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Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan genus Myotis (Chiroptera) using model-based reconstructions

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European Congress of Mammalogy - July 2011
Presentation of my Master 2 BEE (Montpellier, France)

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Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan genus Myotis (Chiroptera) using model-based reconstructions

  1. 1. The fabulous odyssey of Myotis Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan genus Myotis (Chiroptera) using model-based Phylogeography of the cosmopolitan genus Myotis (Chiroptera) using model-based Presented by: Yann Gager Supervised by: Emmanuel Douzery (University of Montpellier 2 - France) Manuel Ruedi (Museum of Geneva - Switzerland) using model-based reconstructions using model-based reconstructions
  2. 2. 1- The genus Myotis The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  3. 3. 1 - The genus Myotis • Global distribution (except Antarctica)
  4. 4. 1 - The genus Myotis • Global distribution (except Antarctica) • More than 100 species described: 2nd most diversified genus of Mammals
  5. 5. 1 - The genus Myotis • Global distribution (except Antarctica) • More than 100 species described: 2nd most diversified genus of Mammals • Difficulty differentiating species on the basis of morphological criteria
  6. 6. 1 - The genus Myotis M. brandtii M. alcathoe M. mystacinus © Dietz & von Helversen
  7. 7. 1 - The genus Myotis • Phylogeny of Myotis from America and Africa already known
  8. 8. 1 - The genus Myotis • Phylogeny of Myotis from America and Africa already known • Poor knowledge of relationships of Eurasian Myotisof Eurasian Myotis
  9. 9. 1 - The genus Myotis • Phylogeny of Myotis from America and Africa already known • Poor knowledge of relationships of Eurasian Myotisof Eurasian Myotis • Incomplete picture of the genus evolution at a worldwide scale
  10. 10. 2 - Aims of the study The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  11. 11. 2 - Aims of the study • Important sampling of species and molecular data
  12. 12. 2 - Aims of the study • Important sampling of species and molecular data • Phylogenetic trees of taxa at a worldwide scaleat a worldwide scale
  13. 13. 2 - Aims of the study • Important sampling of species and molecular data • Phylogenetic trees of taxa at a worldwide scaleat a worldwide scale • Preliminary to the study of biogeographic and temporal origins
  14. 14. 3 - Samplings The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  15. 15. 3 - Samplings • 85 recognised species, 5 new species and 5 outgroups
  16. 16. West Palaearctic 13 species East Palaearctic 8 Oriental Nearctic 17 Ethiopian 6 Oceania 1 Oriental 21 Neotropics 13
  17. 17. West Palaearctic 13 species East Palaearctic 8 Oriental Nearctic 17 Eurasia Ethiopian 6 Oceania 1 Oriental 21 Neotropics 13
  18. 18. West Palaearctic 13 species East Palaearctic 8 Oriental Nearctic 17 Eurasia Ethiopian 6 Oceania 1 Oriental 21 Neotropics 13 Africa
  19. 19. West Palaearctic 13 species East Palaearctic 8 Oriental Nearctic 17 Eurasia America Ethiopian 6 Oceania 1 Oriental 21 Neotropics 13 Africa
  20. 20. 3 - Samplings • 85 recognised species, 5 new species and 5 outgroups • Compilation & concatenation of 2 genes: Cyt b (mitochondrial) & Rag 2 (nuclear)Cyt b (mitochondrial) & Rag 2 (nuclear)
  21. 21. 3 - Samplings • 85 recognised species, 5 new species and 5 outgroups • Compilation & concatenation of 2 genes: Cyt b (mitochondrial) & Rag 2 (nuclear)Cyt b (mitochondrial) & Rag 2 (nuclear) • Alignement of 136 Cyt b & 116 Rag 2, with 164 seq. of GenBank & 88 new seq.
  22. 22. 4 -Phylogenetic inferences The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  23. 23. 4 - Phylogenetic inferences • Search of phylogram: Probabilistic approach - Maximum Likelihood (PAUP*) - Bayesian Inference (PhyloBayes)- Bayesian Inference (PhyloBayes) Assesment methods (Nodal support)
  24. 24. « latirostris lineage»
  25. 25. American Clade
  26. 26. Ethiopian Clade
  27. 27. VI VII Eurasian Clade VII VIII IX
  28. 28. New speciesNew species
  29. 29. New speciesNew species
  30. 30. New speciesNew species
  31. 31. 4 - Phylogenetic inferences • A new genus for the « latirostris lineage » ? Drawing: Ravel et al. 2011 Nyctalodoncy Myotodoncy Myotis latirostris
