Xinjiang: Secessionist Threat from the West?


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Coursework for Great Powers and the Muslim World, Sciences-Po Paris, Spring 2010.

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  • Xinjiang: Secessionist Threat from the West?

    1. 1. & TENSIONS IN XINJIANG THE CONSEQUENCES ON CHINESE FP Presented by Xiren Wang, Sciences Po, Paris, 9 April 2010
    3. 3. Xinjiang Uyghur WEST Autonomous Region
    4. 4. SECESSION /sisesh’n/   • noun the action of withdrawing from a federation or organization.   — DERIVATIVES secessionism noun. An Islamic State of Uyghur Nationalism Separatism East Turkistan? Autonomy
    5. 5. Violence Separatist Ideology Foreign powers THREAT National Identity, Stability ‘One-China’ Policy Independence, & Sovereignty
    6. 6. Origin of secessionist ideas «COMING FROM» Reactions from the actors involved
    7. 7. Overview 1) The historical evolution of the secessionist threat from the XinJiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 2) Current tensions post July 5, 2009 3) Impacts on Chinese Foreign Policy & International Relations (IR)
    8. 8. People Population:19,630,000 Ethnic Groups: Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Hui, Kyrgyz, Mongol
    9. 9. Culture closely related to Central Asia
    10. 10. Significant Events First documented incidents of violent Uyghur separatist 1932–33 activities. 1933-34 First East Turkistan Republic 1944-49 Second East Turkistan Republic 1958-61 Great Leap Forward 1966-76 Cultural Revolution 1990-2001 Over 200 recorded Uyghur separatist attacks
    11. 11. 1. 2. Sept. 1933 - Feb. 1934 Nov. 12, 1944 - Oct. 20, 1949 TURKISH ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF EAST TURKESTAN EAST TURKESTAN REPUBLIC
    12. 12. East Turkistan Independence Movement Advocates of an independent East Turkistan Not to be confused with the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM)
    13. 13. A Chain of Actions & Reactions Argument causing death of 2 Uighur workers in Guangdong Organized Protests in Urumqi, Xinjiang, July 5, 2009. Protests sparked riots and extreme violence Deathtoll varies/unknown. Reported figures: Within 300 hundred dead; On 26 June Han and Uighurs at a toy factory in the between 800-2000 injured. Guangdong town of Shaoguan fought each other for hours, leaving at least two dead and 118 injured. - BBC
    14. 14.
    15. 15. The Official Details
    16. 16. 24 HOURS LATER... "To prevent further unrest, the government blocked access to the Web and suspended international calls and short message services in the region 24 hours after the July 5 riot because they were vital tools used by ringleaders to instigate the riots in Urumqi, capital of the region," Yang Maofa, director of the regional telecommunications administration
    17. 17. International Response to 7.5 Diplomatic envoys from 26 countries and regions in China began a five-day visit to better understand the situation. Representatives included those from Kuwait, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Afghanistan, Sweden, Australia, and the United States.
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Don’t Twist Facts ‘‘ Mr Erdogan's description of the riots in Xinjiang as "a kind of genocide" is an irresponsible and groundless accusation. The fact that 137 of the 184 persons killed in the riots are Han Chinese speaks volumes for the nature of the event. ’’ Zhang Ning | Source: China Daily
    20. 20. Don’t Twist Facts ‘‘ The efforts the central and local governments have been making to restore order and clear the misunderstanding between the Uygur and Han communities are what local residents of different ethnic groups really want and need for leading a peaceful and happy life. ’’ Zhang Ning | Source: China Daily
    21. 21. Other Actors & the «Hidden Agenda» World Uyghur Congress (WUC) National Endowment for Democracy (NED)
    22. 22. World Uyghur Congress •Formed in April 2004, Munich, Germany •Current President Rebiya Kadeer •Funded by US organization: the National Endowment for Democracy •Designated as a terrorist organization by the Chinese gov’t
    23. 23. A private, nonprofit foundation dedicated to the growth and strengthening of democratic institutions around the world. Each year, with funding from the US Congress, NED supports more than 1,000 projects of non-governmental groups abroad working for democratic goals in more than 90 countries.
    24. 24.
    25. 25.
    26. 26. A Need for Policy Adjustments "The policies (towards ethnic minorities) themselves will definitely need adjustments. We have to adjust to the actual situation. China is a multi-ethnic society... If adjustments are not made promptly, there will be problems." Wang Yang to Hu JinTao, July 2009
