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Nutrition Curriculum (Ver 1.0)


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Nutrition Curriculum (Ver 1.0)

  1. 1. Youth Gardening andNutrition InitiativeSpring CurriculumKeshav RaoStanford University
  2. 2. OverviewIntegrated 6 class curriculum covering: Key nutritional concepts (40 min/class) Gardening experiences (20 min/class) Healthy recipes and cooking demonstrations (20 min/class)Target Audience: East Palo Alto students in the 4thGrade – 8th GradeWeekly classes will be offered at the EcumenicalHunger Program in EPA
  3. 3. Table of Contents Nutrition Gardening RecipesModule 1 Intro to Healthy Eating Planning “Pizza Garden” Yogurt Parfait and Gardening and Mini-Greenhouse with granola Seed Trays and fruitModule 2 Dangers of Added Fats Setting up the “Pizza Chicken and Sugars Garden” FingersModule 3 Fruits & Veggies: Key Placing & Installing the Fruit Sources of Vitamins Plants SmoothiesModule 4 Grains & Proteins Create Your Own Fritatta CompostModule 5 Portion Control & Maintaining & Growing the Hummus Healthy Snacking GardenModule 6 Eating Healthy When Harvesting & Garden Pizza Eating Out Transplanting Seedlings to Garden
  4. 4. Module 1Introduction of Healthy Eating and GardeningClassroom Material Concept of Energy Balance “Go, Slow, Whoa” Foods How to read nutrition labelsGardening Material Review edible parts of plants Decide on what seeds to plant for “Pizza Garden” Plant seeds in mini-greenhouse trayHealthy Recipe: Yogurt Parfait with granola and fruit
  5. 5. Energy Balance Weight Gain:ENERGY IN (Calories consumed) > ENERGY OUT (Calories burned) Same Weight:ENERGY IN (Calories consumed) = ENERGY OUT (Calories burned) Weight Loss:Energy IN (Calories consumed) < Energy Out (Calories burned)Activity: Given a one day sample diet and an estimate of calories burned, determine if the individual is gaining or losing weight
  6. 6. Go, Slow, Whoa! Review foods that kids can always eat (Go), sometimes eat (Slow), and rarely eat (Whoa) Discuss the significant differences in calories, added sugars, and fats Discuss recommended serving sizes for each type of major food group (based on USDA estimates) Activity: Use American Heart Association age-specific caloric requirement chart toSource: NIH (National Heart, Lung, help students craft sample,and Blood Institute) healthy diets using a
  7. 7. How to Read Nutrition Labels Discuss serving sizes Limit saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and sodium Get enough of potassium, fiber, vitamins A & C, calcium, and iron Use the Percent Daily Value (% DV) column when possible; 5% DV or less is low, 20% DV or more is high Activity: Read the nutritional labels for Cheetos. Ask the students to discuss why Cheetos are a “whoa” food.Source: NIH (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)
  8. 8. Gardening Material (1) Review edible parts of plants Roots Stems Leaves Fruits Flowers Seeds Asparagu Beets Cabbage Apple Artichoke Beans s Carrots Celery Chard Avocado Broccoli Chocolate Jicama Garlic Herbs Banana Cauliflower Corn (tuber) (bulb) Parsnips Kohlrabi Lettuce Cucumbers Nasturtium Nuts Potato Onion Spinach Eggplant Violets Peas (tuber) (bulb) Radishes Turnips Bell Pepper Rice Squash Wheat Strawberr ySource: Nutrition to Grow on Curriculum
  9. 9. Gardening Material (2) Discuss “Pizza Garden” with students and choose from the following toppings (seeds to plant) Tomato Bell pepper Onions Eggplant Rosemary Basil Oregano ParsleySource: HGTV
  10. 10. Gardening Material (3) Activity 1: Plant seeds in mini-greenhouse tray Filling cells loosely with soil, planting at the appropriate depth, watering seeds, etc. Have students draw predictions of plant growth from seedsSource: Nutrition to Grow on Curriculum
  11. 11. Healthy Recipe: Yogurt Parfait Ingredients ½ cup granola, low-fat ¾ cup (6-oz container) vanilla or plain yogurt, low-fat ½ cup fresh blueberries, raspberries, or sliced strawberries or bananas Set-up/Prep: Have students construct a healthy parfait by combining granola, yogurt, and fresh fruit Key Nutritional Information: Serving Size: 1 ¾ cups 15 g protein, 6 g fat, 2.5 g saturatedSource:
