairly quickly, he changed his surname to "X". Malcolm explained that the name represented the rejection of his "slave name"in the absence of his real name of African origin. Slavery in America before 1863, the master imposes his slaves to take his name to the "mark" like his things, hence the rejection. The "X" is also both the mark applied to the arm of some slaves and the unknown mathematical symbolizing the unknown original name. This vision has led many members of Nation of Islam to change their name to "X" as his future wife, Betty X, or taking names<br /> On 17 February 1953, the FBI opened a file on the basis of the letter in which he said Communist (see above) in 1950, is in the midst of Red Scare or Reds Under The Bed (fear of communism to mark the 1950s America, and summarized by the passions of McCarthyism and the trial of the Rosenbergs).According to the Church Committee, the FBI was then used to monitor, prevent and repress radicals like Malcolm. Included in his case the two letters in which Malcolm used the alias "Malachi Shabazz". In Message to the Blackman in America, Elijah Muhammad says that the name "Shabazz" was the offspring of an "Asian Black nation". The suspicion of communism has proved unfounded, Malcolm X is then monitored for membership in a black nationalist cult.<br /> In May 1953, the FBI concludes that Malcolm X was an "asocial personality with paranoid trends (pre-psychotic paranoid schizophrenia) " and that he actually tried to treat his mental disorder. This is supported specifically by the letter intercepted by the FBI, dated June 29, 1950 (see above).<br />
  11. 11. Flag of Nation of Islam. The letters mean Justice, Freedom , Equality, Islam.<br />
  12. 12. Responsibility<br /> Later that year, Malcolm left home of her half-sister Ella went to live with Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. It quickly became the preacher of the eleventh Nation of Islam temple. In 1954, Malcolm was selected to lead the No. 7 Temple of the Nation of Islam on Lenox Avenue in Harlem, NY (jointly called "Malcolm X Boulevard" in 1987). It multiplies the number of believers in a short time. Malcolm X emits a high energy and is able to work from one day to another with only four hours of sleep or less. He reads a lot, and when adhering to a cause, he devoted himself entirely.It is a convincing speaker, and he became known nationally after a local television show devoted to Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced, released in 1959 show where he is interviewed. The organization was previously little known. Following the broadcast, media interest in the organization and Malcolm X grew considerably. The press, radio and television in the United States and around the world looking statements regularly and transcribe the highlights.<br /> In the interval between his conversion to the cause of the Nation of Islam in 1952 and its separation from the organization in 1964, he married the full teachings of Elijah Muhammad, including the fact of referring to whites as to "devils" Created by a misguided breeding program by a scientist black Yacoub. X predicted the inevitable and imminent return of blacks to what he sees as their natural place, namely at the top of the social hierarchy and social order.Malcolm knows that his fame became a cause of considerable jealousy Nation of Islam, and tries not to feed it during his public appearances. But it soon appears, however, as the second most influential leader of the Nation of Islam after Elijah Muhammad himself. He opened additional temples, including one in Philadelphia. It is often given an important role in the growth of the organization, membership increased from 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in 1963.<br />
  13. 13. Privacy<br /> January 14, 1958, Malcolm married Betty X (born Sanders) in Lansing, Michigan. They had six daughters, all of which bear the name of Shabazz. Their names are (these are mostly names from Arabic, sometimes confused with names "Muslims"): Attallah (born November 16, 1958), Qubilah (born December 25, 1960, Ilyasah (born July 22, 1962) , GamilahLumumbah (born December 4, 1964) and twins Malaak and Malikah (born September 30, 1965, seven months after the death of MalcolmMalcolm Bruce Perry - The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America says that Malcolm X was bisexual., and allegedly had priced at the age of 20 years with men. He later witnessed a true emotional relationship with a friend the same sex. No other biographers except Bruce Perry does not mention these facts.<br />
  14. 14. Conversion of Cassius Clay<br />Malcolm X plays an important role in the conversion of the boxer Cassius Clay, who officially joined the Nation of Islam in 1964 and changed its name to Cassius X, in honor of Malcolm. This conversion occurs at a time when Malcolm X was not on good terms with his organization. Clay then take the name of Muhammad Ali, and criticize X for his break with Elijah Muhammad, before following his example and turn to rally Sunni Islam.<br />
  15. 15. Meeting with Fidel Castro<br /> In September 1960, Fidel Castro visits the United States in order to address the UN General Assembly.During his stay in New York, the lead Cuban receives a warm welcome from the authorities of the United States. The delegation was forced to move from the Shelbourne Hotel at Hotel Theresa in Harlem since Fidel Castro complained of being asked to pay in advance.Malcolm X met Fidel Castro as head of a member of the welcoming committee that was set up in Harlem several weeks earlier. The purpose of this group, which includes a significant number of blacks, is to meet with heads of state, particularly those from Africa, who will address the UN General Assembly. Three African countries become members of the UN at that session.<br />
