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URBAN PLANNING
ASSIGNMENT 3
YAMINI
1BQ16AT117
VIII C
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
ACROSANTI – PAOLO SOLERI
Arco Santi is an experiential learning centre, sustainable demonstration site,
festival/performance venue, and diverse community of cultural activators. The site is a
hub for innovators, architects, urbanists, craftspeople, and sustainable thinkers to live
and work towards a new social and urban paradigm. Within the architecture, urban
idealism breaks free from the design phase, confronting social, economic and
environmental realities.
Since 1970, over 7,000 activists have participated in Workshop Programs, living and
working on the 860-acre site to embody the tenants of Arcology Theory. Arcosanti has
been a home for boundary pushing free thinkers for nearly 50 years.
BUILDING AND BUILT SPACE
The architecture of Arcosanti acts as an experimental proving ground to explore – in a
physical and hands on way – the principles of Arcology.
As a prototype, the role of Arcosanti is to demonstrate and refine an innovative urban
form, preparing salient ideas for implementation. The unique and
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
unconventional architecture of the site is geared towards helping citizens think
critically about the built environment.
Our world is in dire need of a new urban paradigm; Arcosanti is the place where
architecture asks citizens to create new norms in regard to how we might be
constructing for future generations. Explore each of the key spaces at Arcosanti to see
how they engage in our mission.
WHAT IS AN ARCOLOGY?
Arcology is the fusion of architecture with ecology – a macro-urban design theory and
perspective.
In nature, as organisms evolve, they increase in complexity and become a more
compact or miniaturized system. A city should similarly evolve, functioning as a living
system.
Architecture and ecology as one integral process, is capable of demonstrating positive
response to the many problems of urban civilization – population growth, pollution,
energy/natural resource depletion, food scarcity, and quality of life.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
Arcology recognizes the necessity of the radical reorganization of the sprawling urban
landscape into dense, integrated, three-dimensional cities in order to support the
complex activities that sustain human culture and environmental balance. The city is
the necessary instrument for the evolution of humankind.
LEAN ALTERNATIVES
 URBAN SCALE AS HUMAN SCALE
Pedestrian Environment
Human Scale Development appropriates our built environments for the proportions of
man. As it stands, our environments are tailored for the automobile – a technology that
is proving to be dangerous for the environment, and the populace.
50% of the modern American city is devoted to the car, while automobile usage
amounts to 5-10% of the citizens’ day.
Human scale requires a densely organized urban environment where the
primary means of transportation is the human herself, aided with public
mobility/transportation.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 BOUNDED DENSITY
Ecological envelope
Urban growth boundaries are a common element of modern American city-planning,
though they are often the result of efforts to protect remaining farmland and other
rural or open spaces, rather than efforts to enhance the cities themselves.
In Arcology, bounded density is understood as a means of protecting the environment,
of course, but it is also understood as a cornerstone of true urban design and living.
Rather than sprawling outward toward a prescribed limit (which may still exceed the
resource capacity of the actual environment), Arcology seeks to grow upward and
inward.
 MARGINALIZED CONSUMPTION
Embodied Efficiency
By utilizing available technologies, such as passive climate controlling architecture;
innovative water & sewage treatment systems; and sustainably sourced, green
building materials; we manifest a lean alternative.
Acrosanti’s design supports and propagates the reduction of material and energy
consumption and an increased quality of life within an Arcology.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 ELEGANT FRUGALITY
Creative Resourcefulness
“Do more with less” is a fundamental Solerian axiom. The French might call it
“briccolage” — something constructed from a diverse range of available resources.
In an age of excess, our design seeks to craft space where the frugal utilization of
material necessities cultivates beauty. An aesthetic in juxtaposition to rudimentary
material affluence.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
 FOOD & ENERGY NEXUS
Urban Agriculture
As property values warrant residential/commercial development in growing cities,
farmland is pushed far away from the urban centre. As a result, citizens are
increasingly detached from where and how their meals are sourced. In the urban form
of Arcology, the citizens are connected with the production of food in a way that
confirms the necessity of robust agriculture systems.