    27. 27. Affected Policy Areas Politics Economics & Development Religion Ethnic minorities Immigration
    28. 28. Influence on PRC’s Agenda War on Terror National Defence Mobilization Law China’s “anti-secession law”
    29. 29. Sovereignty & Territorial Integrity Anti-secession law, Article 8 In the event that secessionist forces should act under any name or by any means to cause a region’s secession from China, or that major incidents entailing a region's secession from China should occur, or that possibilities for a peaceful reunification should be completely exhausted, the state shall employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to protect China's sovereignty and territorial integrity.
    30. 30. International Relations Central Asia Islamic Countries Russia:Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation USA: Sino-American counter-terrorism cooperation International Community & Institutions
    31. 31. Geopolitics & IR
    32. 32. 2009
    33. 33. 2011 N.B. year indicates proposed operational date
    34. 34. Shanghai Cooperation Organization Memberstates: China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan Formal Observers: Iran, Pakistan, India and Mongolia
    35. 35. Relations with the Muslim World China's policy of total control has upset Islamic states, ‘‘ especially in the past week. Protesting Muslims in Indonesia called for a jihad against China on Monday, clashing with police outside the Chinese embassy in Jakarta. ’’
    36. 36.
    37. 37.
    38. 38. Core of China’s Foreign Policy China has unswervingly pursued an independent foreign policy of peace. Its basic objectives center on safeguarding national independence and state sovereignty, and creating an international environment favorable to its reform, opening and modernization efforts, as well as maintaining world peace and promoting common development. Maintaining independence. Maintaining world peace. Friendly relations and cooperation. Good-neighborly and friendly relations. Enhanced unity and cooperation with developing countries. Maintaining an open policy to both developed and developing countries.
    39. 39. Towards a New Order Five principles of peaceful coexistence and other international norms: 1.Mutual respect for each nation's sovereignty and territorial integrity 2.Mutual non-aggression 3.Non-interference in each other's internal affairs 4.Equality and mutual benefits, and 5.Peaceful coexistence.
    40. 40. «We all look up to Turkey as an example of where we want to be, but there’s also the possibility of becoming the next Afghanistan» ~Liu Sichen, March 4, 2010
    41. 41. Sources Bhattacharji, Preeti. Uighurs and China's Xinjiang Region. Chan, John. China’s “anti-secession law” adds to tension in North East Asia, International Committee of the Fourth International. 16 March, 2005. Chang-Ching, Cao. “The quest for an eighth Turkic nation.” Taipei Times, Tuesday, Oct 12, 1999, Page 9. Taipei Times Online Archives: Chinese Foreign Policy, Embassy of the People’s Republic of China. Chung, Chien-peng. China’s War on Terror: September 11 and Uighur Separatism, Foreign Affairs, July/August 2002. http:// Constitution of the People’s Republic of China. Engdahl, F. William. The hidden agenda behind Xinjiang Violence. China Daily, Juy 16, 2009. 2009-07/16/content_8434351.htm Full-text of Anti-secession Law. People Daily. Human Rights Watch, Devastating Blows, Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang. Millward, James. “Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment,” Policy Paper 6, Washington, D.C.: East West Center Washington, 2004. Information Office of the State Council Of the People’s Republic of China, White Paper: History and Development of Xinjiang, May 2003, Beijing, International Justice Desk, "China needs new policies towards ethnic minorities after Xinjiang". 30 July 2009. international-justice/article/china-needs-new-policies-towards-ethnic-minorities-after-xinjiang Larson, Christina. How China wins and loses Xinjiang. Foreign Policy. July 9, 2009. 2009/07/09/how_china_wins_and_loses_xinjiang?page=0,2 Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Homepage. Xin Hua News Agency, Foreign envoys in China visit Xinjiang after July 5 riot. August 10, 2009. 2009-08/10/content_11859552.htm Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Bureau of Statistics, Xinjiang Tongji Nianjian, 2001, Xinjiang statistical yearbook, 2001. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2001.
    42. 42. THANK YOU Q&A