  12. 12. Module 2Dangers of Added Sugars and FatsClassroom Material Fats: Functions and Types Moderation of Fats Case Study: Nutritional Differences in Milk Added Sugar: Rethink Your DrinkGardening Material Setting up the “Pizza Garden”Healthy Recipe: Chicken Fingers
  13. 13. Fats: Functions and Types Role of Fats Most concentrated source of energy (2x kcal of proteins, carbs) Necessary for growth, healthy skin, and metabolism But excess fats lead to higher cholesterol and risk of heart disease, as well as other conditionsType of Fat Food Source ImpactUnsaturated Fats Olives, Nuts, Avocados, Olive Lower cholesterol oil, Corn, SesameOmega-3-Fatty- Cold-water fish, flaxseed, soy Lower risk for heartAcids attack, improve immune systemSaturated Fats Meat, butter, cheese, most Increase cholesterol, milk raise risk of heartTransfat Margarine, hydrogenated disease and other conditionsSource: Kidshealth.orgoils, packaged/fried foods
  14. 14. Moderation of Fats Rule of thumb: 30% of calories should be from fat Sample Meal: Two slices of bread = 13% fat (30 of 230 calories from fat) Two tablespoons of peanut butter = 75% fat (140 of 190 calories from fat) One tablespoon of jelly = 0% fat (0 of 50 calories from fat) One cup of 1% milk = 18 % (20 of 110 calories from fat) Apple = 0% (0 of 80 calories from fat) Total = 29% fat (190 of 660 calories from fat) Activity: Ask students to recall their lunch and identify the approx. percentage of calories from fatSource:
  15. 15. Rethinking Milk Type of Milk Calories Total Fat Protein Calcium (% DV) (g) (g) Fat Free Milk 90 0 9 30% 1% Low-fat Milk 120 2.5 11 35% 2% Reduced Fat 130 5 10 30% Milk Whole Milk 160 9 8 25%• Activity: Ask students to sample different types of milk. Show them that 3 glasses of low-fat milk would still have less total fat than one glass of whole milk, while having over 4x the protein and calcium. Source: California WIC
  16. 16. Added Sugars: Rethink Your DrinkType of Beverage Calories in 12 ounces Calories in 20 ouncesFruit punch 192 320100% apple juice 192 300100% orange juice 168 280Lemonade 168 280Regular lemon/lime soda 148 247Regular cola 136 227Sweetened lemon iced 135 225teaTonic water 124 207Regular ginger ale 124 207Sports drink 99 165Unsweetened iced tea 2 3Diet soda (with 0 0aspartame)Water Centers for DiseaseSource: 0 0
  17. 17. Gardening MaterialActivity: Preparing the PizzaGarden Choose the size and location of the bed Ensure maximum sun exposure Create a circular bed with enough room for individual plants to grow based on requirements Prepare the soil Remove weeds Add in composted material to create a nutrient-rich growing environment Install the edging Plastic edge for outer circle, withSource: wooden dividers for individual HGTV “slices” or growing areas
  18. 18. Healthy Recipe: ChickenIngredients: Fingers 1 4-oz. boneless, skinless chicken breast, rinsed, patted dry, and sliced into strips or 4 1-oz boneless, skinless chicken tenders 1 egg or ¼ cup egg substitute or ¼ cup skim milk 1/3 cup cereal flakes, crushed (preferably cereal with 3g or more of fiber per serving)Set-up/Prep: Preheat oven to 350º F (176º C). Dip chicken strips into egg, egg substitute, or skim milk. Roll dipped chicken in high-fiber cereal to coat. Place coated strips on nonstick baking sheet. Bake for 18 to 20 minutes, turning after 9 minutes, until chicken is done (it must be white, not pink, inside).Key Nutritional Info: Serving size: 1 tender Source:
  19. 19. Module 3Fruits & Vegetables: Key Sources of VitaminsClassroom Material Fruits and Veggies: Student Recognition and Initial Preferences Nutritional Information and Serving SizesGardening Material Placing the plants Installing the plantsHealthy Recipe: Mango & Banana Smoothie
  20. 20. Fruits and Veggies: Student Recognition and Initial Preferences Activity: Ask students to list fruits and veggies that they know. Fill in responses that were not discussed in class to get a complete list. Then have each student rate how much they like each fruit/vegetable on a scale of 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest) Finally, ask each student how often they eat major fruits and vegetables on a scale of 1 (never) to 5 (always)California WIC and FDA Nutritional
