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Artificial intelligence
PREPARED BY:
Artificial intelligence
 Artificial intelligence is already all around you, from web
search to video games. AI methods plan your driving
directions, filter your spam, and focus your cameras on faces.
AI lets you guide your phone with your voice and read foreign
newspapers in English. Beyond today's applications, AI is at
the core of many new technologies that will shape our future.
From self-driving cars to household robots, advancements in
AI help transform science fiction into real systems.
Artificial intelligence
Cont.
 AI research is highly technical and specialised, and is deeply
divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with
each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural
factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions
and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also
divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on
the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of
several possible approaches or on the use of a
particular tool or towards the accomplishment of
particular applications.
History Artificial intelligence
 About 400 years ago people started to write about the nature of thought and
reason. Hobbes (1588-1679), who is described as the "Grandfather of AI,"
espoused the position that thinking was symbolic reasoning like talking out
loud or working out an answer with pen and paper. The idea of symbolic
reasoning was further developed by Descartes (1596-1650), Pascal (1623-
1662), Spinoza (1632-1677), Leibniz (1646-1716), and others who were
pioneers in the philosophy of mind.
 The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted
to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of
symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital
computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of
mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful
of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an
electronic brain.
History Artificial intelligence
Cont.
 The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus
of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. Those who attended would
become the leaders of AI research for decades. Many of them predicted
that a machine as intelligent as a human being would exist in no more
than a generation and they were given millions of dollars to make this
vision come
 However, no machine has been built with a human level of intelligence,
contrary to the optimistic predictions of the first generation of AI
researchers. true.
Applications of artificial intelligence
 Computer science
AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer
science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and
are no longer considered a part of AI. time sharing, interactive interpreters, graphical user
interfaces and the computer mouse, rapid development environments, the linked list data
structure, automatic storage management , symbolic programming, functional
programming, dynamic programming and object-oriented programming.
 Finance
Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage
properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial
trading competition.
Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or
claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation.
Applications of artificial intelligence
Cont.
 Hospitals and medicine
A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make
a staff rotation, and provide medical information and other important tasks.
Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical
diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software.
Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence
include:
Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digital
images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight
conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection
of a tumor.
Heart sound analysis.
Applications of artificial intelligence
Cont.
 Transportation
Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles
 Telecommunications maintenance
Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of
their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling
application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers.
 Other
Various tools of artificial intelligence are also being widely deployed in homeland security,
speech and text recognition, data mining, and e-mail spam filtering. Applications are also
being developed for gesture recognition (understanding of sign language by machines),
individual voice recognition, global voice recognition (from a variety of people in a noisy
room), facial expression recognition for interpretation of emotion and non verbal cues.
Other applications are robot navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object recognition.
Major branches of artificial intelligence
 Computational Intelligence: Computational Intelligence aims to solve
real world problems that are computationally expensive or not at all
possible to solve by traditional means (mathematical models). The guiding
principle of soft computing is exploit the tolerance for imprecision,
uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low
cost solution with improved adaptability.Common branches of
Computational Intelligence are but not limited to.
 Artificial Neural Networks
 Fuzzy Logic
 Heuristic Search
 Pattern Recognition
Major branches of artificial intelligence
Cont.
 Genetic Programming
Genetic programming revolves around that functions that get programs to perform specific tasks
and solve specific problems. This is done by ‘stitching together’ random lisp programs and
choosing amongst millions of generations. By definition, genetic programming is a revolutionary
algorithm-based methodology that can trace its roots to the biological evolution that involved the
search for computer programs that performed user-defined tasks. The world can thank John Koza
and his group of experts in ‘Artificial Intelligence’ for the methodology of genetic programming. If
it wasn’t for the team’s pioneering work, the advantages of genetic programming would have
probably been undiscovered by man.
 Ontology
Ontology is a branch of artificial intelligence that is concerned with the study of various kinds of
objects. As a branch of AI, it is a set of concepts that are formally represented within a domain.
Light is then thrown on the relationship between the concepts in their specific domains. Ontology
can also be used to reason about entities within a particular domain and describe the particular
domain in detail. Ontology only recently became a science that started to receive a great deal of
importance.
Major branches of artificial intelligence
Cont.
