MEANING OF PROMOTION MIX
The third “P” in the marketing mix is promotion. It is basically a
communication process. It is a vital element of marketing
because it brings to the knowledge of customers the product and
price etc. which a producer has to offer.
Promotion mix is a particular combination of promotional tools
used by a firm to communicate with the consumers.
ELEMENTS OF PROMOTION MIX
• Sales Promotion
• Personal Selling
Advertising is the method used by business, companies and other organizations
to promote their goods and services to the public. The ultimate aim of
advertising is to increase sales by showing these goods and services in a
Advertising is the paid, impersonal, one-way marketing of persuasive
information from an identified sponsor disseminated through channels of
mass communication to promote the adoption of goods, services or ideas. It
tries to convince the prospective customer to behave in a desirable way
towards the product.
Short term incentives offered to encourage sales.
Giving the customers to try or test your product(
especially if its a consumable product) . The
customer will use the product and if liked by
them, would go to buy that particular product.
Gains attention and has immediate effects.
Example: Exhibitions, free samples, discounts,
Personal selling is a promotional method in which
one party (e.g., salesperson) uses skills and
techniques for building personal relationships
with another party (e.g., those involved in a
purchase decision) that results in both parties
obtaining value. In most cases the "value" for the
salesperson is realized through the financial
rewards of the sale while the customer’s "value" is
realized from the benefits obtained by consuming
It involves Oral face to face presentation of message
with prospective. This helps give a personal touch
as the sales person explains to the customers. It is
flexible and has immediate effect. If a customer
wants to inquire in detail about a particular
product they can do so. They can clear all quires
regarding the product and be satisfied. Example:
Door to door demonstrations, explanation and
display by salesman.
Publicity is non personal communication, that is typically in the form
of a news story, that is transmitted through the mass media. The purpose
of publicity is to draw favorable attention to a company and/or its
products without having to pay the media for it. The way it often works
is as follows: a company sends a press release (often with a video tape) to
the media (e.g., New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Business
Week, Newsweek, Aaj Tak, IBN 7, Doordarshan News , NBC News,
CBS News, Fox News, etc. ) with the hope that it is newsworthy enough
to be mentioned in the mass media.
MEDIA OF ADVERTISING
There are various mediums for advertising. They can be classified into Internal
Internal media: It refers to those media which reach out to the customer within
External media: It refers to those media which are present in the external
environment and unintentionally catch the customers attention.
Under the Internal Media’s –
• Newspaper and magazine
Under the External Media’s –
• Transport Advertising
• Bill Boards
A product can be advertised through television via commercials
and bulletins. Television is an excellent media for
advertising something as it is one of most commonly used
medium by the masses. If the commercial is well made, it
attracts the people towards itself and the product . A
famous figure or a celebrity if used as model for selling the
product diverts people attention more and hence is a good
way of promotion. The product promoted can be seen and
heard about the customer. This enhances the effect of its
aesthetical appeal. Eg. Products like Detergents and Soaps,
Creams, Edible items, Vehicles, Shoes etc.
Radio is another common media used for advertising. It can be done through audio radio
commercials or the host of a show can be paid to promote the product.
Since the radio commercials are audio and not visual it’s important that the audio
commercial made is well spoken and has sounds and words that catch the attention of the
The best way however, to promote something through radio is via a popular host or an RJ,
someone people listen to or follow.
Eg. Promoting an prospective event and its tickets, promoting services like airlines,
restaurants and training classes.
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINES
News papers are yet another very common and a very old media for advertising. Small or
large ads can be given on a newspaper either on the side of a news column of in front of
Eg. Promoting an event to be held, household appliances, tickets to a place, clothing,
foot ware etc.
Magazines are also a very good media for advertising. Magazines are very popular
among the masses and an advertisement given in a magazine is sure to grab attention.
Eg. Perfumes, Admission to educational institutions, cars, watches,
Internet in today’s world can be stated as one of the best media
Ads can be given on the sides of popular websites most
importantly on social networking websites that are extremely
popular amongst the youth.
Fan pages and groups of communities of many brands
companies are made on many social networking sites where
advertisement for new launches and products by the companies
Eg. Through this recent media all types of products and services
are advertised online on websites. Main advertisements seen are
of automobiles, creams, and other edible consumer products,
wedding services, investments projects etc.
Another common media for advertising are board, hoardings and posters. These media
are an excellent source for advertising especially large hoardings on the roadsides.
However in order to grab the attention of a passerby these boards and posters of
course have to be attractive and must be bold and clear. Posters and boards are one
of the oldest means for advertising something, before the invention of TV, radio,
computers and phones; these were a common media chosen for advertising.
Eg. Products mainly promoted are jewellery, airlines services, automobiles, property
consumer items like ice creams and beverages.
In this type of advertising the advertisements or offers are stuck
against the exterior of any vehicle. As the moving vehicle
covers a large space these advertisements are seen by a number
of people. Here small messages with large photographs are
desired which can be viewed by the passerby's on the road or
the fellow drivers. As vehicles my move fast many a times
people may fail to notice these.
Eg. Products of daily use are advertised on transport vehicles.
For example, soaps, soups, frozen items etc.
A billboard (sometimes also called a hoarding ) is a large outdoor advertising structure,
typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present
large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers. Typically showing large, ostensibly
witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated
market areas. Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, they
command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic). Bulletins afford
greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative "customizing"
through extensions and embellishments.
Eg. Airlines services, events hosted, clothing shops offers etc.
Advertisements printed on individual sheets are made and distributed among a large number
of people. These can be at some events, functions or gathering or even through a
salesman in a common market place. One major advantage is that each person receives an
individual copy of the advertisement, which may be reviewed by them at their own
convenient time. In a hurry they may accept it but will see it personally.
Eg. These are mainly used to promote services or events. Certain product whose mechanism
and working need to be explained are promoted through this media.
The product shoe is advertised through different media’s. On of the most
common internal media’s are television, newspaper and internet.
While advertising on the television through the character shown wearing the
brand shoe, the company tends to display the comfort and pleasure in
wearing a shoe.
Through newspaper the company gives more detailed information about the
shoe, its benefits to the body, cost, outlet etc. These details are required by all
customers who plant to buy the product.
The internet being one of the most approachable media is also used to promote
shoes. Various sports and games websites are a host to such advertisements.
As the customer gets to see the shoe design and colour when displayed on the
bill boards, it convinces the customers better. Trendy and fashionable shoes
always attract the customers eye.
Even flyers/brochures are used as a method to promote shoes. Especially
outside stadiums and concerts, the company send representative to distribute
the flyers as a large crowd is available.
Putting up large size posters in busy and crowded market places always benefits
the company as it is visible to all.
Advertising through the newspaper and television capture the attention of all
those who view it. Mainly through newspapers the company aims at the adults
of 25 plus. As most adults read the paper on a daily basis, it is a good media
to reach them.
On television, it mainly depends on what type of channels the product is
promoted through. Shoes are mostly advertised on the entertainment
channels which is viewed by almost all age groups.
On the road it is accidently that a customer tends to look at the bill boards or
posters. Here the company targets all those who are out on the street, either
driving or walking.
Target group on the
An appeal is a petition for review of a case that has been decided by
a court of law. The petition is made to a higher court for the
purpose of overturning the lower court’s decision.
An advertising appeal refers to the approach used to
attract the attention of consumers and/or to
influence their feelings toward the product, service,
or cause. It's something that moves people, speaks
to their wants or need, and excites their interest.
Advertisement appeals are designed in a way so as to
create a positive image of the individuals who use
certain products. Advertisement agencies and
companies use different types of advertising
appeals to influence the purchasing decisions of
Creating advertising appeal for a good or service begins
with identifying a reason for people
to buy it. Advertising
agencies then build advertising campaigns around
The advertisements are designed to convince the customer about purchasing the product.
The appeals in an advertisement add to the influential power of the advertisement and
creates a stronger desire in the minds of the customers for purchasing the product.
Based on the type and nature of product and its prospective customers, a marketer
chooses a particular appeal which creates a direct impact.
For the customer a combination of advertisement and appeal, is what encourages them to
buy the product from a particular company. For example through emotional, humor,
youth, rational appeal the advertisement gets registered in the minds of the customers.
Advertisements act like forces which make sales happen. Through their colourful catchy
designs they spread awareness about the availability of a particular product/ service.
advertisement and appeal
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
The most common types of appeals are –
1. Emotional Appeal
2. Fear Appeal
3. Music Appeal
4. Bandwagon Appeal
5. Statistics Appeal
6. Celebrity Appeal
7. Rational Appeal
8. Humour Appeal
9. Romance Appeal
10. Youth Appeal
This relates to the customers’ social and/or psychological needs for purchasing a
product or service. This appeal is so effective because many consumers’
motives for purchase decisions are emotional. Many advertisers believe an
emotional appeal to work better at selling brands that do not differ markedly
from competing brands.
