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Y2CP La prévention de l'épuisement professionnel - Preventing burnout


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La prévention de l'épuisement professionnel : le défi des cadres au sein du gouvernement du Canada.

Preventing burnout: The executive challenge in the Canadian Government.

Published in: Career
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Y2CP La prévention de l'épuisement professionnel - Preventing burnout

  1. 1. © Y2CP . Yaniv M Benzimra, Ph.D., & Yannick Mailloux, Ph.D. Burnout : The Executive Challenge Épuisement professionnel : Le défi des cadres supérieurs
  2. 2. Presentation Plan <ul><li>1. What is burnout? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How does burnout develop? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Group exercise </li></ul><ul><li>4. Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>5. Causes of burnout </li></ul><ul><li>6. Prevention of burnout </li></ul>© Y2CP
  3. 3. Portrait de la situation actuelle <ul><li>En 1999, une étude de Santé Canada rapportait que 40 % des travailleurs canadiens éprouvent de grandes difficultés à concilier leurs responsabilités professionnelles et leurs obligations familiales. </li></ul><ul><li>3 400 000 canadiens présentaient des symptômes d’épuisement professionnel (Statistique Canada, 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40 % attribuable aux facteurs individuels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 % attribuable aux facteurs organisationnels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>48% des absentéismes ont comme source une “dimension de santé mentale” </li></ul>© Y2CP
  4. 4. The Executive Reality (APEX) <ul><li>APEX 2007 study on the Health and Well-Being of Executives – main results: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and technology -- 75% of EX-01s, EX-02s; </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Harassement (and tormented) – 25% of EX-01s and EX-02s; </li></ul><ul><li>Level of stress seems to decrease as you move up the corporate ladder – but still high for all levels in general. </li></ul>© Y2CP
  5. 5. The Executive Reality (APEX) <ul><li>Maslach Burnout Index: </li></ul><ul><li>Measures perceptions of accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, and levels of cynicism . </li></ul><ul><li>There were high scores for all dimensions on the burnout scales </li></ul><ul><li>75% were in the high range for fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>S till 84% had high scores for a sense of accomplishment! </li></ul><ul><li>B urnout has a tendency to increase turnover, reduce commitment and engagement and also reduce productivity </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the level the greater the job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Main issues of concern remain hours at work and workload </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 10% of executives rate their health as poor! </li></ul>© Y2CP
  6. 6. The Executive Reality (APEX) <ul><li>In the last year, 68% of executives have made efforts to improve their health: </li></ul><ul><li>68 % increased physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>36 % lost weight </li></ul><ul><li>23.5 % drank less </li></ul><ul><li>19 % took vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>8 % changed diet </li></ul><ul><li>10% quit smoking </li></ul><ul><li>When asked if their organization supported their effort to improve their health, only 12 % said yes! </li></ul><ul><li>Problem drinking has gone up slightly from 10.8 % in 2002 to 11.6 % in 2007 </li></ul>© Y2CP
  7. 7. Executive health and well-being (APEX) © Y2CP
  8. 8. 1. What is burnout? <ul><li>It is generally diagnosed as an adjustment disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Burnout can be compared to an imbalance in that a high level of stress affects the person both physically and psychologically. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO: “Intense fatigue, loss of control and inability to achieve concrete results at work .” </li></ul><ul><li>According to Schaufeli and Enzman (1998) : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Burnout is a persistent, negative, work-related state of mind i n &quot;normal&quot; individuals that is primarily characterized by exhaustion, which is accompanied by distress, a sense of reduced effectiveness, decreased motivation, and development of dysfunctional attitudes and behaviors at work .” </li></ul>© Y2CP
  9. 9. 1. Qu’est-ce que l’épuisement professionnel ? <ul><li>1.2 Épuisement professionnel </li></ul><ul><li>Détresse psychologique nécessairement lié au travail </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestation de colère </li></ul><ul><li>Aucune idéation suicidaire </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuation de poids négligeable </li></ul><ul><li>Dépression </li></ul><ul><li>Détresse psychologique qui n’est pas nécessairement lié au travail </li></ul><ul><li>Absence de colère </li></ul><ul><li>Présence d’idéation suicidaire </li></ul><ul><li>Perte de l’appétit </li></ul>© Y2CP
  10. 10. 2. Processus de d éveloppement de l’épuisement <ul><li>Un processus de désillusion </li></ul><ul><li>L’épuisement professionnel est un processus qui se développe en plusieurs phases. Il s’agit essentiellement d’un cheminement plus ou moins long où le poids de la désillusion est de plus en plus lourd à porter. </li></ul><ul><li>Ce processus de désillusion se décompose en quatre phases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La phase des attentes irréalistes (Unrealistic expectations phase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La phase du désenchantement (Disenchantment phase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La phase de la morosité (Sulleness phase) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La phase du dépérissement (Despondency phase) </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  11. 11. From Stress to Burnout (Benzimra, Y.M., 2002) Social support Family, partner, friends, etc. Supervisors Colleagues Stress Coping Strategies Distress (Burnout) Stressors © Y2CP
  12. 12. What is stress? <ul><li>An imbalance between demands and ability to meet those demands in an allotted time frame . </li></ul><ul><li>What is Burnout? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Burn-out” is an organizational phenomenon associated with high work demands in combination with </li></ul><ul><li>reduced access to resources </li></ul>© Y2CP
