EARTHQUAKES PROYECT THIRD EVALUATION Made by: Iñigo Elorz Luis Gonzalez Rafa Guijarro Miguel A. Xavi Bringué
EARTHQUAKES Index: Introduction Localizations Causes Effects Examples of earthquakes in history What to do in case of an earthquake. Photos
EARTHQUAKES1.INTRODUCTION:An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. The seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.Earthquakes are measured using seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. Is also measured by the Richter scale.
EARTHQUAKES 2.LOCALIZATIONS : Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic energy to drive fracture propagation along a plane.The point inside the Earth where the earthquake originates is called the hypocenter. The pointon the surface which is directly vertically above the hypocenter is called epicenter.
EARTHQUAKES 2.LOCALIZATIONS : In an earthquake are distinguished: Hypocenter, deep inner zone where the earthquake occurs. Epicenter, the surface area perpendicular to the hypocenter, which more strongly affect seismic waves.
EARTHQUAKES 3-ORIGEN: The origin of an earthquake is an acumulation of energy. This occurs when it restores the movement of materials inside the earth from conditions unstables that result from volcanic abd tectinic activities wich originates at the edge of the plates.
EARTHQUAKES 3-ORIGEN: Although tectonic and volcanic activities are the main causes that are generated by earthquakes, many adverse factors can originate them: Accumulation of sediment, by: falling rocks on the slopes ofthe mountains, caves collapse. Changing rainfall regime, which alters watersheds andriver channels and estuaries. 7
EARTHQUAKES 4-EFFECTS: The effects of an earthquake can be one or more of which are detailed below.Movement and ground rupture:Movement and ground rupture are the main effects of an earthquake onthe Earths surface due to friction of tectonic plates, causing damage tobuildings or structures. Damage to buildings depend on:a) intensity of the movement, b) distance between the structure and theepicenter;c) geological conditions. 8
EARTHQUAKES 4-EFFECTS: Landslides and mudslidesEarthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions and ﬁres can lead toinstability at the edges of hills and other terrain elevations,causing displacement in the earthFire:Fire can be caused by power failure damage the gas in largecities. A case of this type of event is the 1906 earthquake in SanFrancisco, Main article: Liquefaction of the soil. 9
EARTHQUAKES 4-EFFECTS: Liquefaction: occurs when, because of the movement, water saturated material such as sand, temporarily loses its cohesion and changes from solid to liquid. This phenomenon can lead to collapse of rigid structures such as buildings and bridges.seaquake 10
EARTHQUAKES 4-EFFECTS:Tsunamis are huge ocean waves that travel large amount of water moving towards the coast. In the open sea the distance between the crests of the sea waves are close to 100 km. The periods range from ﬁve minutes to an hour. According to the depth of water, tsunamis can travel at speeds of 600 to 800 km / h. They can travel long distances across the ocean: from one continent to another. 11
EARTHQUAKES 5-WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF AN EARTHQUAKE: If it is inside a building is important: Stay away from windows, windows, cabinets, walls and objects that could fall and hit you. Do not use the elevator, since the effects of the earthquake could cause collapse or be trapped inside. Use ﬂashlights for lighting and avoid using candles, matches or any ﬂame during or immediately after the quake, which may cause explosion or ﬁre. 12
EARTHQUAKES 5-WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF AN EARTHQUAKE: If the shock is surprised abroad are advised to: Go to an open area, away from damaged buildings. After a major earthquake, followed by other smaller ones, called aftershocks, which can be strong enough to cause additional damage. Try not to approach or enter damaged buildings. The greatest danger from falling 13
EARTHQUAKES 5-WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF AN EARTHQUAKE: After the shaking: If required to communicate with friends or family, using mobile phone text messages, chat, email or internet in general. Excessive calls can congest the cellular and ﬁxed networks. 14
EARTHQUAKES 6-EARTHQUAKES IN HISTORY: Valdivia:Chile Prince william sound:Alaska Sumatra:Indonesia Kamchatka:Russia Miyagi:Japon Cobquecura:Chile Esmeraldas:Ecuador 15