Curriculum, Identity & DiversityCurriculum, Identity & Diversity
---- It is still a longIt is still a long
way to goway to...
FactsFacts
 11 seconds= a high school student drops out in the U.S.11 seconds= a high school student drops out in the U.S...
Path of thinking solutionPath of thinking solution
 Historical background and developmentHistorical background and develo...
July 4,1776July 4,1776
 We hold these truths to be self-evident,We hold these truths to be self-evident,
thatthat all men...
Early 20Early 20thth
CenturyCentury
 In ruralIn rural GeorgiaGeorgia
Celie is aCelie is a poorpoor
uneducateduneducated y...
August 28, 1963August 28, 1963
 I have a dream that one day this nation willI have a dream that one day this nation will ...
U.S. = Melting Pot?U.S. = Melting Pot?
 The time has long passed when people liked to regardThe time has long passed when...
Who lived in the U.S. in 2000?Who lived in the U.S. in 2000?
http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/natproj.html
Who will live in the U.S. in 2050?Who will live in the U.S. in 2050?
http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/natp...
Identity in an America of diversityIdentity in an America of diversity
 Who am I?Who am I?
identityidentity–– fluid, mult...
Identity in the old daysIdentity in the old days
 RacesRaces –– overt racism & simple anti-racismovert racism & simple an...
Identity in the postmodern eraIdentity in the postmodern era
-- Race-- Race
 ““New racism practice (subtle, institutional...
Identity in the postmodern eraIdentity in the postmodern era
-- Gender-- Gender
 A faked girl in Japan on the rightA fake...
Multicultural Curriculum inMulticultural Curriculum in
an America of diversityan America of diversity
MisconceptionMisconc...
Ignore?Ignore?
 ““This is a problem we can’t afford toThis is a problem we can’t afford to
accept or ignore… It’s time fo...
Status quo or not?Status quo or not?
Blog results of NCLB
Google – multiculutural education
About 138,944 results for NCLB...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--general direction of reform--general direction of...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--teachers’ role in reform--teachers’ role in refor...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
-- teachers’ education in reform-- teachers’ educat...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--parents’ role in reform--parents’ role in reform
...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--students’ role in reform--students’ role in refor...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--researchers’ roles--researchers’ roles
 Examine ...
Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum
--other efforts in reform--other efforts in reform
...
ConclusionConclusion
Education reform and resistance toEducation reform and resistance to
colonization is hard, time-consu...
The long way with an happy endThe long way with an happy end
The endThe end
Thank youThank you
ReferenceReference
 Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003).Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003). Racism without racists: color-Racism without racis...
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Curriculum, identity & diversity 2

  1. 1. Curriculum, Identity & DiversityCurriculum, Identity & Diversity ---- It is still a longIt is still a long way to goway to go Global IssuesGlobal Issues Xuan JiangXuan Jiang Ph.D. student at FIUPh.D. student at FIU
  2. 2. FactsFacts  11 seconds= a high school student drops out in the U.S.11 seconds= a high school student drops out in the U.S.  1 school day =about 7,000 students decide to drop out of1 school day =about 7,000 students decide to drop out of schoolschool  1 year= a total of 1.2 million students drop out from high1 year= a total of 1.2 million students drop out from high schoolschool A report of California’s high drop-out ratesA report of California’s high drop-out rates
  3. 3. Path of thinking solutionPath of thinking solution  Historical background and developmentHistorical background and development 1776 early 201776 early 20thth 1963 2000 20501963 2000 2050  IdentityIdentity  CurriculumCurriculum  Identity and multicultural curriculumIdentity and multicultural curriculum
  4. 4. July 4,1776July 4,1776  We hold these truths to be self-evident,We hold these truths to be self-evident, thatthat all men are created equalall men are created equal, that they, that they are endowed by their Creator with certainare endowed by their Creator with certain unalienableunalienable rightsrights.. ---Declaration of---Declaration of IndependenceIndependence Rights>> educationRights>> education
  5. 5. Early 20Early 20thth CenturyCentury  In ruralIn rural GeorgiaGeorgia Celie is aCelie is a poorpoor uneducateduneducated youngyoung blackblack woman in 1909.woman in 1909. She is only 14 whenShe is only 14 when raped twice by araped twice by a man she calls Pa.man she calls Pa.
