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Nanotechnology in food processing and food packaging

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Nanotechnology in food processing and food packaging

  1. 1. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKING YAMUNA KURIAN MVSc Scholar DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS TECHNOLOGY College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PookodeMAJOR ADVISOR: Dr. RENUKA NAYAR
  2. 2. Nanotechnology • Atomic and molecular level study • Structures sized between 1 to 100 nanometer in at least one dimension • Developing or modifying materials or devices within that size • Novel properties • Components should remain at nanometer scale • Involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale -National Nanotechnology Initiative
  3. 3. History RICHARD FEYNMAN (1918-1988) Photo courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Weber Father of nanotechnology “There is plenty of room at the bottom” 1959
  4. 4. NorioTaniguchi Eric Drexler Harry Kroto Photo courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Weber
  5. 5. Nanoscale
  6. 6. Nano in nature Fat Globule Diameter: 0.1-100μm (500x) Fat Globule Diameter: 0.1-100μm Casein Micelles: 20-400nm (50000x) From H. Mulder and P. Walstra, The Milk Fat Globule, Pudoc, Wageningen, 1974
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE AGRICULTURE ELECTRONICS POLYMER INDUSTRY FOOD INDUSTRY
  8. 8. Improvement in food processing sector by nanotechnology application Improved organoleptic characteristics High bioavailability High absorption rate Masking taste and flavour Targeted and controlled release
  9. 9. Nanotechnology in food processing •Nanoencapsulation •Nano emulsion
  10. 10. Nanoencapsulation •Nanocapsules •Liposomes •Colloidosomes •Nanocochleates •Nanofibers •Nanotubes
  11. 11. Cont..... • Nano encapsulation can make significant savings for formulators, as it can reduce the amount of active ingredients needed (Huang et al., 2009). • Improvement of site specific drug delivery can be achieved by encapsulating nano – poly D,L – lactic Acid(PLA) with drugs ( Leroux et al., 2006)
  12. 12. Courtesy:http://what-when- how.com/wp-content Schematic representation of oil filled nanocapsule Nanocapsules • Organic, inorganic or biological • Have a shell and a core • Cavity empty or filled with polar or nonpolar solvent • Size <200nm
  13. 13. Source:http://icbpharma.pl
  14. 14. Nanoliposomes Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity(Lin et al.,2014)
  15. 15. Cont.... •Multi-layered leak resistant liposomes as a way to encapsulate anti-bacterials like nisin •Encapsulated nanoemulsions are better than free nisin (Weiss et al., 2011)
  16. 16. •Colloidosomes are used to contain fat blockers, medicine and vitamins (Xia et al.,2006) •Proposed to form water-soluble nanoparticles with entrapped β-carotene of controlled functionality (Markarios, 2009)
  17. 17. Nanocochleates •Nanocoils which wrap around nutrients and stabilize them •Made out of soy based phospholipid
  18. 18. Product marketed - as a tool for protecting ω-3 fatty acids - with claims upon enhanced stability (BioGeode™, by BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc., Raleigh, NC, USA). Cont.
  19. 19. Nanofibers • Electrospinning • Food packaging • Scaffold for bacterial cultures • Imitation/Artificial foods The use of intercalated clay or the inclusion of nanofibres within the walls of otherwise porous plastic bottles Courtesy: http://www.cdrnd.co.uk
  20. 20. Nanotubes • To immobilize enzymes • Build analogues to muscle fibres • Encapsulate nutrients or nutraceuticals A field emission scanning electron micrograph of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) penetrating the pleura of the lung. Image courtesy of Robert Mercer, and Diane Schwegler-Berry.Triple-walled armchair carbon nanotube rendered in POVRay.source: EricWeiser http://creative commons.org
  21. 21. Cont.... •Nanotubes of α-lactalbumin - cavity diametre of 8 nm - bind - vitamins or enzymes (Srinivas et al.,2010) •Nanotubes of α-lactalbumin - mask undesirable flavour/aroma compounds (Graveland et al., 2006).
  22. 22. Nanoemulsions • Nanomicelle • Nanostructured multiple emulsions - o/w/o - w/o/w Nanomicelle (Courtesy: NanoBioNet) • Canola oil based nano sized micellar system - delivery of materials such as vitamins, minerals or phytochemicals (Chen et al., 2006) • Nano sized emulsion-based ice cream -lower fat content -Nestle and Unilever (Renton, 2006)
  23. 23. (Weiss, 2006) Emulsions containing oil droplets surrounded by multilayer interfaces - better stability than conventional oil-in-water emulsions – can develop smart delivery systems by engineering - shell around the droplet Schematic representation for formation of a number of nanolayers around particles
  24. 24. Nanoscience in food packaging 2008 2014 $4.13billion $7.3 billion www.innoresearch .net
  25. 25. Advantages of Nano-based packing Nano packing Improved mechanical and barrier properties Antimicrobial effect Traceability and biosensing
  26. 26. Applications of nanocomposites in packaging (Bradley, 2007) Polymer nanocomposites Nano coatings Surface biocides Bioplastics Biosensors
  27. 27. POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES • Clay and silicates (Duncan , 2011) • Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (Fernandez et al., 2011 ) • Starch- clay nanocomposites (Avella et al., 2011) • Carbon nanotubes(Zhao et al., 2007) • Chitosan nanocomposites (Li et al., 2005) • Cellulose based nanofibers (Azeredo et al., 2010)
