Indian food culture- Assessment item 1, XNB151


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Indian food culture- Assessment item 1, XNB151

  1. 1. By Peni Tukuaoga Joshua Binks- Macnee Nicholas Leask
  2. 2. Analysing pre-swallowing factors influencing food choices among Indians Comparing a typical Indian Daily menu with the “Eat for Health” Guideline Statistics on the population of Indians both in India and Australia
  3. 3. In population research conducted in 2001 later on released that year, it estimated 17.5% Of worlds population is in fact in India, second behind china, and no difference to the result of the 2011 Census. however this only includes Indian residents. Global statistics of the Indian population is not yet accurately recognised. (SIZE, GROWTH, RATE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, 2001) Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya)is a country in south East Asia
  4. 4. Victoria has the highest population of Indian’s with 37.8% Followed by NSW with 32.3% Tasmania has the lowest population with 0.5% (Department of Immigration and Citizenship. N.d)
  5. 5. Can you answer this? What percentage of the world’s population is living in India? A) 17.5% B) 32.5% C) 19.5%
  6. 6. Religious Economical Social Burger you look so good… but you Veggies, my god your expensive! (Narayan, 1995)
  7. 7. Throughout Indian history, religion has played a significant role in food consumption and perceptions. Eventually religion developed into a framework for food standards and laws among the Indian population who are heavily religious. Hinduism is by far the largest and most popular religion among the Indian community (Muhamad, & Mizerski, 2010). Lets take a deeper look into the influence of Hinduism on food consumption!!
  8. 8. Food security, law Cow slaughter is banned in most regions of India. Among Hindu’s, cows represent a symbol of peace. Thus Meat consumption is low due to meat perceived as omens and fasting occasionally demonstrates respect to the gods. (Queensland Health, 2013, p. 15-16) Food Supply The impact in which these traits have on food supply is alarming. Small business struggle due to low demands. Therefore meat, especially cow, is more likely to be imported internationally. This clearly demonstrates that Hinduism is the framework in food security and supply. However, it has resulted in a significant decrease in meat availability, therefore leading to unhealthy impacts due to low protein intake. Although these food supply laws and security are seen generally in the nation of India, religion is a personal or spiritual part of an individual. Therefore even in Australia, an individual can carry or maintain Hinduism as part of their framework for food consumption and food choice. (Nath, Henderson, Coveney, & Ward, 2013)
  9. 9. Guideline/ framework Food Security/ Law Food supply Meat Exports internationally Fasting, Banned Cow slaughter, minimise meat consumption Food Choice Availability
  10. 10. Like India, food choice may be influenced by Social Economic Status. Which includes location and income. Other living cost… A large percentile of the indian population lives in poverty thus their diet is more likely to be made up of staple foods such as rice and other grain made foods. If a family does have an income, chances are what little money they have, will go to foods which have quantity, availability and a low price. (Australia, Card, Poster, & Sites, 2009).
  11. 11. Australia produces approximately enough food to feed 60 million people for a population of around 22 million. Primary production is quite good in Australia. Indian foods or ingredients are also quite popular in Australia and thus most of these ingredients or foods are readily available in Australia and easy to access. However, the question is, are they affordable for Indian people living in Australia? At the end of the day, whether Indian or not, SES is a major determinant to what is and isn’t eaten. Income will determine what's affordable and location of residency will determine what's available which is impacted by weather seasons (Australia, I., Card, B., Poster, M., & Sites, D. 2009). All these factors contribute heavily in the food choices among Indians. The big picture is, the influence these factors have on an individuals health and Wellbeing (Gallegos & Ramsey, 2011).
  12. 12. This might help.. Man.. I think it’s Festivals (Hu, 2010)
  13. 13. Festivals offer different characters, different techniques and different perceptions on particular foods, leading to a diverse range of cuisine. A clear example is traditional Indian celebrations. Although its one culture, the difference between each groups within the one culture is easily recognisable, and in many cases beautiful.
  14. 14. Home cooking is slowly diminishing in Australian culture, however remains strong in Indian culture. Home cooking is a golden standard, as these simple occasions can develop knowledge about food nutrients (Peterson, Duncan, Null, Roth, & Gill, 2010). However, home cooking presents a much bigger picture within the Indian culture.
  15. 15.  Most Indian families home cook simply to maintain and pass along traits or characteristics of their cuisine to next generations. This will result in the next generations familiarity and emotional connection to specific types of foods. Therefore, not only do economical or religious factors influence food choices, but the emotional connection to food which generates from social factors such as home cooking or festivals. This may clearly influence the choice of food one makes.
  16. 16. Quick Q’s  What do you think about home cooking?  What are the negatives and positives of home cooking?
  17. 17. Traditional Indian Festivals or celebrations can alter or psychologically influence food choices among Indians groups. Although traditional Indian festivals may have elephants dressed formally, dazzling fireworks and traditional dancing, on most occasions the cuisine on display shines into centre stage. Here are some psychological factors that festivals develop in which may alter or influence food choices (Hu, 2010)
  18. 18. That look’s amazing, GIVE IT! With food rich in colour and flavour, temptations are high, resisting in some cases is not an option. Traditional festivals or celebrations are rear occasions, therefore food choices that would be made on an average day, may alter on a special day. The emotions of love and joy developed by the festivals can be a very inspirational tool to food choice and consumption.
  19. 19. What did you learn? What were the three major influences on Indian food practices?
  20. 20. Types of Indian Foods
  21. 21. Breads, cereals and pasta Breads, cereals, rice, pasta, noodles • Roti aka Chappati: Roti is a form of Indian bread and is usually made from wheat flour. However, ideally it should contain a combination of soya bean, black gram, and a small portion of bran as well. • White Rice: White Rice is a cereal grain and polished form of brown rice which has the cover intact. • Parathas: One of the most popular unleavened flatbreads in India and is an important part of a traditional Indian breakfast. Rice: Available in both Nations (Rice is a popular accessory) Breads/roti: Available in both Nations . Could also be supplemented with whole meal bread. Cereal: Available in Australia but not so much India, Cereal is going through processes to be more readily available in India. Indian specific bread and rice may only be sold in “Indian and pacific island” stores that are rare in AUS.
  22. 22. Fruits Fruit Fresh and process fruits (E.g. dry fruits) are available in markets in India which include both rural and urban. Fruits are available across Australia within markets, supermarkets and local grocery stores. However fruit in Australia is a lot more expensive compared to buying fruit in India.
  23. 23. Vegetables and Legumes Vegetables, legumes Lentils: The lentil is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family grown for the lens shaped seeds. Lentils provide about 30% of their calories(240 Calories in 230 grams) from protein. Red chillies: Red chillies are the fruit pod of a plant from the capsaicin family. They have amazing health benefits for the human body. These vegetables are both readily available in Australia and easy to access at both food markets and within grocery stores such as Woolworths and Coles.
  24. 24. Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes Haha I’m safe inAUS! Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes Kabab: Roasting marinated meat on spits while basting with fat is described both in Sanskrit and Tamil literature. At a picnic meal described in Mahabharata. Mutton: Goat is the most commonly eaten meat as goats are the cheapest animal to buy and feed. They also have no religious significance or attachment. Eggs and Nuts: Eggs are usually used as an ingredient in many Indian dishes, and nuts are either eaten on their own as a snack or used in deserts and sweets. Eggs and nuts are both readily available in Australia, however some nuts such as almonds can be quite expensive in Australia compared to in India. Thus instead of almonds an Indian family may have to substitute for cheaper nuts. Beef, pork and lamb are the more readily available meats consumed within Australia, with mutton/goat being rarely consumed. However Indian’s can substitute this meat with lamb in their diets.
  25. 25. Milk, cheese, yoghurt & alternatives Milk, cheese, yoghurt & alternatives Curd: Curd is basically a milk product made by fermentation of milk with certain bacteria. Ideally, one should go for curd made from toned or less fat quality of milk. Paneer: Cottage cheese is a milk product and it is prepared by the curdling of milk. The percentage of fat in the paneer depends on whether it is made from toned milk or full cream milk. Paneer and curd ‘ready made’ may be hard to come by in Australia, yet the ingredients to make it (Milk) are very accessible and since most Indian people make it themselves, this is not something they will have to substitute in their diet.
  26. 26. Beverages Beverages Chai : Mixed Spice tea. It is a mixture of black tea with traditional Indian herbs and spices Lassi : popular traditional yogurt based drink Sharbat: sweet drink prepared from fruits and flower petals Thandai: Cold drink prepared with a mix of almonds, fennel seeds, magaztari seeds (watermelon kernel), rose petals, pepper, vetiver seeds, cardamom, saffron, milk and sugar Kanji: fermented drink in India made for the festival Holi. In Australia these drinks would probably only be available ready made in Indian restaurants. However the ingredients to make chai tea, Lassi, sharbat and thandai can be readily available in Australia if an Indian family wanted to make these beverages themselves, which they would have probably done in India. However, Kanji would be harder to access in Australia as it is only prepared in India for the Holi festival which isn’t celebrated in Aus.
  27. 27. Other (e.g. condiments, signature herbs/spices) Other (e.g. condiments, signature herbs/spice s) Curries: The Indian curry's base is crucial. The oil isn't. Most curry recipes call for plenty of oil, which immediately puts off those of us who are trying to control our daily fats intake. Ideally, blend or roast whole spices for better flavour without using unhealthy ingredients. Replace the cream with yogurt, or natural coconut milk and use a healthy cooking method for it and you are good to go. Most curries and spices are readily available within Australia and ingredients can be bought in local food markets, supermarkets or grocery stores.
  28. 28. Indian food and eating plan
  29. 29. Breakfast  There is no standard Indian breakfast menu as almost each state in India has different specialties. However, one can broadly classify breakfast varieties in India into 2 types; North Indian and South Indian. The eastern and western parts of India also have individual breakfast items unique to their culture or state.
  30. 30. Breakfast  A typical south Indian breakfast consists of idli, vada and/or dosa coupled with chutney and sambar. Many variations of these dishes exist such as Rava idli, Dahi Vada and Masala Dosa.  Where as a typical north Indian Breakfast consists of chai tea, parathas and a vegetable such as a pickle.  In Australia average breakfasts consist of cereal with milk, toast with a spread or a hot breakfast such as bacon and eggs.
  31. 31. Typical daily eating plan
  32. 32. Morning Break  Aloo Chutney Wala  Aloo ka Stuffed Paratha  Chana Dal Stuffed Paratha  Moong Dal Chilla  Kachori  Parath Parantha  Stuffed Vegetable Punjabi Parantha In Australia morning tea usually involves a cup of coffee or tea, with a piece of fruit or something small like some crackers with cheese or sweet biscuits.
  33. 33. Lunch  Lunch in India usually consists of a main dish of rice in the south and east, or whole wheat rotis in the north and west. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables, and sometimes items such as kulcha, naan, or parathas. Along with dessert, paan (betel leaves), which aid digestion, are often eaten after lunch in parts of India.
  34. 34. Typical daily eating plan Lunch: 2 roti with 2 teaspoons ghee 1 cup rajmah (chicken curry) 1 cup spinach and potato subji 1 cup rice ½ cup Dahi (whole milk yoghurt) Onion and cucumber salad 1 roasted papad
  35. 35. Afternoon Break Appam Batata Vada (Potato Dumplings) Bhakkervadi Bihari Litti Chana daal ki Kachree Crunchy Cutlets Handvo (Lentil Cake) Chinese Sizzler Mixed Vegetables Spring Roll Mushroom Shami Kabab
  36. 36. Typical daily eating plan Tea time: 1 cup chai with whole milk 3tsp sugar 1 cup namkeen (fried snack) 1 laddu (sweet)
  37. 37. Dinner  It is the main meal of the day. It will have couple of curried vegetables, yogurt, Dal, Rice, and Roti. It may also include a sweet such as Carrot Halwa, or Rice pudding.  The most common vegetables used for curry are potaoes, Indian pumpkin, green peas, cauliflower, carrts. In addition you have seasonal vegetables.