 URBAN EFFECT
Proximity and Vibrancy
In cities around the world, they empirically observe the benefits of combining
functions and activities within urban space. Properties such as enhanced city safety, a
vibrant sense of community, and utility efficiency all add up to a truly beneficial urban
form. The crucial spaces within the city become shared, public spaces – accessible by
all, respected in common, thriving with socialization, confrontation and growth. With
mixed-use space, we acknowledge that the city can become much more than the sum
of its parts.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
NEW URBANISM
New urbanism is a movement that started initially in the United States which became
popular all over the world over the last few decades. This is a movement that promotes
walkable and diverse neighbourhoods that are environmentally friendly.
There are various key principles and elements that are included in the concept of New
Urbanism. Real estate planning and development along with local government
planning for the neighbourhoods are included in New Urbanism. New Urbanism is a
concept that can be adopted by real estate developers planning a single building or
construction and New Urbanism can be the guiding principle of planning and
development of towns and cities.
THE PRINCIPLES OF NEW URBANISM
The principles of New Urbanism can be applied increasingly to projects at the full
range of scales from a single building to an entire community.
1. Walkability
-Most things within a 10-minute walk of home and work
-Pedestrian friendly street design (buildings close to street; porches, windows & doors;
tree-lined streets; on street parking; hidden parking lots; garages in rear lane; narrow,
slow speed streets)
-Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases
2. Connectivity
-Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic & eases walking
-A hierarchy of narrow streets, boulevards, and alleys
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
-High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking pleasurable
3. Mixed-Use & Diversity
-A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site. Mixed-use within
neighbourhoods, within blocks, and within buildings
-Diversity of people - of ages, income levels, cultures, and races
4. Mixed Housing
A range of types, sizes and prices in closer proximity
5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design
Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a sense of place; Special
placement of civic uses and sites within community. Human scale architecture &
beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit
6. Traditional Neighbourhood Structure
-Discernible centre and edge
-Public space at centre
-Importance of quality public realm; public open space designed as civic art
-Contains a range of uses and densities within 10-minute walk
-Transect planning: Highest densities at town centre; progressively less dense towards
the edge. The transect is an analytical system that conceptualizes mutually reinforcing
elements, creating a series of specific natural habitats and/or urban lifestyle settings.
The Transect integrates environmental methodology for habitat assessment with
zoning methodology for community design. The professional boundary between the
natural and man-made disappears, enabling environmentalists to assess the design of
the human habitat and the urbanists to support the viability of nature. This urban-to-
rural transect hierarchy has appropriate building and street types for each area along
the continuum.
7. Increased Density
-More buildings, residences, shops, and services closer together for ease of walking, to
enable a more efficient use of services and resources, and to create a more convenient,
enjoyable place to live.
-New Urbanism design principles are applied at the full range of densities from small
towns, to large cities
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
8. Smart Transportation
-A network of high-quality trains connecting cities, towns, and neighbourhoods
together
-Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of bicycles, rollerblades,
scooters, and walking as daily transportation
9. Sustainability
-Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations
-Eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology and value of natural systems
-Energy efficiency
-Less use of finite fuels
-More local production
-More walking, less driving
10. Quality of Life
Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth living, and create
places that enrich, uplift, and inspire the human spirit.