  13. 13. 3. Group Exercise <ul><li>Split into four groups.... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 1: Recognizing Staff Burnout & What to Do About It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 2: Suffering from burnout? Should I tell my SUPERIOR? </li></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  14. 14. 4. Symptoms <ul><li>4.1 Physical Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic fatigue, exhaustion ( most typical symptom ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble sleeping ( related to a high burnout score ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal pain ( back pain ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic disorders ( ulcers, gastrointestinal upset ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed immune system ( frequent and prolonged colds and flu) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased perspiration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid heartbeat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher risk for heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical changes ( cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid ) </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  15. 15. 4. Symptomatologie <ul><li>4.2 Les sympt ômes émotionnels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sentiment d’impuissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perte de confiance en soi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perte d’intér êt pour le travail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation d’être pris au piège </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception négative de soi ( incompétence, incapacité, infériorité) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perception négative des autres ( irritabilité, cynisme, impatience ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Désespoir </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  16. 16. 4. Symptoms <ul><li>4.3 Cognitive Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memory loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased vigilance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty assessing situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indecision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to perform cognitive tasks ( calculations ) </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  17. 17. 5. Les causes de l’épuisement professionnel <ul><li>5.1 Les facteurs personnels </li></ul><ul><li>Selon Lee et Aschfort (1996), 40% des causes de l’épuisement professionnel serait associées à des facteurs personnels. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attentes élevées </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implication très poussées au sein de l’organisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dispositions personnelles à l’idéalisation, au perfectionnisme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Faible estime de soi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation extrinsèque </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  18. 18. 5. Les causes de l’épuisement professionnel <ul><li>5.2 Les facteurs organisationnels (karasek et Theorell, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Les demandes (physiques et psychologiques) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La surcharge de travail ( corrélation avec l’épuisement ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incongruence entre les valeurs de l’organisation et de l’employé(e) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflit des rôles ( plusieurs patrons, exigences conflictuelles ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguïté des rôles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>b) Les ressources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habileté de répondre aux demandes organisationnelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manque de contr ôle sur l’exécution des tâches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soutien social et qualité du réseau des relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>justice dans l’entreprise </li></ul></ul></ul>© Y2CP
  19. 19. 6. Preventing burnout <ul><li>Info: </li></ul><ul><li>Work stoppage is often required. The duration may vary from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to limit the rest period . Spending too much time away from the workplace could hinder the re-entry process. </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs ( antidepressants ) can also be prescribed. This must be discussed with the person’s doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest is needed , but it is not the only solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Habits and attitudes towards work also need to be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting a health care professional ( guidance counsellor, psychologist ) can be a big help in identifying causes of burnout. </li></ul>© Y2CP
  20. 20. 6. Prévenir le burnout <ul><li>6.1 Stratégies individuelles </li></ul><ul><li>6.2 Stratégies organisationnelles </li></ul>© Y2CP
  21. 21. Gestion préventive de la détresse <ul><li>Accroître votre résistance par: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Exercice (et saines habitudes de vie) </li></ul><ul><li>Sommeil </li></ul><ul><li>Soutien social (positif!) </li></ul><ul><li>Contrôle (lâcher prise) </li></ul><ul><li>Suivre conseils médicaux (médicaments, suivis réguliers, dépistages) </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation (respirations profondes, décontraction musculaires) </li></ul>© Y2CP
  22. 22. Summary: a little reminder <ul><li>We are the authors of our lives : live your life in line with YOUR values and YOUR principles!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget: the goal is to achieve a sense of well-being! </li></ul><ul><li>Frame of mind is important . </li></ul><ul><li>What works for one individual does not necessarily work for another; </li></ul><ul><li>What has worked for 3, 4 or 5 years might not work today; </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to adapt along the way. </li></ul>© Y2CP
  23. 23. Supporting direct reports <ul><li>Services through APEX: </li></ul><ul><li>You can access the Service by contacting Paulette Panzeri at 613.992.5592 or by email at [email_address] . She is there to listen to your concerns or issues and to assist you in any way she can. She will provide: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Assistance Program </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term counselling , crisis counselling and critical incident stress management – 1-800-268-7708 (TDD 1-800-567-5803) </li></ul><ul><li>For you and your family, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year Health Canada Employee Assistance Services </li></ul>© Y2CP
  24. 24. Exercices <ul><li>Tests gratuits sur la santé mentale et le burnout </li></ul><ul><li>(la validité scientifique n'a pas été démontrée) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> 
 /Bulletin-2007-hiver-dossier-questionnaire.pdf </li></ul>© Y2CP
  25. 25. Questions ? To reach us: - 819.777.7744 © Y2CP