  6. 6. August 28, 1963August 28, 1963  I have a dream that one day this nation willI have a dream that one day this nation will …… live outlive out the true meaning of its creed: "the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to beWe hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equalself-evident, that all men are created equal."."  I have a dream that one day even the state ofI have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi,Mississippi, …… will be transformed into an oasis ofwill be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.freedom and justice.  I have a dream that my four little children will one dayI have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged bylive in a nation where they will not be judged by the colorthe color of their skinof their skin but by the content of their character.but by the content of their character. ---Martin Luther King, Jr.---Martin Luther King, Jr. at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C.at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington D.C.
  7. 7. U.S. = Melting Pot?U.S. = Melting Pot?  The time has long passed when people liked to regardThe time has long passed when people liked to regard the United States as some kind ofthe United States as some kind of melting potmelting pot, taking, taking men and women from every part of the world andmen and women from every part of the world and converting them into standardized, homogenizedconverting them into standardized, homogenized Americans.Americans. …… Just as we welcome a world of diversity,Just as we welcome a world of diversity, so we glory inso we glory in an America of diversityan America of diversity ------Hubert H. HumphreyHubert H. Humphrey ((AmericanAmerican 38th US38th US Vice PresidentVice President underunder Lyndon B. JohnsonLyndon B. Johnson (1965-69) and US Senator from Minnesota(1965-69) and US Senator from Minnesota (1949-64, 1971-78).(1949-64, 1971-78).  We become not aWe become not a melting potmelting pot but a beautiful mosaic.but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings,Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams.different hopes, different dreams. ---Jimmy Carter (American 39th US President (1977-81). Nobel Prize---Jimmy Carter (American 39th US President (1977-81). Nobel Prize for Peace in 2002. b.1924)for Peace in 2002. b.1924)
  8. 8. Who lived in the U.S. in 2000?Who lived in the U.S. in 2000? http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/natproj.html
  9. 9. Who will live in the U.S. in 2050?Who will live in the U.S. in 2050? http://www.census.gov/population/www/pop-profile/natproj.html
  10. 10. Identity in an America of diversityIdentity in an America of diversity  Who am I?Who am I? identityidentity–– fluid, multiple & complexfluid, multiple & complex identity--race, gender, class & poweridentity--race, gender, class & power
  11. 11. Identity in the old daysIdentity in the old days  RacesRaces –– overt racism & simple anti-racismovert racism & simple anti-racism eithereither subscribesubscribe oror be punished by the moral linebe punished by the moral line  PowerPower–– socioeconomic inequality (class)socioeconomic inequality (class) –– political inequalitypolitical inequality ---Nieto, Bode, Kang, & Raible, 2008, p. 179 & 180---Nieto, Bode, Kang, & Raible, 2008, p. 179 & 180
  12. 12. Identity in the postmodern eraIdentity in the postmodern era -- Race-- Race  ““New racism practice (subtle, institutional &New racism practice (subtle, institutional & apparently nonracial)apparently nonracial)””  ““Colorblind racismColorblind racism”” is rooted in seeminglyis rooted in seemingly ““non-non- racial dynamicsracial dynamics”” --- Bonilla-Silva, 2003, p.3--- Bonilla-Silva, 2003, p.3  Colorblind & colormute in No Child Left BehindColorblind & colormute in No Child Left Behind (NCLB)(NCLB)  Discriminatory in practiceDiscriminatory in practice  Highly racializedHighly racialized  An increased dropout rate among the poor, black & LatinoAn increased dropout rate among the poor, black & Latino ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 181 & 184---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 181 & 184
  13. 13. Identity in the postmodern eraIdentity in the postmodern era -- Gender-- Gender  A faked girl in Japan on the rightA faked girl in Japan on the right  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgenderLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender P.K.P.K.  Commonsense assumptions aboutCommonsense assumptions about sexual identity and sexual orientationsexual identity and sexual orientation ↓↓ Queer theoryQueer theory Feminist scholarship conceptualizationFeminist scholarship conceptualization Gender studiesGender studies Help via videoHelp via video ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 183---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 183