BENEFITS OF NEW URBANISM
1. BENEFITS TO RESIDENTS
Higher quality of life; Better places to live, work, & play; Higher, more stable property
values; Less traffic congestion & less driving; Healthier lifestyle with more walking, and
less stress; Close proximity to main street retail & services; Close proximity to bike trails,
parks, and nature; Pedestrian friendly communities offer more opportunities to get to
know others in the neighbourhood and town, resulting in meaningful relationships
with more people, and a friendlier town; More freedom and independence to children,
elderly, and the poor in being able to get to jobs, recreation, and services without the
need for a car or someone to drive them; Great savings to residents and school boards
in reduced busing costs from children being able to walk or bicycle to neighbourhood
schools; More diversity and smaller, unique shops and services with local owners who
are involved in community; Big savings by driving less, and owning less cars; Less ugly,
congested sprawl to deal with daily; Better sense of place and community identity
with more unique architecture; More open space to enjoy that will remain open space;
More efficient use of tax money with less spent on spread out utilities and roads.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
2. BENEFITS TO BUSINESSES
Increased sales due to more foot traffic & people spending less on cars and gas; More
profits due to spending less on advertising and large signs; Better lifestyle by living
above shop in live-work units - saves the stressful & costly commute; Economies of
scale in marketing due to close proximity and cooperation with other local businesses;
Smaller spaces promote small local business incubation; Lower rents due to smaller
spaces & smaller parking lots; Healthier lifestyle due to more walking and being near
healthier restaurants; More community involvement from being part of community
and knowing residents
3. BENEFITS TO DEVELOPERS
More income potential from higher density mixed-use projects due to more leasable
square footage, more sales per square foot, and higher property values and selling
prices; Faster approvals in communities that have adopted smart growth principles
resulting in cost / time savings; Cost savings in parking facilities in mixed-use
properties due to sharing of spaces throughout the day and night, resulting in less
duplication in providing parking; Less need for parking facilities due to mix of
residences and commercial uses within walking distance of each other; Less impact on
roads / traffic, which can result in lower impact fees; Lower cost of utilities due to
compact nature of New Urbanist design; Greater acceptance by the public and less
resistance from NIMBYS; Faster sell out due to greater acceptance by consumers from
a wider product range resulting in wider market share
4. BENEFITS TO MUNICIPALITIES
Stable, appreciating tax base; Less spent per capita on infrastructure and utilities than
typical suburban development due to compact, high-density nature of projects;
Increased tax base due to more buildings packed into a tighter area; Less traffic
congestion due to walkability of design; Less crime and less spent on policing due to
the presence of more people day and night; Less resistance from community; Better
overall community image and sense of place; Less incentive to sprawl when urban
core area is desirable; Easy to install transit where it's not, and improve it where it is;
Greater civic involvement of population leads to better governance
WAYS TO IMPLEMENT NEW URBANISM
The most effective way to implement New Urbanism is to plan for it, and write it into
zoning and development codes. This directs all future development into this form.
New Urbanism is best planned at all levels of development:
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
The single building
Groups of buildings
The urban block
The neighbourhood
Networks of neighbourhoods
Towns
Cities
Regions
TRAFFIC AND ROAD NETWORK
A)TRAFFIC, TRANSPORT, TRIP, DESTINATION AND DEMAND
TRAFFIC on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded
animals, vehicles, street cars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together,
while using the public way for purposes of travel.
TRANSPORT or TRANSPORTATION, is the movement of humans, animals and goods
from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a
particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A (a place in space) to a
point B.
Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space.
The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations.
Transport enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of
civilizations.
TRIP Terms for a course of travel made to a particular place, usually for some specific
purpose.
DESTINATION The place to which someone or something is going or being sent.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
DEMAND Transportation demand refers to the amount and type of travel people
would choose under specific conditions, taking account factors such as the quality of
transport options available and their prices.
B)TYPES OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM
RAILWAY TRANSPORT
Railway transport development and expansion of railways lays revolutionized transport
system world over.
It is convenient mode of transport for long distance and suitable for carrying heavy
and bulky goods.
It has played a crucial role in industrialization and development of nations.
ROAD TRANSPORT
Road transport is most suitable for short and medium distance where other means are
unable to reach.
It provides door-to-door service, which is not possible with other means.
It is the most promising means of agricultural and industrial advancement of a
country.
