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CAN THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDEEMISSION AFFECTING THE ECOSYSTEM FROM FOOD PRODUCTION SITE TO CONSUMER TABLE BE EFFECTIVELYCALCULATE?? “CARBON FOOD MILES” AN OVERVIEW. br. José F. Pereira, OSGC Professor: Zohir Chowdhury, Ph.D School of Health and Human Services – MPH National University – San Diego, CA, 92123
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE Around 12,000BC humans have change from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement (Gupta, 2004), and with this action started effecting the local environment. Originally food was produce to serve local demand. With an estimated world population of 6,881,981,864 on November 16, 2010 (US Census Bureau), local production is not able to supply the demand and food has to be produce in distant location to supply many markets. With an expected world population of 9,309,051,539 (NPG, n.d.) by 2050, this demand will be much higher. Food has become significantly responsible for the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere with an increase of 50 percent between 1850 and 1990 (USDA) much as 31 percent of the EUs greenhouse gas emissions come from the food chain.
GLOBAL FOOD TRANSPORTATION Burns a lot of fossil fuel and contributes to global warming. shipping industry globally annually emits 1.2 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CNN World) aviation industries which emits between 600 and 650 million tons.(CNN World) The rise transport has led to increases in the environmental, social and economic burdens associated with carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution, congestion, accidents and noise.
TRANSPORTATION ACCOUNTS FOR 14% OFENERGY USE WITHIN THE FOOD SYSTEM IN THE US Source: Heller and Keoleian. Life Cycle-Based Sustainability Indicators for Assessment of the U.S. Food System. 2000 http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/foodmiles.html
ENERGY USE AND EMISSIONS FORDIFFERENT MODES OF FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN THE US http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/foodmiles.html
“CARBON FOOD MILES” Concept started on 1994 with the publication of “The Food Mile Report” by British researcher, Andrea Paxton. Demonstrated that food travels between 1,500 to 2,500 miles (1990) from the farm to the kitchen and by 2007 was traveling 25% father (Wikipedia). Refer to the distance which food travels from its source farm to the place where we buy it. not taking in consideration distance between where we buy to table One measure of the amount of energy used to transport food and the consequent pollutants released by that transport. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_miles
“CARBON FOOD MILES” CONTINUATION Transport may account for 10-20% of the total energy use. Foods with a high store capability (e.g.: grains) has a much higher total energy input and have a lower proportional transport cost (~ 10%) foods with a lower store capability (e.g.,: fresh apples) has a relatively low inputs and no preparation and have a higher proportional transport cost (~50%).
DECREASING “CARBON FOOD MILES” Pros reduce (CO2) emissions of food’s freight Protects ecological management: encouraging biodiversity which: decreased and or removal of chemical fertilizers and pesticides of the land and water strengthens local economies by: protecting and encouraging creation of small local farms creating local jobs and local shops increasing local food security Offer fresher Cropshttp://www.bath.ac.uk/carpp/lowcarbon/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/climate-change-and-the-food-industry.pdf
DECREASING “CARBON FOOD MILES” Cons measuring (CO2) emissions of food’s freights ignores the total impact of food production and consumption local food often is more costly ignores benefits of free trade restrict food’s choice to seasonal crops damage on third world economies which rely on food exports ruse to justify protectionismhttp://www.bath.ac.uk/carpp/lowcarbon/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/climate-change-and-the-food-industry.pdf
BEFORE “CARBON FOOD MILES” IS USE IN FOOD LABELS CONCLUSSION needs to be calculate effectively by having the point of origin needs to be able to introduce to the equation many different means of transportations used. able to integrate in the calculation (CO2) emission from estimated food production: crops decay farms machinery Packinghttp://www.seventhgeneration.com/learn/blog/do-food-miles-carry-us-farther-sustainability etc…
FOOD MILES TOOLS Life Cycles Food CalculatorThe Life Cycles food calculator determines the distance and amount of greenhouse gases saved if a certain food product is bought locally as opposed to imported. www.gworks.ca/lcsite/food_directory/?q=foodmiles/inventory/add Food Carbon Footprint CalculatorA tool for residents within the UK to calculate their food carbon footprint to better understand the extent to which food decisions impact global warming. www.foodcarbon.co.uk LCA Food DatabaseA tool for acquiring an aggregated description of emissions, waste and the resource use from soil to kitchen per unit of different food items. www.lcafood.dk Iowa Produce Market Potential CalculatorThis calculator was designed to help users determine expanding markets in Iowa if consumers ate more locally grown fresh fruits and vegetables rather than produce from conventional sources outside the state. www.leopold.iastate.edu/research/calculator/home.htm
References: All About: food and the environment (2007, November 21). Retrieved on November 01, 2010 from CNN website: http://edition.cnn.com/2007/BUSINESS/11/21/eco.food/index.htm Climate Change, Carbon, and Forestry in Northwestern North America: Proceedings of a Workshop November 14 - 15, 2001 Orcas Island, Washington, Retrieved on November 14, 2010 from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) website: http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr614.pdf CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE FOOD INDUSTRY | CLIMATE LABELING FOR FOOD PRODUCTS: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS (2008, March). Retrieved from University of Bath (UB), UK, website: http://www.bath.ac.uk/carpp/lowcarbon/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/climate-change-and-the-food-industry.pdf Food Miles (2010, November 14). retrieved on November 15, 2010 from Wikipedia.Org website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_miles Gupta, A (2010) Origin of agriculture and domestication of plants and animals linked to early Holocene climate amelioration", Current Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 19 October 2010. Retrieved on November 01, 2010 from India Academy of Sciences website: http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul102004/54.pdf Oliver, R. (2008, January 20). Carbon Dioxide Shipping’s impact on the air. November 14, 2010, from CNN World News website: http://articles.cnn.com/2008-01-20/world/eco.about.ships_1_greenhouse-gases-independent-tanker- owners-emissions?_s=PM:WORLD Reducing Food Miles (2010, June 16). Retrieved on 11/14/10 from The National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA) website: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/farm_energy/food_miles.html Total Midyear World Population1950-2050, Facts & Figures (n.d).Retrieved on November 01, 2010, from Negative Population.org (NPG) website: http://www.npg.org/facts/world_pop_year.htm U.S. & World Population Clocks (22:50 UTC (EST+5) Nov 16, 2010). Retrieved on 11, 16,2010 from US Census Bureau website: http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html
References: Picture slides: Slide 3 –Retrieved from website: http://www.nextnature.net/2008/09/join-the-neolithic-revolution on 11/14/10 Slide 7 – Retrieved from website: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/foodmiles.html on 11/14/10 Slide 8 – Retrieved from website: http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/foodmiles.html on 11/14/10 Slide 9 – Retrieved from website: http://www.cartoonstock.comon 11/14/10 Slide 13 – Retrieved from website: http://www.catoonstock.com on 11/14/10 Slide 14 – Retrieved from website: http://www.seventhgeneration.com/learn/blog/do-food-miles-carry-us-farther- sustainability on 11/14/10 Slide 15 - Retrieved from website: http://www.eatlocal.net/challenge.html on 11/14/10 Slide 16 – Retrieved from website: http://www.cariecartoons.com on 11/14/10