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  1. 1. Input
  2. 2. Objectives Define input List the characteristics of a keyboard Describe different mouse types and how they work Summarize how various pointing devices work Explain how voice recognition works Describe various input devices for PDAs, smart phones, and Tablet PCs Explain how a digital camera works Describe uses of PC video cameras, Web cams, and video conferencing Discuss various scanners and reading devices and how they work Explain the types of terminals Summarize the various biometric devices Identify alternative input devices for physically challenged users
  3. 3. What Is Input? Input is data and instructions… An input device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions <ul><ul><li>Data – includes unprocessed text, numbers, images, audio, and video, and… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions – include programs, commands & user responses </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Keyboard The keyboard has… <ul><ul><li>A typing area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A numeric keypad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function keys (special keys that issue commands) </li></ul></ul>Alternative forms of commands: <ul><ul><li>Many programs allow you to use key combinations, menus, or buttons to obtain the same results </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Keyboard The insertion point is… <ul><ul><li>The blinking vertical bar that indicates where the next character you type will display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pointer changes location and shape as you move the mouse or other pointing device </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Keyboard and Mouse A cordless keyboard and mouse… <ul><ul><li>Communicate with a receiver attached to a port on the system unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use infra-red (IrDA) or radio frequency (RF) technology </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pointing Devices A mouse is… <ul><ul><li>A pointing device that fits under the palm of your hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>controls movement of the mouse pointer on the screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mechanical mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has a rubber or metal ball on the underside </li></ul></ul>mouse buttons wheel button ball An optical mouse… <ul><ul><li>Has no mechanical parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses light to detect movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is more precise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can connect via cable, or wirelessly </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Other Pointing Devices A trackball is… <ul><ul><li>A stationary pointing device with a ball on its top or side </li></ul></ul>A touchpad is… <ul><ul><li>A touchpad is a small, flat, rectangular pointing device sensitive to pressure and motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pointing stick is pointing device shaped like pencil eraser positioned between keys on a keyboard </li></ul></ul>A pointing stick is…
  9. 9. Other Pointing Devices Joystick and wheel … <ul><ul><li>Joystick is vertical lever mounted on a base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel is steering-wheel-type input device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pedal simulates car brakes and accelerator </li></ul></ul></ul>A light pen is… <ul><ul><li>A handheld input device that can detect light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Press light pen against screen surface and then press button on pen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Other Pointing Devices A touch screen … <ul><ul><li>Works by touching areas of the screen with your finger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used in kiosks </li></ul></ul>The stylus and digital pen … <ul><ul><li>Look like ballpoint pens, but use pressure to write text and draw lines on the screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with graphics tablets (i.e. flat electronic boards) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Voice Input How does voice recognition work? Step 2. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) translates sound waves into digital measurements computer can process. Measurements include pitch, volume, silences, and phonemes. Phonemes are sound units such as aw and guh . 10010111010110101100001101 Step 3. Software compares spoken measurements with those in its database to find a match or list of possible matches. Matches Step 4. To narrow a list down, software presents user with a list of choices or uses a natural language component to predict most likely match. User may correct any selection made by software. Natural Language Engine Step 1. A user dictates text into a microphone.
  12. 12. Voice Input MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface )? <ul><ul><li>External device, such as electronic piano keyboard, to input music and sound effects </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. PDAs, Tablet PCs, and Smart Phones How is a data entered into a PDA?
  14. 14. PDAs, Tablet PCs, and Smart Phones A Portable Keyboard is… <ul><ul><li>a full-sized keyboard you can conveniently attach to a PDA as required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Docking Station is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an external device that a mobile computer can be attached to that allows other peripheral devices to be connected </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. PDAs, Tablet PCs, and Smart Phones A Smart Phone … <ul><ul><li>Allows users to input and send text messages, graphics, pictures, video clips, and sound files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have a built-in or attachable camera </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. PDAs, Tablet PCs, and Smart Phones A Tablet PC … <ul><ul><li>Is a mobile computer that includes handwriting recognition software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its primary input device is a pressure-sensitive digital pen </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Digital Cameras A Digital Camera … <ul><ul><li>Allows you to take digital pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images are viewable immediately on the camera’s LCD screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Download to computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post pictures to Web </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email to friends </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Digital Cameras How does a Digital Camera work? Step 1. Point to the image to photograph and take picture. Light passes into the lens of the camera. Step 2. Image is focused on a chip called a charge-coupled device (CCD) . Step 3. CCD generates an analog signal that represents the image. Step 4. Analog signal is converted to digital signal by analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Step 5. Digital signal processor (DSP) adjusts quality of image and usually stores digital image on miniature mobile storage media in the camera. Step 6. Images are transferred to a computer’s hard disk by plugging one end of the cable into a camera and the other end into a computer; or images are copied to hard disk from storage media used in the camera. Step 7. Using software supplied with the camera, images are viewed on screen, incorporated into documents, edited, and printed.