Today, it occupies a predominant position in the transport network in the country.
Road transport roads are classified into following 4 categories
1. National highways -these roads link large cities and big industrial centres.
2. State highways -these roads connect all important centres of industry, trade as well
as commerce of the state and also national highways.
3. District roads -these roads connect different parts of district, important industrial
centres, important railway station.
4. Rural roads-these are found in villages both pucca or metalled and kutcha non-
metalled.
WATER TRANSPORT
Are cheapest method of shipping heavy, low value, non –perishable goods. Water
transport can be divided into 2 categories.
INLAND WATER TRANSPORT
it includes natural modes such as navigable rivers and artificial modes
SHIPPING
it is divided into 2 categories.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
(A)coastal shipping (b) overseas shipping
India as a longest coastline of 7,517 km, number of ports,
12 major and 200 non-major ports besides a vast hinterland
It is the most energy efficient and cheapest mode of transport for carriage of bulky
goods like iron and steel, coal, iron ore, timber, etc. over long distance.
AIR TRANSPORT
Is most modern, quickest as well as latest edition to the mode of transport.
Airports are managed by the airports authority of India (AAI). Efforts are on to provide
with the latest scientific technology to ensure passengers safety and quick handling of
passengers and freight traffic.
C)CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS
Rural and urban:
It refers to predominant characteristics of the adjacent land use and not to
jurisdictions boundaries or features of typical cross-section.
Geometric design:
 For geometric design purposes it is essential to divide each of these divisions.
 For a given road geometric design elements are affected by traffic volume.
 However, it is significant for classification only in determining the number of
lanes and whether road should be divided or undivided.
OTHER VARIABLES
Affecting geometric design are:
 Development characteristics of the land surrounding, the road and the travel
habits of the local population.
 The type of terrain road passes through
 Financial resources available
 Population density
 Design speed is the measure of quality and is therefore the final sub division.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
D) TYPES OF TRAFFIC SURVEY
VOLUME SURVEYS
The term traffic volume study can be termed as traffic flow surveyor simply the traffic
survey. It is defined as the procedure to determine mainly volume of traffic moving on
the roads at a particular section during a particular time.
SPEED SURVEYS
A speed survey is the tool we use to determine what the speed limit should be for a
particular section of roadway.
Speed limits provide notice to drivers of the maximum speed limit on a roadway and
are an enforcement tool to assist police in separating violators from the reasonable
majority.
CLASSIFICATION COUNTS
Vehicle classification counts are the backbone of freight analysis. Knowing the number
and mix of trucks on a given roadway improves the understanding of truck
movements in the freight system, how trucks affect traffic operations, and what design
standards should be applied.
YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117
However, there are many different methods that can be used to gather truck data,
each with various levels of accuracy depending on the circumstance in which they are
used.
GAP STUDIES
Gap Study data quantifies the number of gaps in seconds that exist between vehicles
in the major traffic stream at a specific reference point.
Gap studies may be ordered as part of an un signalized turning movement count
studies, providing a cost effective add on to your study. This eliminates the need for
you to extrapolate the data either manually in the field or from the provided video as
part of your TMC study.
TURNING MOVEMENT
Turning Movement Count. Turning Movement Count or most popularly known as
Intersection count is to count pedestrians, cycles or vehicles which are moving
towards an intersection.
The main purpose is to gather the vehicle data to determine the traffic flow in that
direction.
MULTI-LANE CLASSIFICATION
A highway with at least two lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction, with
no control or partial control of access, but that may have periodic interruptions to flow
at signalized intersections not closer than 3.0 km is called as multi-lane highway.
PEDESTRIAN SURVEYS
Pedestrian count surveys collect useful data related to pedestrian traffic behaviour.
They enable the identification of traffic volume, the time taken to cross the road, any
obstructions, and the usage frequency of crossing infrastructure.
