Process aut
          tomation
Automation is the use of control systems (suc as numeric control, programmable logic co...
Impact
Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visible industries beyond
manufacturing. Once-ubiquit...
Late 20th century emphasis
Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing
p...
The main disadvantages of automation are:

   •   Technology limits. Nowadays technology is not able to automate all the d...
Automated manufacturing 
Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce things in the
factory ...
Part 1                                            Part 2
10 parts per month                                10,000 parts pe...
Coding Example:

      Shape         Axial
                    Flat


                    Bend          Straight     Singl...
Flexible manufacturing system (FMS)
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some...
There is also some variation on response time. Large program files from a main computer
usually take about 60 seconds to b...
Integrated System
 
             Manufacturing              FMS

                                        Highly Automated ...
ROBOTS




              




          
 




         

 

 
 




 
 




     
 




 
 




 




 
 




 
 




 
 




 
 

 

 


     

 
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Process automation

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Process automation

  1. 1.   Process aut tomation Automation is the use of control systems (suc as numeric control, programmable logic contro and ch cal e ol, other industrial contro systems), in concert with other applications of in ol nformation te echnology (su as uch computer r-aided technnologies (CA AD, CAM, C CAE), to con ntrol industr machiner and processes, rial ry reducing t need for human interv the vention. In the sco of industrialization, a ope automation is a step beyo mechaniz s ond zation. Wherreas mechaniz zation provided human oper rators with m machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of w o work, automation greatly reduces the nee for human sensory and mental requir n ed rements as w Processe and well. es systems c also be au can utomated. Automatio plays an increasingly important role in the global econo on omy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to co s ombine autom mated device with mathe es ematical and organization tools to c nal create complex ssystems for a rapidly expanding range o applications and human activities. of Many role for human in industria processes presently lie beyond the scope of aut es ns al tomation. Hu uman- level patt tion, language recognition and langua productio ability are well beyond the tern recognit e n, age on e capabilitie of modern mechanical and compu es n uter systems. Tasks requiring subjecti assessment or ive synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scent and sounds as well as h s ts s, high-level task such as strategic ks planning, currently reqquire human expertise. In many cases the use of humans is m n s, more cost-effeective than mech hanical appro oaches even wwhere automaation of indus strial tasks is p possible. Specialized hardened computers, r c referred to as programma s able logic con ntrollers (PLC are frequ Cs), uently used to synchronize the flow of innputs from (p physical) sensors and even with the f nts flow of outpu to uts actuators and events. This leads to precisely con T ntrolled actio that perm a tight con ons mit ntrol of almos any st industrial process. Human-m machine inte erfaces (HM or comp MI) puter human interfaces (CHI), for n rmerly know as wn man-mac chine interface are usually employed to commu es, d unicate with PLCs and oother compu uters, such as eentering and monitoring temperatu d g ures or pres ssures for fu urther autom mated contr or rol emergency response Service pe e. ersonnel wh monitor and contro these inte ho ol erfaces are often referred to as stationnary enginee ers.
  2. 2. Impact Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visible industries beyond manufacturing. Once-ubiquitous telephone operators have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from agrarian to industrial in the 19th century and from industrial to services in the 20th century. The widespread impact of industrial automation raises social issues, among them its impact on employment. Historical concerns about the effects of automation date back to the beginning of the industrial revolution, when a social movement of English textile machine operators in the early 1800s known as the Luddites protested against Jacquard's automated weaving looms often by destroying such textile machines— that they felt threatened their jobs. One author made the following case. When automation was first introduced, it caused widespread fear. It was thought that the displacement of human operators by computerized systems would lead to severe unemployment. Critics of automation contend that increased industrial automation causes increased unemployment; this was a pressing concern during the 1980s. One argument claims that this has happened invisibly in recent years, as the fact that many manufacturing jobs left the United States during the early 1990s was offset by a one-time massive increase in IT jobs at the same time. Some authors argue that the opposite has often been true, and that automation has led to higher employment. Under this point of view, the freeing up of the labour force has allowed more people to enter higher skilled managerial as well as specialized consultant/contractor jobs (like cryptographers), which are typically higher paying. One odd side effect of this shift is that "unskilled labour" is in higher demand in many first-world nations, because fewer people are available to fill such jobs. At first glance, automation might appear to devalue labor through its replacement with less- expensive machines; however, the overall effect of this on the workforce as a whole remains unclear. Today automation of the workforce is quite advanced, and continues to advance increasingly more rapidly throughout the world and is encroaching on ever more skilled jobs, yet during the same period the general well-being and quality of life of most people in the world (where political factors have not muddied the picture) have improved dramatically. What role automation has played in these changes has not been well studied.