  21. 21. Fruits and Veggies: Nutritional Information and Serving Sizes Activity: Ask students to write down all fruits they ate in the last 24 hours with approx. serving sizes Hand out the color cards that correspond with fruits and veggies eaten by the students. Review the nutritional benefits from each group, show the importance of eating fruits of different colors, and go through proper serving sizes Activity: Have students identify best sources of Vitamin A, C, Potassium,Source: FDA Nutrition FDA etc. based on Information
  22. 22. Gardening Material (1) Activity: Placing the Plants The tomato plants should have an entire “slice”, while up to three other plants can share a sectionSource: HGTV
  23. 23. Gardening Material (2) Activity: Installing the Plants With one hand, gently grasp the main stems of each plant, and with the other hand, tip the container upside down and gently squeeze or shake the container (Image 1) until the plant is released. If the plant is root-bound, gently tease the outer roots apart (Image 2) Plant the transplants at the same depth as they were in their containers, and firm the soil around the roots. Top-dress each plant with a handful or two of compost (Image 3). Note: Plant tomatoes a little deeper than they were in the pot / bend and bury part of the stem for “trenching”Source: HGTV Pizza Garden Guide
  24. 24. Healthy Recipe: Fruit Smoothie Ingredients 2 cups 1% milk 1 fresh pitted mango 1 small banana 2 ice cubes Set-up/Prep Put all ingredients into a blender and blend until foamy. Kids can add more fruit and/or vegetables. Key Nutritional Information: Serving Size: ¾ Cup 106 Calories, 2 g total fat, 1 g saturated fat, 157 mg calciumSource: Delicious Heart-Healthy Latino
  25. 25. Module 4Grains & ProteinsClassroom Material Why whole grains? Sources and key nutrients Importance of proteins and natural sources Proteins: Daily Requirements and Dietary RecommendationsGardening Material Create Your Own CompostHealthy Recipe: Fritatta
  26. 26. Why Whole Grains? Whole grains retain the fiber rich bran, the heart healthy germ, and the starchy endosperm while other grains only keep the endosperm after processingSource: Whole Foods Market
  27. 27. Whole Grains: Sources and Key Nutrients Types of whole grains include: Brown Rice Barley Whole wheat bread/tortillas Oatmeal Health Benefits: Great source of fiber & vitamins, can reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and some forms of cancer Goal: 50% of all grains should be whole Activity: Teach students how to identify whole grain tortillas, breads, and cereals (cheerios vs. cornflakes) based on ingredients (WIC)Source: California WIC
  28. 28. Proteins: Importance and SourcesActivity: Ask students to describe the importance ofproteins as well as key sources in our dietRole of Proteins: Supply the amino acid buildingblocks our cells need for growth, development, andother processesPrimary Sources: Meats, poultry, and fish Legumes (dry beans and peas) Tofu, nuts, grains Milk and milk products
  29. 29. Proteins: Daily Requirements and RecommendationsRecommended Dietary Allowance for ProteinAge Group Grams of protein (daily)Children ages 1 – 3 13Children ages 4 – 8 19Children ages 9 – 13 34Girls ages 14 – 18 46Boys ages 14 – 18 52 Most individuals easily reach target levels, but need to make lower-fat protein choices Choose lean poultry & fish, trim excess fat, remove skin Substitute pinto or black beans for meat in chili and tacos. Choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, cheeseSource: CDC