LICENSE PLATE SURVEYS
A method of surveying in which license plates are recorded is made economically
possible by use of a computerized vehicle registration system.
In this scheme license plates are recorded as vehicles pass highway stations, and
questionnaires are sent to vehicle owners requesting information on the specific trips.
REFERENCES
https://arcosanti.org/
http://www.newurbanism.org/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_transport
Google images

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Acrosanti

  • 2. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 ACROSANTI – PAOLO SOLERI Arco Santi is an experiential learning centre, sustainable demonstration site, festival/performance venue, and diverse community of cultural activators. The site is a hub for innovators, architects, urbanists, craftspeople, and sustainable thinkers to live and work towards a new social and urban paradigm. Within the architecture, urban idealism breaks free from the design phase, confronting social, economic and environmental realities. Since 1970, over 7,000 activists have participated in Workshop Programs, living and working on the 860-acre site to embody the tenants of Arcology Theory. Arcosanti has been a home for boundary pushing free thinkers for nearly 50 years. BUILDING AND BUILT SPACE The architecture of Arcosanti acts as an experimental proving ground to explore – in a physical and hands on way – the principles of Arcology. As a prototype, the role of Arcosanti is to demonstrate and refine an innovative urban form, preparing salient ideas for implementation. The unique and
  • 3. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 unconventional architecture of the site is geared towards helping citizens think critically about the built environment. Our world is in dire need of a new urban paradigm; Arcosanti is the place where architecture asks citizens to create new norms in regard to how we might be constructing for future generations. Explore each of the key spaces at Arcosanti to see how they engage in our mission. WHAT IS AN ARCOLOGY? Arcology is the fusion of architecture with ecology – a macro-urban design theory and perspective. In nature, as organisms evolve, they increase in complexity and become a more compact or miniaturized system. A city should similarly evolve, functioning as a living system. Architecture and ecology as one integral process, is capable of demonstrating positive response to the many problems of urban civilization – population growth, pollution, energy/natural resource depletion, food scarcity, and quality of life.
  • 4. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 Arcology recognizes the necessity of the radical reorganization of the sprawling urban landscape into dense, integrated, three-dimensional cities in order to support the complex activities that sustain human culture and environmental balance. The city is the necessary instrument for the evolution of humankind. LEAN ALTERNATIVES  URBAN SCALE AS HUMAN SCALE Pedestrian Environment Human Scale Development appropriates our built environments for the proportions of man. As it stands, our environments are tailored for the automobile – a technology that is proving to be dangerous for the environment, and the populace. 50% of the modern American city is devoted to the car, while automobile usage amounts to 5-10% of the citizens’ day. Human scale requires a densely organized urban environment where the primary means of transportation is the human herself, aided with public mobility/transportation.
  • 5. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  BOUNDED DENSITY Ecological envelope Urban growth boundaries are a common element of modern American city-planning, though they are often the result of efforts to protect remaining farmland and other rural or open spaces, rather than efforts to enhance the cities themselves. In Arcology, bounded density is understood as a means of protecting the environment, of course, but it is also understood as a cornerstone of true urban design and living. Rather than sprawling outward toward a prescribed limit (which may still exceed the resource capacity of the actual environment), Arcology seeks to grow upward and inward.  MARGINALIZED CONSUMPTION Embodied Efficiency By utilizing available technologies, such as passive climate controlling architecture; innovative water & sewage treatment systems; and sustainably sourced, green building materials; we manifest a lean alternative. Acrosanti’s design supports and propagates the reduction of material and energy consumption and an increased quality of life within an Arcology.
  • 6. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  ELEGANT FRUGALITY Creative Resourcefulness “Do more with less” is a fundamental Solerian axiom. The French might call it “briccolage” — something constructed from a diverse range of available resources. In an age of excess, our design seeks to craft space where the frugal utilization of material necessities cultivates beauty. An aesthetic in juxtaposition to rudimentary material affluence.