  32. 32. 5 - Molecular dating The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  33. 33. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of chronograms (BEAST) : - 4 chains of 5.106 generations - Molecular clock called relaxed - 18000 trees sampled
  34. 34. Fossil calibrations
  35. 35. Diversification American Clade: 10.9 ±2.7 My
  36. 36. Colonization Oceania : 4.2 ±1.5 My
  37. 37. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of biogeographic origins: - Estimate of ancestral character states with a probabilistic model (Lagrange) on the final chronogram Species 1 Species 2 ? Species 3 ? Palaearctic Oriental region
  38. 38. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of biogeographic origins: - Estimate of ancestral character states with a probabilistic model (Lagrange) on the final chronogram Species 1 Species 2 Species 3 Palaearctic Oriental region
  39. 39. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of biogeographic origins: - Consideration of branch lengths
  40. 40. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of biogeographic origins: - Consideration of branch lengths - Area-adjacency matrix A B C D Oceanian E F G A B C D E F G A 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 B 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 C 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 D 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 E 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 F 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 G 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
  41. 41. 5 - Molecular dating • Search of biogeographic origins: - Consideration of branch lengths - Area-adjacency matrix - Area-dispersal matrix A B C D Oceanian E F G A B C D E F G A 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 B 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 C 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 D 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 E 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 F 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 G 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
  42. 42. « latirostris lineage»
  43. 43. American Clade
  44. 44. Ethiopian Clade
  45. 45. Eurasian Clade
  46. 46. C Eurasian Clade: Oriental
  47. 47. C C Ethiopian Clade: Oriental
  48. 48. C C Old World Clade: Oriental C Oriental
  49. 49. C C C B American Clade: E. Pal.
  50. 50. C C C B BC E. Pal. + Oriental 17.7 ±3.9 My Oriental
  51. 51. Cradle of Myotis 17.7 ±3.9 My
  52. 52. Cradle of Myotis 15.1 ±3.4 My
  53. 53. Cradle of Myotis 15.1 ±3.4 My 11.1 ±2.7 My
  54. 54. Cradle of Myotis 15.1 ±3.4 My 10.9 ±2.7 My ? 11.1 ±2.7 My
  55. 55. Cradle of Myotis 15.1 ±3.4 My 10.9 ±2.7 My ? 5.2 ±1.4 11.1 ±2.7 My 8.3 ±2.1 My 5.2 ±1.4 My
  56. 56. Cradle of Myotis 15.1 ±3.4 My 10.9 ±2.7 My ? 5.2 ±1.4 11.1 ±2.7 My 8.3 ±2.1 My 5.2 ±1.4 My 4.2 ±1.5 My
  57. 57. 6- Perspectives The fabulous odyssey of Myotis
  58. 58. 6 - Perspectives • Phylogenies: working basis for many research ! BiogeographySystematics Conservation Life-history traits
  59. 59. Thank you ! QuickTime™ et un décompresseur sont requis pour visionner cette image. Merci ! © M. König
  60. 60. Order Chiroptera Jones and Teeling, 2006 Chiroptera
  61. 61. Phylogeography • Study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distribution of individuals. • This is accomplished by considering the• This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.
  62. 62. Biogeographic reconstructions • H0 = without constraints : lnL = 146.8 • H1 = with constraints : lnL = 139.5 Better likelihood with the area-adjacency matrix and the area-dispersal matrix !and the area-dispersal matrix !
  63. 63. Biogeographic reconstructions • Relative probabilities for each node e.g. Node of the Myotis sensu lato: • E.g. At node X: • split lnL Rel.Prob • [BC|C] -141.2 0.7381• [BC|C] -141.2 0.7381 • [C|C] -143.6 0.06645 • [B|C] -144 0.04323 • [A|C] -144.5 0.02802 • [AB|A] -144.5 0.02596 • [AB|B] -144.6 0.02476 • [AC|C] -145 0.01643 • [BC|B] -145.5 0.009844
  64. 64. Phylogenetic analyses • Maximum likelihood (GTR + Γ + INV) P ,MP ,M
  65. 65. • Nucleotidic model of evolution: - General Time Reversible (GTR) - Gamma distribution of the variation rate (ΓΓΓΓ) - Proportion of invariant sites (INV) GTR + Γ + INV • Base frequencies ∏, substitution rates (from a to f) and branch lengths A C G T A - a∏C b∏G c∏T C a∏A - d∏G e∏T G b∏A d∏C - f∏T T c∏A e∏C f∏G -

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