  30. 30. Gardening Material Review significance of composting to build nutrient rich soil Activity: Create Your Own Compost Take a 2-liter plastic soda bottle, cut its top off, and remove all labels. Poke holes around the middle section (to provide air to worms) and the bottom (to allow for drainage). Place approximately 1 to 2 inches of moist, shredded newspaper in the bottle. Then place 1 to 2 inches of shredded lettuce on top of the newspaper. Continue alternating the layers until you reach the top of the bottle. Don’t pack the layers down or make the bedding too wet. Add 10 to 12 red worms on top. Wrap black construction paper around the bottle and tape the ends together to form a tube that can be slipped on and off for viewing purposes. Cover the top of the bottle with dark cloth and secure it with a rubber band to prevent light and flies from entering the compost. Place the worm bottle on a tray for drainage purposes. Add new food every three to four days and cover with more shredded newspaper. Spray to keep moist. You can add fruit and vegetable peels as well, but do not add foot faster than the worms can digest. Add the compost/worm castings to the garden after a month or two. Lightly sprinkle them in the holes in whichSource: Nutritionto replenish thearound bottle to keep the cycle seeds are to to Grow On Curriculum seedlings. Remember be planted or worm the new
  31. 31. Healthy Recipe: FrittataSource: Edible Schoolyard Project
  32. 32. Module 5Portion Control & Healthy SnackingClassroom Material Portion Control: Survey What are appropriate portions for various foods? Guide to Healthy Snacking Build Your Own Healthy SnacksGardening Material Maintaining and Growing the GardenHealthy Recipe: Hummus
  33. 33. Portion Control: Opening a) Always Survey1. How often do you Value-size, Supersize, Mega-size or “whatever-size” your burgers, sodas or fries? b) Sometimes c) Never2. When you eat a packaged snack or dessert (like chips, crackers, cookies, or ice cream) do you usually: a) Take out what you want and then put the package away b) Take out what you want, but leave the package out, in case you want more. c) Eat straight out of the package, sometimes until nothing is left.3. How often do you read the label on food packages to see what the serving size is? a) Usually b) Sometimes c) Never4. How often do you check the label to see how many calories are in a serving”? a) Usually b) Sometimes c) Never5. When you go to the movies, what size popcorn do you get? a) The biggest tub they have b) Medium size c) Smallest d) Don’t buy food at the movies Source: Texas WIC Portion Control
  34. 34. Appropriate Portion Sizes “Eating with Our Eyes” leads to excess calories Demonstration 1: Ask students to pour recommended serving size of juice (4-6 oz) into a pitcher and see how close they come Demonstration 2: Ask students to make a PB&J sandwich with only 2 tablespoons of peanut butter (normal serving) and ask them to compare to their usual portion Demonstration 3: Ask students to look at different tortilla sizes. Compare calories between tortillas (including whole grain options) and encourage students to eat smaller tortillas Demonstration 4: Ask students how many serving sizes are in microwavable popcorn bags (2.5). Show how this compares to the whole bag of popcorn, which people eat individually Activity: Have students select one area to improve portion sizesSource: Texas
  35. 35. Guide to Healthy Snacking Snacks are small meals that should add vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients with a low amount of added fat and sugar Activity: Ask students what their favorite snacks are, how often they eat them, and if they are healthy/unhealthy. Review the table below for more comprehensive list of healthy and unhealthy snacks Healthy Snacks Unhealthy Snacks Yogurt (high in calcium) French fries (high fat, high salt) Fruits (Vitamins A & C, fiber) Twinkie (high sugar, high fat) Cheese (highcalcium) Sunny delight (high sugar) WIC Cereal (low sugar, low fat) Cookies (high fat, high sugar) Vegetables (low in sugar, low fat, high fiber, vitamins A, C, folic acid) Nuts (low sugar, high protein, vitamins andSource: minerals)California Hard boiled eggs (low sugar, high protein,WIC vitamins and minerals)