  • 7. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117  FOOD & ENERGY NEXUS Urban Agriculture As property values warrant residential/commercial development in growing cities, farmland is pushed far away from the urban centre. As a result, citizens are increasingly detached from where and how their meals are sourced. In the urban form of Arcology, the citizens are connected with the production of food in a way that confirms the necessity of robust agriculture systems.  URBAN EFFECT Proximity and Vibrancy In cities around the world, they empirically observe the benefits of combining functions and activities within urban space. Properties such as enhanced city safety, a vibrant sense of community, and utility efficiency all add up to a truly beneficial urban form. The crucial spaces within the city become shared, public spaces – accessible by all, respected in common, thriving with socialization, confrontation and growth. With mixed-use space, we acknowledge that the city can become much more than the sum of its parts.
  • 8. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 NEW URBANISM New urbanism is a movement that started initially in the United States which became popular all over the world over the last few decades. This is a movement that promotes walkable and diverse neighbourhoods that are environmentally friendly. There are various key principles and elements that are included in the concept of New Urbanism. Real estate planning and development along with local government planning for the neighbourhoods are included in New Urbanism. New Urbanism is a concept that can be adopted by real estate developers planning a single building or construction and New Urbanism can be the guiding principle of planning and development of towns and cities. THE PRINCIPLES OF NEW URBANISM The principles of New Urbanism can be applied increasingly to projects at the full range of scales from a single building to an entire community. 1. Walkability -Most things within a 10-minute walk of home and work -Pedestrian friendly street design (buildings close to street; porches, windows & doors; tree-lined streets; on street parking; hidden parking lots; garages in rear lane; narrow, slow speed streets) -Pedestrian streets free of cars in special cases 2. Connectivity -Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic & eases walking -A hierarchy of narrow streets, boulevards, and alleys
  • 9. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 -High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking pleasurable 3. Mixed-Use & Diversity -A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site. Mixed-use within neighbourhoods, within blocks, and within buildings -Diversity of people - of ages, income levels, cultures, and races 4. Mixed Housing A range of types, sizes and prices in closer proximity 5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a sense of place; Special placement of civic uses and sites within community. Human scale architecture & beautiful surroundings nourish the human spirit 6. Traditional Neighbourhood Structure -Discernible centre and edge -Public space at centre -Importance of quality public realm; public open space designed as civic art -Contains a range of uses and densities within 10-minute walk -Transect planning: Highest densities at town centre; progressively less dense towards the edge. The transect is an analytical system that conceptualizes mutually reinforcing elements, creating a series of specific natural habitats and/or urban lifestyle settings. The Transect integrates environmental methodology for habitat assessment with zoning methodology for community design. The professional boundary between the natural and man-made disappears, enabling environmentalists to assess the design of the human habitat and the urbanists to support the viability of nature. This urban-to- rural transect hierarchy has appropriate building and street types for each area along the continuum. 7. Increased Density -More buildings, residences, shops, and services closer together for ease of walking, to enable a more efficient use of services and resources, and to create a more convenient, enjoyable place to live. -New Urbanism design principles are applied at the full range of densities from small towns, to large cities
  • 10. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 8. Smart Transportation -A network of high-quality trains connecting cities, towns, and neighbourhoods together -Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of bicycles, rollerblades, scooters, and walking as daily transportation 9. Sustainability -Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations -Eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology and value of natural systems -Energy efficiency -Less use of finite fuels -More local production -More walking, less driving 10. Quality of Life Taken together these add up to a high quality of life well worth living, and create places that enrich, uplift, and inspire the human spirit. BENEFITS OF NEW URBANISM 1. BENEFITS TO RESIDENTS Higher quality of life; Better places to live, work, & play; Higher, more stable property values; Less traffic congestion & less driving; Healthier lifestyle with more walking, and less stress; Close proximity to main street retail & services; Close proximity to bike trails, parks, and nature; Pedestrian friendly communities offer more opportunities to get to know others in the neighbourhood and town, resulting in meaningful relationships with more people, and a friendlier town; More freedom and independence to children, elderly, and the poor in being able to get to jobs, recreation, and services without the need for a car or someone to drive them; Great savings to residents and school boards in reduced busing costs from children being able to walk or bicycle to neighbourhood schools; More diversity and smaller, unique shops and services with local owners who are involved in community; Big savings by driving less, and owning less cars; Less ugly, congested sprawl to deal with daily; Better sense of place and community identity with more unique architecture; More open space to enjoy that will remain open space; More efficient use of tax money with less spent on spread out utilities and roads.