  14. 14. Multicultural Curriculum inMulticultural Curriculum in an America of diversityan America of diversity MisconceptionMisconception Only decorating for multiple winter holidaysOnly decorating for multiple winter holidays Only adding a unit of study about a none-dominant cultureOnly adding a unit of study about a none-dominant culture Current situationCurrent situation ****NCLBNCLB Discriminatory in practiceDiscriminatory in practice Highly racializedHighly racialized An increased dropout rate among the poor, black & LatinoAn increased dropout rate among the poor, black & Latino **** Dismantling/weakening bilingual education programsDismantling/weakening bilingual education programs **** Dismantling multicultural education programsDismantling multicultural education programs ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 179,181,184 & 185---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 179,181,184 & 185
  15. 15. Ignore?Ignore?  ““This is a problem we can’t afford toThis is a problem we can’t afford to accept or ignore… It’s time for all of us toaccept or ignore… It’s time for all of us to come togethercome together – parents and students,– parents and students, principals and teachersprincipals and teachers , business leaders, business leaders and elected officials – to end America’sand elected officials – to end America’s dropout crisis.”dropout crisis.” President Obama, March 01, 2010 http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/president-obama-announces-steps-reduce-office/president-obama-announces-steps-reduce- dropout-rate-and-prepare-students-college-andropout-rate-and-prepare-students-college-an
  16. 16. Status quo or not?Status quo or not? Blog results of NCLB Google – multiculutural education About 138,944 results for NCLB. About 310,000 results     Movies: the race to no where Waiting for superman “ …the superheroes we’ve waiting for to save our schools are all around us. In fact, they might just be me and you” ---http://www.waitingforsuperman.com/synopsis
  17. 17. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --general direction of reform--general direction of reform  Different things to different people (heterogeneous, notDifferent things to different people (heterogeneous, not homogenous curriculum)homogenous curriculum)  For the poor, the marginalized & other mostFor the poor, the marginalized & other most educationally disadvantagededucationally disadvantaged  Against racism &Against racism & colonialism (teachers & students)colonialism (teachers & students)  Curriculum as interdisciplinary product of heterogeneousCurriculum as interdisciplinary product of heterogeneous sourcessources  Contextual understanding of the profound influence ofContextual understanding of the profound influence of globalization on all school knowledgeglobalization on all school knowledge  Focus on studentsFocus on students’’ own views and storiesown views and stories  Developing a more humanizing curriculum in and out ofDeveloping a more humanizing curriculum in and out of schoolschool ------ Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p.177, 179,183-185Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p.177, 179,183-185
  18. 18. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --teachers’ role in reform--teachers’ role in reform  Should-doShould-do::  Foster critical pedagogical practices & perspectives onFoster critical pedagogical practices & perspectives on sociohistorically rooted inequality;sociohistorically rooted inequality;  Listen to students’ ubiquitous topics;Listen to students’ ubiquitous topics;  Be attentive to the complex nature of ideology & varied verbal waysBe attentive to the complex nature of ideology & varied verbal ways of identity being expressed.of identity being expressed.  Raise consciousness of global/international citizenship, i.e., equalityRaise consciousness of global/international citizenship, i.e., equality to every student, common issues respecting environment, security,to every student, common issues respecting environment, security, war, pollution, etc.war, pollution, etc.  Challenges of substantive curriculum changes in reality:Challenges of substantive curriculum changes in reality:  The pressure of high-stakes testingThe pressure of high-stakes testing  Teacher and student accountabilityTeacher and student accountability  Budgetary restrictionsBudgetary restrictions ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 185 & 190---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 185 & 190