  3. 3. Late 20th century emphasis Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process. The old focus on using automation simply to increase productivity and reduce costs was seen to be short-sighted, because it is also necessary to provide a skilled workforce who can make repairs and manage the machinery. Moreover, the initial costs of automation were high and often could not be recovered by the time entirely new manufacturing processes replaced the old. (Japan's "robot junkyards" were once world famous in the manufacturing industry.) Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. For example, automobile and truck pistons used to be installed into engines manually. This is rapidly being transitioned to automated machine installation, because the error rate for manual installment was around 1-1.5%, but has been reduced to 0.00001% with automation. Hazardous operations, such as oil refining, the manufacturing of industrial chemicals, and all forms of metalworking, were always early contenders for automation. Another major shift in automation is the increased emphasis on flexibility and convertibility in the manufacturing process. Manufacturers are increasingly demanding the ability to easily switch from manufacturing Product A to manufacturing Product B without having to completely rebuild the production lines. Flexibility and distributed processes have led to the introduction of Automated Guided Vehicles with Natural Features Navigation. Advantages and disadvantages The main advantages of automation are: • Replacing human operators in tedious tasks. • Replacing humans in tasks that should be done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, under the water, etc) • Making tasks that are beyond the human capabilities such as handling too heavy loads, too large objects, too hot or too cold substances or the requirement to make things too fast or too slow. • Economy improvement. Sometimes and some kinds of automation implies improves in economy of enterprises, society or most of humankind. For example, when an enterprise that has invested in automation technology recovers its investment; when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century or when the humankind can use the internet which in turn use satellites and other automated engines.
  4. 4. The main disadvantages of automation are: • Technology limits. Nowadays technology is not able to automate all the desired tasks. • Unpredictable development costs. The research and development cost of automating a process is difficult to predict accurately beforehand. Since this cost can have a large impact on profitability, it's possible to finish automating a process only to discover that there's no economic advantage in doing so. • Initial costs are relatively high. The automation of a new product required a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product, although the cost of automation is spread in many product batches. The automation of a plant required a great initial investment too, although this cost is spread in the products to be produced. Controversial factors • Unemployment It is commonly thought that automation implies unemployment due to the fact that the work of a human being is replaced in part or completely by a machine. Nevertheless, the unemployment is caused by the economical politics of the administration like dismissing the workers instead of changing their tasks. Since the general economical policies of most of the industrial plants are to dismiss people, nowadays automation implies unemployment. In different scenarios without workers, automation implies more free time instead of unemployment like the case with the automatic washing machine at home. Automation does not imply unemployment when it makes tasks unimaginable without automation such as exploring mars with the Sojourner or when the economy is fully adapted to an automated technology as with the Telephone switchboard. • Environment The costs of automation to the environment are different depending on the technology, product or engine automated. There are automated engines that consume more energy resources from the Earth in comparison with previous engines and those that do the opposite too. • Human being replacement In the future there is a possibility that the Artificial intelligence could replace and improve a human brain and the robots would become not only fully automated but fully autonomous from the human beings (Technological singularity)
  5. 5. Automated manufacturing  Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce things in the factory way. Most of the advantages of the automation technology have its influence in the manufacture processes. The main advantages of the automated manufacturing are: Higher consistency and quality, reduce the lead times, simplification of production, reduce handling, improve work flow and increase the moral of workers when a good implementation of the automation is made. Group Technology Group Technology or GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which the parts having similarities (Geometry, manufacturing process and/or function) are grouped together to achieve higher level of integration between the design and manufacturing functions of a firm. The aim is to reduce work-in-progress and improve delivery performance by reducing lead times. GT is based on a general principle that many problems are similar and by grouping similar problems, a single solution can be found to a set of problems, thus saving time and effort. The group of similar parts is known as part family and the group of machineries used to process an individual part family is known as machine cell. It is not necessary for each part of a part family to be processed by every machine of corresponding machine cell. This type of manufacturing in which a part family is produced by a machine cell is known as cellular manufacturing. The manufacturing efficiencies are generally increased by employing GT because the required operations may be confined to only a small cell and thus avoiding the need for transportation of in-process parts Example: Pump Motor 1HP, 2HP, 3HP etc Housing Material, Size Shafts Material, Capacity, Dimensions Seals Material, Type, Size Flanges Material, Type, Size