  19. 19. Digital Cameras Image resolution relates to… <ul><ul><li>The sharpness and clarity of an image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the resolution, the better the image quality, but the more expensive the camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixel (picture element) is a single point in an electronic image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater the number of pixels, the better the image quality </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Video Input Video input is… <ul><ul><li>The process of entering full-motion images into a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A video capture card is an adapter card that converts analog video signal into digital signal that computers can use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Digital Video (DV) camera records video as digital signals </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Video Input PC Video Camera and Web Cams : <ul><ul><li>PC Video Camera — c DV camera used to capture video and still images, and to make video telephone calls on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a PC Camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Cam c — c a video camera whose output displays on a Web page </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Video Input Video Conferencing is where… <ul><ul><ul><li>Whiteboard is another window on screen that can display notes and drawings simultaneously on all participants’ screens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more geographically separated people use a network or the Internet to transmit and share audio and video data </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Scanners and Reading Devices A scanner is… <ul><ul><li>A light-sensing device that reads printed text and graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for image processing, converting paper documents into electronic images </li></ul></ul></ul>Drum Flatbed Pen or Handheld Sheet-fed
  24. 24. Scanners and Reading Devices How does a Flatbed Scanner work? Step 2. Bright light moves underneath scanned document. Step 3. Image of the document is reflected into a series of mirrors. Step 1. Document to be scanned is placed face down on the glass window. Step 6. Users can print image, e-mail it, include it in a document, or place it on a Web page. Step 4. Light is converted to analog electrical current that is converted to digital signal by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Step 5. Digital information is sent to memory in the computer to be used by illustration, desktop publishing, or other software; or it is stored on disk.
  25. 25. Scanners and Reading Devices What is an Optical Reader ? <ul><ul><ul><li>O ptical C haracter R ecognition (OCR) reads characters in OCR font </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O ptical m ark r ecognition (OMR) reads hand-drawn pencil marks, such as small circles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device that uses light source to read characters, marks, and codes and then converts them into digital data </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Scanners and Reading Devices A Turnaround Document is… <ul><ul><li>A document that you return to the company that sent it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portion you return has information printed in OCR characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Scanners and Reading Devices A Bar Code Reader … <ul><ul><li>Uses laser beams to read bar codes </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Scanners and Reading Devices A bar code … <ul><ul><li>Identification code that consists of a set of vertical lines and spaces of different widths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Product Code (UPC) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Other Input Devices An RFID Reader … <ul><ul><li>Reads information on the RFID tag via radio waves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a handheld device or mounted in a stationary position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID (Radio Frequency ID) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Other Input Devices A Magnetic Stripe Card Reader … <ul><ul><li>Reads the magnetic stripe on the back of a credit card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to a magnetic field can erase the contents of a card’s magnetic stripe </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Scanners and Reading Devices Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition (MICR) Reader : <ul><ul><li>Can read text printed with magnetised ink </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking industry almost exclusively uses MICR for cheque processing </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Scanners and Reading Devices A data collection device… <ul><ul><li>Obtains data directly at the location where a transaction or event takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits data over a network or the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Terminals A Point Of Sale (POS) Terminal … <ul><ul><li>Records purchases, processes credit or debit cards, and updates inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swipe credit or debit card through a card reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reads customer’s personal data from the magnetic strip </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Terminals What is an Automated Teller Machine (ATM)? <ul><ul><li>Self-service banking machine that connects to a host computer through a network </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Biometric Input Biometrics… <ul><ul><li>Can authenticate a person’s identity by verifying unique personal characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fingerprint Scanner captures curves and indentations of a persons fingerprint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand geometry system measures shape and size of person’s hand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye Scanners determine unique characteristics of an individuals iris. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Biometric Input What are examples of biometric technology? <ul><ul><li>Voice verification system compares live speech with stored voice pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signature verification system recognizes shape of signature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iris recognition system reads patterns in blood vessels in back of eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biometric data is sometimes stored on smart card , which stores personal data on microprocessor embedded in card </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users What input devices are available for those with physical limitations? <ul><ul><li>Keyguard allows users to rest hands on keyboard without accidentally pressing keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head-mounted pointer controls pointer on screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New developments include gesture recognition and computerized implant devices </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Summary of Input Keyboard, mouse, and other pointing devices Voice input Input devices for PDAs, smart phones, and Tablet PCs Digital cameras Video Input Scanners and reading devices Terminals Biometric input Input devices for physically challenged users