  19. 19. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum -- teachers’ education in reform-- teachers’ education in reform --potential teachers asked to think of a--potential teachers asked to think of a global/international curriculumglobal/international curriculum & try to develop a lesson plan about it& try to develop a lesson plan about it --future teachers encouraged to listen to--future teachers encouraged to listen to students’ voice during internshipstudents’ voice during internship -- prepare them to teach in a multi-cultural-- prepare them to teach in a multi-cultural society and develop global citizenshipsociety and develop global citizenship
  20. 20. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --parents’ role in reform--parents’ role in reform  Spend quality time with their kidsSpend quality time with their kids  Cultivate and care kids as much as theyCultivate and care kids as much as they cancan  Model influenceModel influence  Make effortful voice heard in publicMake effortful voice heard in public  Attend workshop, seminar and otherAttend workshop, seminar and other activities for parents education in school oractivities for parents education in school or communitycommunity
  21. 21. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --students’ role in reform--students’ role in reform Encouraged to speak out their own viewsEncouraged to speak out their own views and perspectives of them and others, theirand perspectives of them and others, their lives, their identities andlives, their identities and their communitiestheir communities Respectful to disadvantaged,Respectful to disadvantaged, peers, colored, etc.peers, colored, etc.
  22. 22. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --researchers’ roles--researchers’ roles  Examine the inequalities that plagueExamine the inequalities that plague educational institutionseducational institutions  Be politically literateBe politically literate ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 182 & 190---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 182 & 190
  23. 23. Identity & Multicultural CurriculumIdentity & Multicultural Curriculum --other efforts in reform--other efforts in reform  Incorporation of antiracist and social justiceIncorporation of antiracist and social justice topics or multicultural instructional practices ortopics or multicultural instructional practices or materialsmaterials  Extended understanding of curriculum to containExtended understanding of curriculum to contain text and talk (discourse), like but not limited totext and talk (discourse), like but not limited to everyday classroom discussioneveryday classroom discussion  Considering the potential silencing power ofConsidering the potential silencing power of colorblind ideologycolorblind ideology ---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 190---Nieto, Bode, Kang & Raible, 2008, p. 190
  24. 24. ConclusionConclusion Education reform and resistance toEducation reform and resistance to colonization is hard, time-consuming andcolonization is hard, time-consuming and struggling process; however, it is stillstruggling process; however, it is still possible to realize multicultural curriculum.possible to realize multicultural curriculum. in this mosaic land. This genuine equalityin this mosaic land. This genuine equality in curriculum can then really endow thisin curriculum can then really endow this “beautiful mosaic” place with “freedom and“beautiful mosaic” place with “freedom and justice”. This successful model will havejustice”. This successful model will have influence on other countries.influence on other countries.
  25. 25. The long way with an happy endThe long way with an happy end The endThe end Thank youThank you
  26. 26. ReferenceReference  Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003).Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003). Racism without racists: color-Racism without racists: color- blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality inblind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the united statesthe united states. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.  Nieto, S, Bode, P, Kang, E, & Raible, J. (2008). Identity,Nieto, S, Bode, P, Kang, E, & Raible, J. (2008). Identity, community, and diversity. In Connelly. F. M., He, M. F.,community, and diversity. In Connelly. F. M., He, M. F., & Phillion, J. Michael (Eds.),& Phillion, J. Michael (Eds.), The Sage handbook ofThe Sage handbook of curriculum and instructioncurriculum and instruction (pp. 176-197). Los Angeles:(pp. 176-197). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.SAGE Publications.

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