Cognition and problem_solving


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Cognition and problem_solving

  2. 2. COGNITION <ul><li>What is cognition? </li></ul><ul><li>The intellectual process through which information is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved and used. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3 Primary Facets of Cognition <ul><li>Cognition processes information . </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition is active . </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition is useful and purposeful . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reasoning <ul><li>When we try to cognitively process information to reach specific conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal reasoning – deductive (valid premise, valid conclusion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyday reasoning – probabilities and truths about premises and conclusions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Intelligence <ul><li>What is intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>Individual’s ability to think rationally , understand complex ideas , act purposefully , learn from experience , and adapt effectively to the environment . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Spearman’s theory of General Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Horn and Cattell’s Two factor theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Goleman’s Theory of Emotional Intelligence </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1. Spearman’s Theory of General Intelligence <ul><li>Factor analysis - used to examine a number of mental aptitude tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Scores on these tests were remarkably similar. </li></ul><ul><li>People who performed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, while those who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on other. </li></ul><ul><li>He concluded that intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured and numerically expressed </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>g-factor : a general intelligence that governs the performance of all tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>s-factor : an individual mental task - the individual abilities that would make a person more skilled at a specific cognitive task </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Horn and Cattell’s Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>1) Fluid Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drive the individual's ability to think and act quickly, solve novel problems, and encode short-term memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abilities for reasoning, concept formation, adaptation, flexibility, and speed in information processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determined by biological and genetic factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used when one doesn’t know what to do </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2. Horn and Cattell’s Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>2) Crystallized Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge, experiences, and general information acquired over a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affected by schooling and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personality factors, motivation and educational and cultural opportunity are central to its development </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>Comprises of three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Componential Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>analytical giftedness </li></ul><ul><li>abilities to think critically and analytically </li></ul><ul><li>able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen </li></ul><ul><li>individuals with only this type are not as adept at creating unique ideas of their own </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>2) Experiential Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to use and combine past experiences creatively to solve new problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>novelty vs. automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>being skilled in one component does not ensure that you are skilled in the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthetic giftedness is seen in creativity , intuition , and a study of the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>useful in creating new ideas to create and solve new problems </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 3. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence <ul><li>3) Contextual Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of adaptation, shaping, and selection to create an ideal fit in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to function in practical, everyday social situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as ‘street smarts’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>practical giftedness : practically gifted people are superb in their ability to succeed in any setting i.e. they are survivors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>8 kinds of Intelligences: </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily – kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul>
  15. 16. 5. Emotional Intelligence <ul><li>Goleman (1995) suggests that emotional intelligence consists of five major parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing our own emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Managing our own emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing others’ emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Handling relationships </li></ul>
  17. 19. PROBLEM SOLVING <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A series of thinking processes we use to reach a goal that is not readily attainable . </li></ul>
  18. 20. PROBLEM SOLVING <ul><li>3 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem in clear and specific terms (in a way that can be solved). </li></ul><ul><li>a) Develop a problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>b) Identify a “desired state” or goal </li></ul>
  19. 21. 1) Identify the Problem <ul><li>Develop a problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Limited in scope (specific) </li></ul><ul><li>Written in a way that everyone can understand </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid including any “implied cause” or “implied solution” </li></ul>
  20. 22. 1) Identify the Problem <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The Customer Satisfaction index has declined from 89 to 81 in the last 12 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor advertising and our recent product problem have reduced customer satisfaction. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Identify the Problem <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The product selection process needs to be revamped and streamlined. </li></ul>
  22. 24. 1) Identify the Problem <ul><li>Identify a Desired State or Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Where you want to be when the problem is solved. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The Customer Satisfaction Index will be at least 89 six months from now, and will not decline thereafter. </li></ul>
  23. 25. 2) Understanding and Organizing the Elements of the Problem <ul><li>Analyze the cause of the problem where questions need to be asked and information needs to be gathered and sifted. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Identify potential cause(s) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Determine the most likely cause </li></ul><ul><li>c) Identify the true root cause (why, why, why?) </li></ul>
  24. 26. 3)Generating and Evaluating Alternative Solutions <ul><li>Generate ideas and alternatives for solving the problem (requires maximum level of creativity). </li></ul><ul><li>a) Generate a list of possible solutions </li></ul><ul><li>b) Determine the best solution </li></ul><ul><li>c) Develop action plan for its implementation </li></ul><ul><li>d) Implement Solution and Evaluate Progress </li></ul>
  25. 27. Ways to Generate Solutions <ul><li>Trial and Error </li></ul><ul><li>Keep trying until one finds a solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be time-consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not guarantee that a solution will be discovered. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Ways to Generate Solutions <ul><li>2) Algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a step by step procedure that can guarantee a correct solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Less creative. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Ways to Generate Solutions <ul><li>3) Heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcuts </li></ul><ul><li>Quick, but sometimes in error. </li></ul><ul><li>2 types: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Representative heuristics </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy of making judgments about the unknown on the assumption that it is similar to what we know. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Ways to Generate Solutions <ul><li>b) Availability heuristic </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning based on the information that is available in memory. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Ways to Generate Solutions <ul><li>4) Insight </li></ul><ul><li>The solution seems to pop in mind all of a sudden. Recognition of previously unseen relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps, when you have problems, it is good to take a break, to withdraw yourself from the problem itself until suddenly you will see the solutions. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Barriers to Problem Solving <ul><li>Problem Solving Set </li></ul><ul><li>A mental barrier that occurs when people apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying innovative ones. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Barriers to Problem Solving <ul><li>2) Functional fixedness </li></ul><ul><li>A mental barrier that occurs when people are unable to recognize novel (new) uses for an object because they are so familiar with its common use. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Stephen Covey : <ul><li>Six paradigms of thinking: </li></ul><ul><li>Win/Win </li></ul><ul><li>Win/Lose </li></ul><ul><li>Lose/Win </li></ul><ul><li>Lose/Lose </li></ul><ul><li>Win </li></ul><ul><li>Win/Win or No Deal </li></ul>