  • 11. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 2. BENEFITS TO BUSINESSES Increased sales due to more foot traffic & people spending less on cars and gas; More profits due to spending less on advertising and large signs; Better lifestyle by living above shop in live-work units - saves the stressful & costly commute; Economies of scale in marketing due to close proximity and cooperation with other local businesses; Smaller spaces promote small local business incubation; Lower rents due to smaller spaces & smaller parking lots; Healthier lifestyle due to more walking and being near healthier restaurants; More community involvement from being part of community and knowing residents 3. BENEFITS TO DEVELOPERS More income potential from higher density mixed-use projects due to more leasable square footage, more sales per square foot, and higher property values and selling prices; Faster approvals in communities that have adopted smart growth principles resulting in cost / time savings; Cost savings in parking facilities in mixed-use properties due to sharing of spaces throughout the day and night, resulting in less duplication in providing parking; Less need for parking facilities due to mix of residences and commercial uses within walking distance of each other; Less impact on roads / traffic, which can result in lower impact fees; Lower cost of utilities due to compact nature of New Urbanist design; Greater acceptance by the public and less resistance from NIMBYS; Faster sell out due to greater acceptance by consumers from a wider product range resulting in wider market share 4. BENEFITS TO MUNICIPALITIES Stable, appreciating tax base; Less spent per capita on infrastructure and utilities than typical suburban development due to compact, high-density nature of projects; Increased tax base due to more buildings packed into a tighter area; Less traffic congestion due to walkability of design; Less crime and less spent on policing due to the presence of more people day and night; Less resistance from community; Better overall community image and sense of place; Less incentive to sprawl when urban core area is desirable; Easy to install transit where it's not, and improve it where it is; Greater civic involvement of population leads to better governance WAYS TO IMPLEMENT NEW URBANISM The most effective way to implement New Urbanism is to plan for it, and write it into zoning and development codes. This directs all future development into this form. New Urbanism is best planned at all levels of development:
  • 12. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 The single building Groups of buildings The urban block The neighbourhood Networks of neighbourhoods Towns Cities Regions TRAFFIC AND ROAD NETWORK A)TRAFFIC, TRANSPORT, TRIP, DESTINATION AND DEMAND TRAFFIC on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, street cars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. TRANSPORT or TRANSPORTATION, is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A (a place in space) to a point B. Modes of transport include air, land (rail and road), water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations. TRIP Terms for a course of travel made to a particular place, usually for some specific purpose. DESTINATION The place to which someone or something is going or being sent.
  • 13. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 DEMAND Transportation demand refers to the amount and type of travel people would choose under specific conditions, taking account factors such as the quality of transport options available and their prices. B)TYPES OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM RAILWAY TRANSPORT Railway transport development and expansion of railways lays revolutionized transport system world over. It is convenient mode of transport for long distance and suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. It has played a crucial role in industrialization and development of nations. ROAD TRANSPORT Road transport is most suitable for short and medium distance where other means are unable to reach. It provides door-to-door service, which is not possible with other means. It is the most promising means of agricultural and industrial advancement of a country. Today, it occupies a predominant position in the transport network in the country. Road transport roads are classified into following 4 categories 1. National highways -these roads link large cities and big industrial centres. 2. State highways -these roads connect all important centres of industry, trade as well as commerce of the state and also national highways. 3. District roads -these roads connect different parts of district, important industrial centres, important railway station. 4. Rural roads-these are found in villages both pucca or metalled and kutcha non- metalled. WATER TRANSPORT Are cheapest method of shipping heavy, low value, non –perishable goods. Water transport can be divided into 2 categories. INLAND WATER TRANSPORT it includes natural modes such as navigable rivers and artificial modes SHIPPING it is divided into 2 categories.