  36. 36. Building Healthy, Tasty Snacks Activity: Have students work together to make healthy and tasty snacks from different combinations of food groups Meat Group Milk Group (for growth) (for bones and teeth) Hardboiled egg Milk Leftover meat Cheese Slices Chicken leg Cheese Sticks Peanut butter Cottage Cheese Nuts or seeds Yogurt Tofu Soy Milk Beans Grain Group Fruits and Vegetables (for energy) (for vitality) Pretzels Fresh Fruit slices-Apple, Orange, melon Cheerios Banana, Pear, grapes Kix cereals Canned fruit., applesauce Bagels Strawberries Rice cakes Steamed cold vegetables-broccoli, Graham Crackers cauliflower Tortillas Fresh celery sticks Bread, various kinds Fresh vegies-celery sticks, cucumber, Popcorn, plain snow peas, carrots Cherry tomatoes Frozen juice sticks Juice- fruit and tomatoSource: Snacks Count Pictures by Food Group (California WIC)
  37. 37. Gardening Material Activity: Maintaining & Growing the Garden Water the plants properly Tomatoes need more water than the other plants, followed by basil and peppers; rosemary and thyme will need less water Adding fertilizer Diluted liquid fish emulsion to replace soil nutrients Remove weeds Students should actively look for harmful weeds Support tomatoesSource: Nutrition toplant stem HGTV or wooden stake Tie Grow On, to cage
  38. 38. Healthy Recipe: Hummus Ingredients: 2 cups canned garbanzo beans, drainer 1/3 cup tahini, ¼ cup lemon juice 1 tsp salt, 2 cloves garlic, 1 tbsp olive oil 1 pinch paprika, 1 tsp fresh parsley Set-up/Prep: Place the garbanzo beans, tahini, lemon juice, salt and garlic in a blender or food processor. Blend until smooth. Transfer mixture to a serving bowl. Drizzle olive oil over the garbanzo bean mixture. Sprinkle with paprika and parsley Key Nutrition Info: Serving Size: 1/16 of recipe 77 calories, 4.3 g fat, 0.6 g sat fat, 5% DV protein, 12% DV folateSource:
  39. 39. Module 6Eating healthy when eating outClassroom Material How bad is fast food? Checklist for Eating Healthy Away from HomeGardening Material Harvesting & Transplanting SeedlingsHealthy Recipe: Garden Pizza
  40. 40. How bad is fast food? Activity: Ask students where they get fast food, how often they go, and what they typically order Show students that there are 16 sugar cubes in a “small” 20 oz. soda Show students that a Big Mac has 6 teaspoons of shortening fat (30 g total)Source: Texas WIC
  41. 41. Eat Healthy Away from Home Do Order a kids meal Share a meal with friends/family Ask for no mayo, dressing on the side Pack up half of a lunch/dinner in a to-go box before even starting the meal Ask if you could get the lunch-sized portion of dinner dishes Don’t Supersize your meals unless you plan to share Order the largest size of drinks or main coursesSource: Texas WIC
  42. 42. Gardening MaterialActivity: For the final lesson, students should gather whatever vegetables and herbs are ready to be harvested They also should transplant seedlings from the greenhouse trays to garden plots in preparation for the next cycle
  43. 43. Healthy Recipe: GardenIngredients Pizza 1 pint cherry tomatoes, 2 tbsp tomato paste 8 fresh basil leaves, 2 tsp fresh oregano ¼ tsp salt, ½ tsp pepper, yellow cornmeal dusting 1 pound Easy Whole-Wheat dough 4 oz. fresh mozzarella cheese 3 tbsp grated parmesan cheese 4 baby zucchinis, 1 medium yellow bell pepperSet-up/Prep Place a pizza stone on the lowest rack; preheat oven to 450°F for at least 20 minutes Roll out the dough and place on a cornmeal- dusted pizza peel or inverted baking sheet, using enough cornmeal so that the dough slides easily .Slide the dough onto the preheated stone and cook until the bottom begins to crisp, about 3 minutes. Remove the crust, making sure the underside is covered with cornmeal Quickly add the toppings and slide the pizza back onto the stone. Continue baking until the toppings are hot and the bottom of the crust has browned, 12 to 15 minutes.Key Nutritional Information:375 calories; 9 g fat (5 gsat, 1 g mono ); 26 mg cholesterol; 58 gcarbohydrates; 17 g protein; 8 g fiber; 531 mgsodium; Source: Eatingwell,com
  44. 44. Key SourcesAHA Caloric/Dietary Requirements Table for Children and for Disease Control (CDC) Nutrition: Heart-Healthy Latino Recipes Schoolyard Project:www.edibleschoolyard.orgFDA Nutritional Labeling: Health: www.KidsHealth.orgNIH (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute) to Grow On: WIC: