“We are dedicated to our clients and their
stakeholders, to being a responsible
corporate citizen and to improving the
quality of life around the world.”
Small to Medium Businesses - drivers
Typically SMEs have much less capacity than bigger organisations to deal with
issues such as the environment unless there is a strong business case.
Economics first, environment second.
However an audit can improve competitiveness and productivity whilst also
improving environmental performance.
Water and wastewater audits for small to medium businesses.
Business receive a report outlining audit results and solutions tailored to their
• Reduce water, wastewater and associated energy costs
• Improve operational processes
• Solutions with realistic payback periods
Save time: New product advice, Training advice for staff, Industry benchmarks
Recovery of Energy
Source EPA Victoria
There are typically opportunities before discharge to sewer!
Yarra Valley Water – Tradewaste Standards
Oils, Fats and Grease
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Phenolics, aldehydes, ketones
Esters and Ethers
…there are many more – you
cant just discharge to sewer
with any waste and forget
Yarra Valley Water – Tradewaste Charges
• Annual Contract Fee
• And the following fees depending on volume and ‘strength’ of
tradewaste (2012/13 figures):
There is financial incentive to reduce tradewaste
Trade waste discharge fees Unit Charge ($)
Volume ($/kilolitre) 0.9768
Biochemical Oxygen Demand ($/kg) 0.7631
Suspended Solids ($/kg) 0.4442
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen ($/kg) 2.0628
Total Dissolved Solids ($/kg) 0.0318
Case Study – Smallgoods manufacturer
Install efficient, high pressure spray nozzles
and hose locks and hose guns
to be installed to all wash water hoses
(Payback 3 months)
Warm air defrosting of freezer coils
(Payback 2.5 years)
Case Study – Clean In Place
CIP systems essentially clean a production line
without the need to removing process components.
This is achieved by flushing the system with cleaning
agents. Four aspects are important: Time,
Temperature, Concentration and Velocity.
Regular review and optimising of CIP is essential
• Check for opportunities to recover rinse water
• Review cleaning cycle length.
• Training of operators for improved efficiency
CIP Case study in meat manufacturing – second
rinse step eliminated by optimising the first flush,
final rinse step collected and reused (saving 1.7
ML/year, 3 year payback)
Case Study – Food Processor, rainwater use in
Cooling towers used extensively to run air
conditioning and chilled water line to
Cooling tower main issue: water lost to the
atmosphere by evaporation and drift.
Substitution of potable water with rainwater
from the roof, being careful to pretreat rainwater
(filter and UV disinfection).
Improvements: less salts in rainwater compared to
mains water, less chemicals used in cooling tower,
and less blowdown to tradewaste.
Case Study – Swimming Pool Operator
Replace pool make up water with rainwater from roof
Optimise filter backflush process
Use high efficient, high pressure nozzles
to clean deck surfaces
Change mens flushing urinal to
Reduce pool water temperature to
23 degrees to reduce evaporation
(Paybacks 2.5 – 10 years)
Case Study – Automotive parts manufacturer –
Processes included electroplating and metal treatment for preparation of
Wastewater treated on site instead of discharge to sewer. Treated water
reused back into process.
A reduced sludge waste was then able to be taken to landfill. Water
consumption and tradewaste volume reduced by 35%
Payback 3 years
Case Study – Botanical Gardens
Substitution of irrigation water with treated wastewater from nearby plant.
Piping, pumps, minor treatment cost $100,000
Payback 4 years
Increased risk to public however
so no access during irrigation
as per EPA guidelines.
Engineers typically design to a budget and time
schedule using proven low risk designs.
• Reward energy efficiency in design
• Define end use and start downstream
• Use measured data, not assumptions and rules
• When costing a design look at optimising all
elements including large capital items (eg pumps)
as well as pipelines (often costed separately)
• Shorter, wider pipes
• Eliminate right angle bends and valves
• Preference for VSD pumps not valve control of flow
A 50% increase in pipe diameter leads
to an 85% decrease in friction loss!
GHD offers the following services
relevant to SMEs
• Experienced Manufacturing and Process
• Plant design and construction management
• Food Processing Service Line
• Sustainability Experts
• HSE, hygiene, energy and water auditors
Solutions for industry including baking, dairy, beverage,
confectionary & snack foods, seafood, fruit & vegetable,
meat, cold chain, FMCG, pharmaceutical, biotechnical
markets and beyond