 Other Major Branches are :
Learning,Planning and Reasoning in Machines
Pattern , Object , Character , Voice - Recognition
Knowledge Representation
Epistemology
Heuristics

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Intro to Artificial inteligence

  • 2. Artificial intelligence  Artificial intelligence is already all around you, from web search to video games. AI methods plan your driving directions, filter your spam, and focus your cameras on faces. AI lets you guide your phone with your voice and read foreign newspapers in English. Beyond today's applications, AI is at the core of many new technologies that will shape our future. From self-driving cars to household robots, advancements in AI help transform science fiction into real systems.
  • 3. Artificial intelligence Cont.  AI research is highly technical and specialised, and is deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. Some subfields focus on the solution of specific problems. Others focus on one of several possible approaches or on the use of a particular tool or towards the accomplishment of particular applications.
  • 4. History Artificial intelligence  About 400 years ago people started to write about the nature of thought and reason. Hobbes (1588-1679), who is described as the "Grandfather of AI," espoused the position that thinking was symbolic reasoning like talking out loud or working out an answer with pen and paper. The idea of symbolic reasoning was further developed by Descartes (1596-1650), Pascal (1623- 1662), Spinoza (1632-1677), Leibniz (1646-1716), and others who were pioneers in the philosophy of mind.  The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This work culminated in the invention of the programmable digital computer in the 1940s, a machine based on the abstract essence of mathematical reasoning. This device and the ideas behind it inspired a handful of scientists to begin seriously discussing the possibility of building an electronic brain.
  • 5. History Artificial intelligence Cont.  The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. Those who attended would become the leaders of AI research for decades. Many of them predicted that a machine as intelligent as a human being would exist in no more than a generation and they were given millions of dollars to make this vision come  However, no machine has been built with a human level of intelligence, contrary to the optimistic predictions of the first generation of AI researchers. true.
  • 6. Applications of artificial intelligence  Computer science AI researchers have created many tools to solve the most difficult problems in computer science. Many of their inventions have been adopted by mainstream computer science and are no longer considered a part of AI. time sharing, interactive interpreters, graphical user interfaces and the computer mouse, rapid development environments, the linked list data structure, automatic storage management , symbolic programming, functional programming, dynamic programming and object-oriented programming.  Finance Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition. Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation.
  • 7. Applications of artificial intelligence Cont.  Hospitals and medicine A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information and other important tasks. Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software. Other tasks in medicine that can potentially be performed by artificial intelligence include: Computer-aided interpretation of medical images. Such systems help scan digital images, e.g. from computed tomography, for typical appearances and to highlight conspicuous sections, such as possible diseases. A typical application is the detection of a tumor. Heart sound analysis.
  • 8. Applications of artificial intelligence Cont.  Transportation Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles  Telecommunications maintenance Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers.  Other Various tools of artificial intelligence are also being widely deployed in homeland security, speech and text recognition, data mining, and e-mail spam filtering. Applications are also being developed for gesture recognition (understanding of sign language by machines), individual voice recognition, global voice recognition (from a variety of people in a noisy room), facial expression recognition for interpretation of emotion and non verbal cues. Other applications are robot navigation, obstacle avoidance, and object recognition.
  • 9. Major branches of artificial intelligence  Computational Intelligence: Computational Intelligence aims to solve real world problems that are computationally expensive or not at all possible to solve by traditional means (mathematical models). The guiding principle of soft computing is exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low cost solution with improved adaptability.Common branches of Computational Intelligence are but not limited to.  Artificial Neural Networks  Fuzzy Logic  Heuristic Search  Pattern Recognition
  • 10. Major branches of artificial intelligence Cont.  Genetic Programming Genetic programming revolves around that functions that get programs to perform specific tasks and solve specific problems. This is done by ‘stitching together’ random lisp programs and choosing amongst millions of generations. By definition, genetic programming is a revolutionary algorithm-based methodology that can trace its roots to the biological evolution that involved the search for computer programs that performed user-defined tasks. The world can thank John Koza and his group of experts in ‘Artificial Intelligence’ for the methodology of genetic programming. If it wasn’t for the team’s pioneering work, the advantages of genetic programming would have probably been undiscovered by man.  Ontology Ontology is a branch of artificial intelligence that is concerned with the study of various kinds of objects. As a branch of AI, it is a set of concepts that are formally represented within a domain. Light is then thrown on the relationship between the concepts in their specific domains. Ontology can also be used to reason about entities within a particular domain and describe the particular domain in detail. Ontology only recently became a science that started to receive a great deal of importance.
  • 11. Major branches of artificial intelligence Cont.  Other Major Branches are : Learning,Planning and Reasoning in Machines Pattern , Object , Character , Voice - Recognition Knowledge Representation Epistemology Heuristics