Fobissie Kalame: What Matters for Adaptation: Forest Access or Ownership?


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Day 2, Session 5: The role of tenure and governance in climate change mitigation and adaptation

Presentation by Fobissie Kalame - CIFOR-Burkina Faso

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Fobissie Kalame: What Matters for Adaptation: Forest Access or Ownership?

  1. 1. What Matters for Adaptation: Forest Access or Ownership? Fobissie Kalame Johnson Nkem Center for International Forestry Research Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: New Opportunities for Central & West Africa Yaoundé, Cameroon May 25-29, 2009
  2. 2. Forest policies in West Africa & CC adaptation… • Forest Ecosystems (FE) provide goods & services used by communities to adapt to impacts of CC (forest for adaptation) but are themselves (FE) vulnerable & need also to adapt as well (adaptation for forests) • Forest policies & governance determine access & ownership of forest resources that can support or hinder adaptation of communities & FE in WA. • CC objective is lacking in existing forest policies in WA • If effectively implemented, some elements of forest policies in WA can help forest at some locations adapt to climatic disturbances (Kalame et al. 2009)
  3. 3. Access to forest resources for adaptation… Climate change Conditionality: - -human activities are Nonclimatic impacted by cc drivers -these activities are not Crops always adaptation actions in - + all circumstances Forest systems manag’t practices - Firewood + exploittn + NWFP -/+ -/+ Forest Livestock ecosystems -/+ fodder -/+ -/+ Constructio n materials Policy instrum’ts & calibration
  4. 4. Current characteristics of adaptation, forest access & ownership… Adaptation to CC Access to forest Ownership of forest resources resources Temporal scale Address immediate Address immediate Stagnant or very slow legal adaptation needs while household needs of NTFPs & policy shift to local forest planning for medium & for either subsistence or ownership long-term responses e.g. income generation NAPA of Burkina Faso & Mali, national adaptation action plan of Ghana Forest resources type Both low & high economic Less complicated local Firm grip, control or value resources are access to low / ownership by governments important for adaptation undocumented financial on income generating but depends on the value resources such as resources such as timber & resource location most NTFPs. Weak / game in Ghana, and absence but increasingly firewood in Burkina Faso growing recognition of policy objectives and programmes on NTFPs Forest resource governance Decentralised structures Forest access mostly Decentralisation, an involved in the controlled by staff from the opportunity to enhance implementation of ministry incharge of local forest ownership adaptation actions e.g. DA forestry in Ghana and CVD/Mayors in Burkina Faso
  5. 5. “Supportive nonclimatic policies” OR “potential planned adaptation strategy”? Elements of an adaptation Modified Taungya System Organized commercial firewood strategy (Ghana) exploitation (BF) Clear CC policy objective No, but is part of existing forest No, but is part of existing forest policy programme policy programme Reduce vulnerability & increase Yes (fight drought & Yes (fight drought & desertification) adaptability to CC desertification) Long-term Yes (25 yrs) Yes (rotational 15 yrs) Short, medium & long-term benefits Yes but unclear medium term Yes benefits Inclusionary, participatory & yes yes develop’t goals independent of CC Cost effective Yes, benefit out ways cost Yes, benefit out ways cost Non-financial benefits Yes (land rehabilitation, household Yes (prevent forest degradation, food production) household NTFP extraction) Support other conventions Partially (support desertification Yes (desertification & biodiversity) control but not biodiversity promotion) Monitoring & improvement Yes but still challenging Yes but in effective in practice
  6. 6. Conclusion • Although they are both important, neither forest access nor ownership is a silver bullet solution for increasing the adaptation of socio-ecological systems. • Considering a suite of FEGS under a specific governance context, forest resource types, locations and temporal scales can help forest-related decision making on adaptation planning. • Finding the right incentives for forest policy and governance reforms for promoting adaptation requires flexibility rather than steadfastness on only one type of reform. • Focusing on access to resources could pay more dividends in the short and medium term for adaptation, meanwhile, ownership of resources could provide the leverage for sustainability of the adaptation actions in the long term and to future climate scenarios.
  7. 7. Acknowledgement •Stakeholders •EU for funding •Partners and collaborators •Colleagues & Students
  8. 8. Thank you Center for International Forestry Research