  • 14. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 (A)coastal shipping (b) overseas shipping India as a longest coastline of 7,517 km, number of ports, 12 major and 200 non-major ports besides a vast hinterland It is the most energy efficient and cheapest mode of transport for carriage of bulky goods like iron and steel, coal, iron ore, timber, etc. over long distance. AIR TRANSPORT Is most modern, quickest as well as latest edition to the mode of transport. Airports are managed by the airports authority of India (AAI). Efforts are on to provide with the latest scientific technology to ensure passengers safety and quick handling of passengers and freight traffic. C)CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS Rural and urban: It refers to predominant characteristics of the adjacent land use and not to jurisdictions boundaries or features of typical cross-section. Geometric design:  For geometric design purposes it is essential to divide each of these divisions.  For a given road geometric design elements are affected by traffic volume.  However, it is significant for classification only in determining the number of lanes and whether road should be divided or undivided. OTHER VARIABLES Affecting geometric design are:  Development characteristics of the land surrounding, the road and the travel habits of the local population.  The type of terrain road passes through  Financial resources available  Population density  Design speed is the measure of quality and is therefore the final sub division.
  • 15. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 D) TYPES OF TRAFFIC SURVEY VOLUME SURVEYS The term traffic volume study can be termed as traffic flow surveyor simply the traffic survey. It is defined as the procedure to determine mainly volume of traffic moving on the roads at a particular section during a particular time. SPEED SURVEYS A speed survey is the tool we use to determine what the speed limit should be for a particular section of roadway. Speed limits provide notice to drivers of the maximum speed limit on a roadway and are an enforcement tool to assist police in separating violators from the reasonable majority. CLASSIFICATION COUNTS Vehicle classification counts are the backbone of freight analysis. Knowing the number and mix of trucks on a given roadway improves the understanding of truck movements in the freight system, how trucks affect traffic operations, and what design standards should be applied.
  • 16. YAMINI | 1BQ16AT117 However, there are many different methods that can be used to gather truck data, each with various levels of accuracy depending on the circumstance in which they are used. GAP STUDIES Gap Study data quantifies the number of gaps in seconds that exist between vehicles in the major traffic stream at a specific reference point. Gap studies may be ordered as part of an un signalized turning movement count studies, providing a cost effective add on to your study. This eliminates the need for you to extrapolate the data either manually in the field or from the provided video as part of your TMC study. TURNING MOVEMENT Turning Movement Count. Turning Movement Count or most popularly known as Intersection count is to count pedestrians, cycles or vehicles which are moving towards an intersection. The main purpose is to gather the vehicle data to determine the traffic flow in that direction. MULTI-LANE CLASSIFICATION A highway with at least two lanes for the exclusive use of traffic in each direction, with no control or partial control of access, but that may have periodic interruptions to flow at signalized intersections not closer than 3.0 km is called as multi-lane highway. PEDESTRIAN SURVEYS Pedestrian count surveys collect useful data related to pedestrian traffic behaviour. They enable the identification of traffic volume, the time taken to cross the road, any obstructions, and the usage frequency of crossing infrastructure. LICENSE PLATE SURVEYS A method of surveying in which license plates are recorded is made economically possible by use of a computerized vehicle registration system. In this scheme license plates are recorded as vehicles pass highway stations, and questionnaires are sent to vehicle owners requesting information on the specific trips. REFERENCES https://arcosanti.org/ http://www.newurbanism.org/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_transport Google images