  28. 28. Nanocoating • Nanocoating inside package outside package sandwiched as a layer in laminated multilayer packaging films • Polymer + nanocoating High barrier property. • Edible coatings and films - on a wide variety of foods -serve as moisture, lipid and gas barriers ( Cagri et al., 2004)
  29. 29. Nanosilica coated nylon http://juwinpnb.gobizkorea.com/
  30. 30. Nano surface biocides • Nanoparticle with antimicrobial property • Used in reusable container refrigerators and freezers • High ratio of surface area to mass • Chemicals commonly used are nano silver, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide and magnesium oxide
  31. 31. Cont… Mechanism Ultrasonically dispersedTiO2 nanoparticles over EVOH films showed photoactivated biocidal property against microbes (Kim et al.,2003) Directly interacting with microbial cells Producing secondary products
  32. 32. Cont.. • Nano zinc oxide coated films - effective against Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes - for liquid egg packaging (Jim et al., 2008) • Oxygen scavenger films developed by adding Titania nanoparticles to different polymers (Xiao et al., 2004)
  33. 33. Nanobioplastics • Biodegradable or compostable • Obtained from renewable source • Improved water resistance for cellulose bioplastics –by adding nanocardanol particle (Kiuchi, 2006) • Biodegradable and compostable bioplastics packaging (CSIRO 2006) from organic corn starch (PlanticTechnologies Ltd, Altona, Australia) http://www.materialsviews.com
  34. 34. Nanobiosensors • Nanosensors can detect certain chemicals, microbes and toxins • Provides real time status about food (Liao et al., 2005) • Carbon coated copper nanoparticle – used as moisture sensor (Luechinger et al.,2007)
  35. 35. Possible risks Courtesy:The Energy and Resources Institute 2010 • Can enter into body through ingestion, inhalation or dermal contact • Able to disrupt cellular, enzymatic and other organ related functions posing health hazards • Can become non biodegradable waste http://Nanomission.gov.in
  36. 36. Nanotechnology in India – an overview • Nanoscience andTechnology Mission (NSTM) in 2007, allotted Rs. 1000 crores for a period of five years under DST. • In theTwelfth FiveYear Plan (2012-2017) continuation of the Mission on Nano Science andTechnology (Nano Mission) in its Phase-II at a total cost of Rs. 650 crore.
  37. 37. Source: Constructed from DST (dst.gov.in/scientific-programme/ser-nsti.htm)
  38. 38. Future perspectives • Research and development Application level • Made into cost effective products that can be commercialized • Research on health effects • Regulations
  39. 39. References 1. Avella M, DeVlieger JJ, Errico ME, Fischer S,Vacca P,Volpe MG. 2005. Biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposite films for food packaging applications. Food Chem93:467–74. 2. Azeredo HMC, Mattoso LHC,Wood D,WilliamsTG, Avena-Bustillos RJ, McHugh TH.2009. Nanocomposite edible films from mango puree reinforced with cellulosenanofibers. J Food Sci 74(5):N31–N35. 3. Cagri, A., Z. Ustunol and E.T. Ryser., (2004), Antimicrobial edible films and coatings, J. Food Prot., 67, pp. 833–48. 4.Chen, L.Y., Remondetto, G. E., and Subirade, M., (2006), Food protein based materials as nutraceutical delivery systems,Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17, pp. 272 – 283. 10. 5. CSIRO. (2006). Farm factories: harvesting bioplastics. http://www.solve.csiro.au/0806/article6.htm Accessed 20 June 2009 6. Fernandez, A.,Torres-Giner, S., & Lagaron, J. M. (2009). Novel route to stabilization of bioactive antioxidants by encapsulation in electrospun fibers of zein prolamine. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(5), 1427–1432.
  40. 40. 7. Graveland-Bikker, J.F.; de Kruif, C.G. Unique milk protein-based nanotubes: food and nanotechnology meet,Trends Food Sci.Technol. 2006, 17, 196–203. 8.Huang Q, Given P, and Qian M, (2009), Micro/Nano Encapsulation ofActive Food Ingredients. Oxford University Press, Eds... 9.Jim D. Nanotechnology its impact on food safety. Journal of Environmental Health, 2008. January/February, 47-50. 10. Leroux,J.C,Allemann E, Gutny R. Biodegradable nanoparticles – from sustained release formulations to improved site specific drug delivery. J. Control. Rel.39, 19. 11. Li,Y.,YHT, C. U., & Luo, D. (2005). Multiplexed detection of pathogen DNA with DNA-based fluorescence nanobarcodes.Nature Biotechnology, 23, 885–889. 12. Lin. L,Cui,H.,zhang,h.,liu,l. Nanoliposomes containing Eucalyptus citriodora as antibiotic with specific antimicrobial activity.j.chem. comm.2015,13,2653-2655 6. Fathi M, Mirlohi M,Varshosaz J, Madani G. 2013a. Novel caffeic acid nanocarrier: production, characterization, and release modeling. J Nanomater 2013: p 9. Article ID 434632. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/434632.
  41. 41. Cont. 12. Miss Baker’s Biology ClassWiki – Makarios Available from:http://missbakersbiologyclasswiki.wikispaces.com/MakariosAccessed 24 March 2009 13. Renton, A., (2006), Welcome to the world of nanofoods. Guardian Unlimited UK Availableat:http://observer.guardian.co.uk/foodmonthly/futureoffood/story/ 14.Weiss, J.2006Functional Materials in Food Nanotechnology,j.food sci.71,9 15. Zhao, X., Hilliard, L. R., Mechrey, S. J.,Wang,Y., Bague, R.P., Jin, S., et al. A rapid bioassay for single bacterial cellquantitation using bioconjugated nanoparticles.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101,2004, 15027 – 15032
  42. 42. THANK YOU

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