  38. 38. Typical Daily eating plan Dinner: 4 parathus 1-2 cups potato and pea subji ½ cup Dahi (whole milk yogurt)
  39. 39. Evening Snack  Soan Papdi | Flaky Indian dessert  Sewai | Vermicelli Pudding  Modak | Steamed Sweet Dumpling  Kulfi | Indian Spiced Ice-cream  Suji Ka Halwa | Semolina Pudding  Vegan Gajar Ka Halwa | Vegan Carrot Pudding  Burfi | Indian Cheesecake  Plain K heer | Indian Rice Pudding
  40. 40. Typical daily eating plan Snack: 1 ½ cups of Kheer
  41. 41. Comparison of Aussie 5 food categories to Indian
  42. 42. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Grains/breads/cereals/pastas/noodles: Australia: 6 serves per day India: 8-10
  43. 43. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Vegetables: Australia: 5-6 serves per day India: 5-6
  44. 44. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Fruit: Australia: 2 serves per day India: 2 serves per day
  45. 45. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Lean Meat/nuts/eggs/poultry/fish Australia: 2 ½ serves per day Indian: 2 serves per day
  46. 46. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Milk, Yoghurt, cheese Australia: 2 ½ serves per day Indian: 4-5 serves per day
  47. 47. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan Discretionary Choices Australia: 0-2 serves per day India:2-4 serves
  48. 48. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan
  49. 49. Australian Guide to Healthy eating Vs Indian standard eating plan
  50. 50. Reference List  Australia, I., Card, B., Poster, M., & Sites, D. (2009). Living in Australia. DEPRESSION, 96, 4-1. Retrieved from  Banerji, Chitrita (1997). Bengali Cooking: Seasons and Festivals. Serif. ISBN 978- 1-897959-50-3.  Department of Immigration and Citizenship, (n.d). Community Information Summary, Indian-Born. Retrieved from  Gallegos, D., & Rebecca, R. (2011) Enough good food. Retrieved from food/3686216  Hu, Y. (2010). An exploration of the relationships between festival expenditures, motivations, and food involvement among food festival visitors (Thesis). Retrieved from
  51. 51.  IndiaNetzone. (2013). Religious influence on Indian food, Indian Cuisine. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from e.htm  Muhamad, N., & Mizerski, D. (2010). The constructs mediating religions' influence on buyers and consumers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 1(2), 124-135. DOI: 10.1108/17590831011055860  Nath, J., Henderson, J., Coveney, J., & Ward, P. (2013) Consumer Faith: An Exploration of Trust in Food and the Impact of Religious Dietary Norms and Certification. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 16, 421-436. DOI:  Narayan, U. (1995). Eating cultures: Incorporation, identity and Indian food. Social Identities, 1, 63-86. doi:10.1080/13504630.1995.9959426  Peterson, S., Duncan, D. P., Null, D. B., Roth, S. L., & Gill, L. (2010). Positive changes in perceptions and selections of healthful foods by college students after a short-term point-of-selection intervention at a dining hall. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 425-431.
  52. 52.  Queensland Health, (2013).Health care providers handbook on Hindu patients. Retrieved from  Real Facts About India. (2013). History of Indian Food. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from  Indian Government (2001). Census of India 2001: SIZE, GROWTH, RATE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION. Retrieved from results/data_files/india/Final_PPT_2011_chapter3.pdf  The Times of India. (2013). Health facts about Indian foods. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from 09/diet/30485428_1_indian-food-chillies-brown-rice