The diaper brands appeals to parents
and encourage them to buy their brand
if they wish to see their children
happy and comfortable.
Fear is also an important factor that can have an
incredible influence on individuals. Fear is often
used in marketing campaigns of beauty and
health products and also insurance. The company
tries to shown the negative consequences, if the
customer fails to use their products. This creates
fear in their minds and persuades them to buy.
The Life Insurance of India advertisement says-
‘because things can go wrong anytime, anywhere.’
and shows the mother having a pleasant time
with her child, which may turn into a hospital
Music can be used as types of advertising appeals as it has a certain intrinsic value
and can help in increasing the persuasiveness of the advertisement. It can also
help catch attention and increase customer recall.
The Idea- ‘Honey Bunny’ jingle is in a very funny voice and well rhymed. It is
equal to a song, and because of that customers register it easily.
This type of advertising appeal is meant to signify that since everybody is doing
something you should be a part of the crowd as well. It appeals towards the
popularity aspect or coolness of a person using that particular
Here McDonald appeals to its customers that they have served millions and
billions of customers. This encourages the customers to try out McDonald
Advertisements also use statistics and figures to display aspects of
the product and its popularity in general. This is used to build
confidence among the customers for the product.
L’Oreal Paris – Total repair 5 advertisement claims that 90% of the
Indian women trust their product.
Famous celebrities are chosen
to endorse the brand. The
public gets attracted to see
their favourite celebrity and
tend to buy the product.
Here, Saif Ali Khan is seen
promoting Amul Macho
male vest. Most of his fans
would follow him and
purchase this brand
This type of advertising focuses on the consumer’s practical, functional, or
utilitarian need for the product or service and emphasize features of a
product or service and/or benefits or reasons for owning or using a particular
The Horlicks advertisement below shows the necessity of a child to consume it
in order to grow tall, strong and sharp.
It is used in many advertisements. It is an excellent tool to catch the viewers
attention and help in achieving instant recall which can work well for the sale
of the product.
The Idea advertisement of walk and talk, includes a strong element of humour.
These advertisements display attraction
between opposite genders. The appeal is
used to signify that buying certain products
will have a positive impact on the opposite
Here, the customers are shown that for a soft
and smooth skin Nivea is the best option,
as that may bring them closer to their
Advertisements that reflect youth giving aspects of the products.
Cosmetic products in particular make use of this appeal.
In the advertisements below, the product is shown used by some young
celebrities of the country. The products are advertised in such a way that the
young customers feel that it connects to them.
Best suited appeals for the medias
Television Newspaper Magazine Billboards Internet
• Television – For products like shoes the customer needs to be aware of the
benefits the shoe provides and their decision of purchase is mainly due the
benefit they derive. Therefore the rational appeal is most commonly seen on
television. Choosing celebrities for promoting a shoe brand on television is
not very effective. The public like to follow their celebrity style mainly in
clothing and accessories and not in shoes.
• Newspaper – Here again rational appeal is more suitable. Giving appropriate
reasons to the customer for buying the shoe is the best way to motivate.
Customers prefer purchasing shoes according to their comfort level, therefore
appealing to the target customer through humour appeal is not very impactful
• Magazine – Various magazines are published for different segments of
customers. Mostly rational appeal suits the advertisements as the brand is
required to please the customer with their product. While using monthly
gossip magazine for celebrity or youth appeal is well known.
• Bill Boards- Seeing a glimpse massive bill board advertisements of young
celebrities wearing branded shoes, does catch the attention of all. They try to
project that the shoes suit your personality. Humour appeal, if used will
require a lot of matter to be written (to express the joke). This wont catch the
attention of all the passerby, whereas am image of a well known celebrity
would surely do.
• Internet- Music appeal is used as the audience is able to see and hear. A good
jingle for the brand will surely get registered in the minds of the consumer.
These musical advertisements when open up automatically yon reaching a
website catch the prospective customers attention. Youth appeal can be
utilized for promoting shoes on commonly visited websites. This can catch
the attention of consumers and develop a urge in them to purchase the