  16. 16. Pressures and separation 1/6<br />From the early 1960s, several controversies go away progressively Malcolm X Elijah Muhammad.First sex cases: when the rumors for some time about the many adulteries committed by Elijah Muhammad with young secretaries of the movement. WarithDeen Muhammad, the son of Elijah Muhammad, and a close friend of X, will inform "in 1963, that his father had put six of his cabinet secretaries. " Adultery is against the teachings of Nation of Islam. Having rejected this information, Malcolm X would eventually get confirmation in 1963. Elijah Muhammad himself would eventually indicate that, the envoy of God on earth, he was not subject to the same rules as ordinary people, and explaining that this activity was to follow the tradition of biblical prophets . Malcolm X noted that he was not satisfied with the explanation, but his faith in Elijah Muhammad did not waver. He indicated that he was sorry to see other preachers make personal use of the funds of the Nation of Islam.<br />The second area of disagreement concerns the policy: Malcolm X is interested in the movement for black civil rights as it develops from 1955. If the official ideology of the movement is opposed to black nationalism, and simply claiming a status of "normal American" for blacks, X believes that there must be a presence of black nationalists and black Muslims in what is now displayed as the first great black mass movement in the history of the United States. Elijah Muhammad, however, is hostile to the end of racial segregation and support for a movement in which there were many progressive whites. He feared the dissolution of American blacks in a set dominated by whites.<br />
  17. 17. Pressures and separation2/6<br />According to the official position of the Nation, Malcolm X criticized the March on Washington for work and freedom (March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom) of 28 August 1963, not understanding why blacks marveled a demonstration "conducted by whites before a statue of a president died last hundred years and we do not like him when he was alive. "But the temptation of a rapprochement with other black organizations seem to have been strong, and has been a point of difference with Muhammad.<br />The third dispute concerns religion: Malcolm X became interested in Islam Sunni official, apparently under the influence of it's own son Muhammad, WarithDeen Muhammad, who said he had interested in orthodox Islam in the 1950s in prison. Yet the religion preached by Elijah Muhammad is very remote. The interest shown by X in respect of orthodox Islam that can not keep him away from his mentor.<br />We can finally quote differing ambitions: the aura of X within the black community in general and the Nation of Islam in particular, its important media, seem to have worried Elijah Muhammad.In the spring of 1963, Malcolm started collaborating with Alex Haley to write his autobiography.<br />
  18. 18. Pressures and separation3/6<br /> In November 1963, after the assassination of President Kennedy, all differences burst into the public after a controversial statement X. He declares in effect that the violence that Kennedy had not been able to stop turning against him. He adds, "Chickens coming home to roost never made me sad. It only made me glad "(" chickens returning to roost (the barn) will never make me sad, they just make me happy "- In French," Chickens coming home to roost "has a meaning close to" he who sows the wind reap the whirlwind "that is to say," since the American company and its president have opted for violence, it is not surprising that this one makes the boomerang effect. "This sentence could be understood as an endorsement of the assassination. disown this statement Elijah Muhammad, and prohibits any public statement to X for 90 days, to which Malcolm X injunction obeyed. But relations between the two men reach their breaking point. In his autobiography, X even says that one of his aides said then he would have ordered the leadership of the Nation of Islam to kill him.Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964.<br /> On 8 March 1964, he officially announces he is leaving the Nation of Islam. On 11 March 1964, he incurs the responsibility of the rupture on the organization: "The official national headquarters here in Chicago know that I never left the Nation of Islam on my own. They are the ones who conspired with Captain Joseph here in New York to force me to leave the nation. To save the official national and Captain Joseph disgrace of having to explain ... ousted from me, I announced in the press that I had left my own. I did not take the blame on me to protect these national officials, but to protect the faith you have in your faithful and Nation of Islam. .<br />
  19. 19. Pressures and separation4/6<br />On 12 March, he announced the founding of his own religious organization, "The Muslim Mosque Inc.. . Shortly after, he converted to orthodox Sunni Islam. On April 13, 1964, Malcolm X from the International Airport John F. Kennedy to make the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) which comes under the Muslim name Malik El-Shabazz. His wife and daughters then take the surname of Shabazz.He condemns the racism anti-white Nation of Islam. He writes about his pilgrimage:     "There were tens of thousands of pilgrims from around the world. They were of all colors, blond with blue eyes to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participants of the same ritual, showing a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe could never exist between whites and non-whites. America needs to understand Islam, because it is the only religion that erases from its society the race problem. "<br />