  6. 6. Part 1 Part 2 10 parts per month 10,000 parts per m 0 month 1020 AIS Steel SI Polyestter Toleranc < 0.01mm ce m Toleraance < 0.1mm m Coding of the parts: g p Design a attributes 1. Extern Internal Shape and d nal/ dimensions 2. Aspec Ratio ct 3. Dimen nsional Tole erance 4. Surfac Finish ce 5. Part fu unction Manufac cturing Att tributes 1. Primary Processes 2. econdary an finishing p Se nd processes/surface finish 3. Se equence of operations p o performed 4. Tools, Dies, Fixtures etc T F 5. Production quantity and Production rate
  7. 7. Coding Example: Shape Axial Flat Bend Straight Single bend Periphery Rectangular Irregular Corners Square Beveled Machined Curved Radiused Multiple Holes With bend Without Bends 900 <900 >900 Advantages of Group Technology: 1. Standardization of part designs and minimization of design duplication cost and time 2. Designer can used stored data of some previous design 3. Manufacturing cost can be estimated easily 4. Improved productivity
  8. 8. Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes, whether predicted or unpredicted. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories. The first category, machine flexibility, covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types, and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. The second category is called routing flexibility, which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes, such as in volume, capacity, or capability. Most FMS systems comprise of three main systems. The work machines which are often automated CNC machines are connected by a material handling system to optimize parts flow and the central control computer which controls material movements and machine flow. The main advantage of the FMS is its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FMS is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production. Industrial FMS Communication An Industrial Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) consists of robots, Computer- controlled Machines, Numerical controlled machines (CNC), instrumentation devices, computers, sensors, and other stand alone systems such as inspection machines. The use of robots in the production segment of manufacturing industries promises a variety of benefits ranging from high utilization to high volume of productivity. Each Robotic cell or node will be located along a material handling system such as a conveyor or automatic guided vehicle. The production of each part or work-piece will require a different combination of manufacturing nodes. The movement of parts from one node to another is done through the material handling system. At the end of part processing, the finished parts will be routed to an automatic inspection node, and subsequently unloaded from the Flexible Manufacturing System. The FMS data traffic consists of large files and short messages, and mostly come from nodes, devices and instruments. The message size ranges between a few bytes to several hundreds of bytes. Executive software and other data, for example, are files with a large size, while messages for machining data, instrument to instrument communications, status monitoring, and data reporting are transmitted in small size.
  9. 9. There is also some variation on response time. Large program files from a main computer usually take about 60 seconds to be down loaded into each instrument or node at the beginning of FMS operation. Messages for instrument data need to be sent in a periodic time with deterministic time delay. Other type of messages used for emergency reporting is quite short in size and must be transmitted and received with almost instantaneous response. The demands for reliable FMS protocol that support all the FMS data characteristics are now urgent. The existing IEEE standard protocols do not fully satisfy the real time communication requirements in this environment. The delay of CSMA/CD is unbounded as the number of nodes increases due to the message collisions. Token Bus has a deterministic message delay, but it does not support prioritized access scheme which is needed in FMS communications. Token Ring provides prioritized access and has a low message delay; however, its data transmission is unreliable. A single node failure which may occur quite often in FMS causes transmission errors of passing message in that node. In addition, the topology of Token Ring results in high wiring installation and cost. A design of FMS communication protocol that supports a real time communication with bounded message delay and reacts promptly to any emergency signal is needed. Because of machine failure and malfunction due to heat, dust, and electromagnetic interference is common, a prioritized mechanism and immediate transmission of emergency messages are needed so that a suitable recovery procedure can be applied. A modification of standard Token Bus to implement a prioritized access scheme was proposed to allow transmission of short and periodic messages with a low delay compared to the one for long messages.
  10. 10. Integrated System   Manufacturing FMS Highly Automated Systems    Elements   CNCs/Industrial Robots  Automated Material Handling      CONTROL SYSTEM           CENTRAL COMPUTER FACILITY (FMS Block Diagram) Characteristics Transfer line FMS Type of part made Generally few Infinite Lot Size >100 1-50 Part Changing Time ½ to 8 Hrs 1 min Tool Change Manual Automatic Inventory High Low Efficiency 60-70% 85%
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