Emerging substances of concern are a new “old” problem recognized in last decade - complex micro pollutants with chronic doses.Why are we talking about something that is micro in the world where macro pollutants are still an unsolved problem? Whit significant increase of population chemicals used every day, in micro and nanodoses today represent chronical pollutants with unknown fate in environment. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are one of those chemicals which are not harmful in small doses to organic life but due to constant dosage their impact can be potentially significant.
Due to their adverse nature PPCPs can be considered extremely persistent simply because their continual infusion into the aquatic environment which serves to sustain continuous life-cycle exposures of most sensitive aquatic and other organisms.
Dual nature of problem - Sensitivity of microorganisms/Resistance of microorganisms to a specificPPCP product but not to the metabolites…
Despite the fact that wastewater treatment process is well controlled there are still situations when after all parameters are check there is a problem with low microorganism activity.Assessed in small-scale WWT bioreactors with different concentrations of several commonly used pharmaceuticals
In the beginning of WWT system developmentin Serbia was observed in last decade.From the content of pharmaceuticals in waste water of Serbia it can be determent which illnesses are most common - gastrointestinal inflammation, cardiovascular disease, cancer.
Developing countries do not have the luxury of making many (if any?) mistakes in processes of environmental protection system development.
1-3_3. impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, maja sremacki
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of technical sciences, Department for environmental engineering and occupational safety Impact of PPCPs on evolution ofwastewater treatment in developing countries Authors: Maja Sremački, M.Sc. Jovana Simić, M.Sc. Milena Stošić, M.Sc. Srđan Kovačević, M.Sc. 17. May 2012. YWP Conference, Sofia, Bulgaria
Characteristics of PPCPs• PPCPs – large variety of characteristics and chemical forms – small organic molecules, – large polymers – high polymorphism potential, – introduction into the environment after human metabolism, – complex chemical structure, – High ionization potential…• Relevant processes regarding PPCPs in the environment include • sorption to soils and sediments, • complexation with metals and organics, • chemical oxidation, photolysis, volatilization, biodegradation...
Possible exposure routes of PPCPs into environment
PPCPs – chemicals used every day• Dual nature of problem with PPCPs in water• Ciprofloxacin – can alter and be altered by the metabolism and effects of other drugs. – fluoroquinolone class – antibiotics used for treatment of bacterial infections. – stops the multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their DNA.• Ibuprofen – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug – high global consumption rate – rapidly excreted in various forms, which not only have high acute toxicity, but are also suspected of endocrine disrupting activity in human and wildlife– CIPRO and IBN in the same body – high possibility of toxic effect.
WWT process and potential impact of PPCPs• Carefully considered and controllable process – designed to take advantage and maximize a microorganism ability to decompose OM.• Low microorganism activity?• Bacteria responsible for N/P sensitivity to PPCPs.• The effect of pharmaceuticals on bacterial community structure in AS process (Kraigher et al. 2008). – Analyses of the bacterial rRNA genes indicated a minor but consistent shift in bacterial community structure in a bioreactor supplied with pharmaceuticals.
Elimination techniques• Low cost – Dilution – Temperature – SRT – HRT• High cost – Viability – T&E optimum – O&M – Development
Elimination rates• Paths of infiltration β-blockers diverse results - <10 to 80% • can be explained with a fact that studies followed only water samples. Elimination rate [%] Cipro CBZ Excreted unchanged [%] 1-3 33 CAS (7days) 86 - 44 *Joss et al. ≤60* Denitrifying (11 days) 79 - 193 Ditch oxidation (3 days) 96 - 32• PPCPs could be removed from water due to sorption to sludge and still remain a treat for environment.
Serbia• 70 to 84% of state are rural municipalities – projected plan for WWTP is small standard 2-step treatment plant. Factor WDS SCS WWTP Total Municipalities ~ 150 ~ 100 ~ 20 168 Households 2.101.767 1.359.385 ~300.000 2.497.187 Population ~ 6.000.000 ~ 4.500.000 ~ 700.000 7.120.666• Increasing trend of consumption• Studies (indirectly) have shown that PPCPs in wastewater are: – detergents and sops, – caffeine, ibuprofen, diclophenac – fluoroquinolones, – β-blockers and cytostatic drugs.
Planed activities…• Activities – Legislation overview and suggestions for modification. – Research and development of detailed study for influence of targeted and present PPCPs in • Waste water • Ground water • Surface water• Sampling sites – Municipality of Novi Sad – Municipality of Subotica
…and research• Methods and parameters – TSS, VSS, ON, IN, ammo- niacal itrogen, TC, IC, TOC – SPE, GC/MS• Aim of research – Targeted PPCPs and metabolites, determina- tion their possible impact on WWT processes
Summary• Analyses of predicted sites for WWTP.• The PPCPs monitoring will be of great importance in future.• Removal technology for ESOCs may prove essential for handling of today’s mixtures WW.• These substances are unpredictable and it is necessary to promptly address and acknowledge their existence in water and WW in order to maximize the treatment efficiency.
Presenter: Maja Sremački M.Sc. of environmental engineering and occupational safety, PhD. student Faculty of technical sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia E-mail: email@example.comLet us thinking ahead… then, who knows?Thank You for the attention…