  20. 20. Pressures and separation5/6<br /> But Malcolm X remains faithful to action tour disproportionately to black people. He also refused to condemn the violence of the oppressed, and has pretty harsh words for the proponents of nonviolence, which he accuses of encouraging the submission. This is the case in his famous speech of May 3, 1964, shortly after his return from Mecca, The Ballot or the Bullet, which he threatens to use violence. However, it will be worn only as self defense and response to violence (that of the White Citizen Councils and the Ku Klux Klan in particular), an injustice that neither the police nor the government want to solve and often create [ref. necessary]. It treats some white politicians of the term anti-white crackers. In the same speech, he declared:<br /> "If the white man does not want us to be against him, he continues to oppress us, exploit us and degrade us. That we (blacks) are Christians or Muslims or nationalists or agnostics or atheists, we must first learn to forget our differences. [...] We will be forced to use the vote or the ball. [...] I do not even consider myself as an American. I am not an American. I am one of twenty-two million black people who are victims of Americanism [...] There will be Molotov cocktails this month, hand grenades next month, month and something else Next. [...] This is freedom, or it will be death. It is freedom or liberty for all people "<br />
  21. 21. Pressures and separation6/6<br />In November 1963, after the assassination of President Kennedy, all differences burst into the public after a controversial statement X. He declares in effect that the violence that Kennedy could not stop himself.For him, the priority is not to unite whites and blacks, he must first black union is complete, and then he will fight for the common Black-White [ref. necessary].Shortly after his return from Mecca, Malcolm X founded the "Organization for Afro-American Unity, a non-religious political group. It affirms its determination to carry both a religious struggle for Islam and a political struggle for blacks, both operating independently.If Malcolm X broke with the Nation of Islam on a religious level, it remains relatively faithful to the socio-economic ideas of the black nationalist organization - with particular emphasis on the importance of the existence of black enterprises and independent white s self-organization of the community.<br />
  22. 22. Assassination<br /> The tension between Malik El-Shabazz and Nation of Islam continues to grow then. On 14 February 1965, his house is the subject of a bomb.Two months before his assassination, Louis Farrakhan wrote "such a man deserves to die. "On 21 February 1965, Malcolm X delivers a speech in Harlem, New York, before an audience of four hundred people, including his wife and children. The speech barely begun when a fight broke out in the crowd, a man accuses another of having his hands in his pockets. Malcolm X, the microphone, called for calm when a member of the Black Muslims advances toward him with a sawed-off shotgun, hit in the stomach, Malcolm X falls back, while two others pull him over sixteen times with revolvers. Malcolm X was taken to the nearest hospital, but police prevented her hospitalization. Time to move to a second hospital is fatal. The identity of the sponsor remains unknown, although suspicions focus on Nation of Islam infiltrated by several FBI agents when they learned of a proposed assassination of Malcolm X.<br /> Three members of Nation of Islam are found guilty in 1966: Norman 3X Butler, Thomas 15X Johnson and TalmadgeHayer. The organization itself deny any involvement in the assassination. "Betty Shabazz [Malcolm X's wife], who died in 1997, publicly accused Farrakhan of a role in the murder. " He has admitted in early 2007: "I have been complicit in words, while denying any direct involvement in the organization. In 1994, QubilahShabazz, a daughter of Malcolm X, was arrested and charged for paying a hitman to kill Farrakhan in charge, a charge dropped in 1995. It was also envisaged that the FBI was aware of the project has covered the assassination and even helped. This hypothesis has been taken by the NOI. In dying, his ideas do not disappear with him. They were taken by groups (Black Panthers), populations (Soweto), countries (Burkina Faso, Thomas Sankara) more concerned with equity and social justice. More than a civil rights leader, Malcolm was a defender of human rights, those we must defend "by all means necessary ". It was a revolutionary who was part as Ernesto "Che" Guevara (whom he met, observed and described as "the greatest revolutionary who is"), in the struggle against an imperialist system (see speech: "Show me the capitalist, I'll show you the vulture "). By his wit and his oratory skills but also by civic action (campaign for the inclusion of Afro-Americans in the electoral rolls), he helped greatly to improve the condition of "Blacks in America. " Aware of the image that his critics wanted him to leave, he predicted in his autobiography: "After my death, they will make me a racist, someone who inspires fear angry ... I'm not racist. I not believe in any form of segregation. The concept of racism is foreign to me. I do not appreciate all these words in "ism (e) " "<br />
  23. 23. End<br />this homework was realize them by YasinBattal,<br />© 2011,BATTAL Yasin, All rights reserved <br />

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