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Nuclear Power Plants by Elias Romero and José Ángel Mirón


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School project on energy resources for the bilingual section of the class of Technology.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Nuclear Power Plants by Elias Romero and José Ángel Mirón

  2. 2. INDEX 1. Definition of energy and type of diagram. 2. Plant operation. 3. Advantages and disvantages of a nuclear power plant. 4. Plants that are in Galicia. 5. Plants that are in Spain. 6. Plants that are in Europe. 7. Plants that are in the world. 8. Accidents that were with these plants. 9. Conclusions. 10. Biography.
  3. 3. 1. DEFINITION OF ENERGY AND TYPE OF DIAGRAMA central nuclear plantis an industrial facilityused for the generationof electrical energyfrom nuclear power.These reactions occur in thenucleus of some isotopes inchemical elements(radioisotopes).
  4. 4. 2. Plant operationA nuclear power plant has a reactor, where the fission of radioactive elements takes place.It breaks elements and atoms apart and turns them into other elements (uranyum etc...)Fission releases a large amount of heat energy. The steam moves the turbines like in dams. The movement of these turbines cause electric currents which are carried to substations and then to people’s homes.
  5. 5. Most important parts of a nuclear plant Nuclear plants consist mainly of four parts: 1. The nuclear reactor, where the nuclear reaction occurs. 2. The steam generator (only in PWR plants). 3. The turbine, which moves an electric generator to produce electricity from steam expansion. 4. The condensed heat exchanger that cools the steam, transforming it back into liquid.
  6. 6. NUCLEAR REACTORA nuclear reactor is a device which initiates and controls a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for generating electricity. A nuclear power plant can have several reactors.
  7. 7. STEAM GENERATORA steam generator is a machine where chemical energy is transformed into heat energy. Generators differ from steam boilers in the fact that they are much larger and more complicated.
  8. 8. STEAM TURBINEA steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.
  9. 9. CONDENSED HEATA cooling system removes heat from the reactor core and transports it to another area of the plant.
  10. 10. 3. ADVANTAGES ANDDISADVANTAGES OF A NUCLEARPOWER PLANT ADVANTAGES - Quiet and small in relation to other plants./ - There is enough uranium and fissile material yet. /- Does not pollute the atmosphere and causes no pollution with a good use, with the exception of nuclear waste. - Very safe . DISADVANTAGES -In a possible-and improbable-failure, nuclear plants are highly dangerous. /The plants are very radioactive for the environment./- Uranium is a finite resource.-The disposal of spent fuel is a problem, because it can be used to make nuclear weapons. /The decay of some nuclear products takes thousands of years.
  11. 11. 4. PLANTS THAT ARE IN GALICIAIn Galicia, the political representatives have declared the region a nuclear-free zone, that is, no plants or nuclear waste can be located in Galicia.
  12. 12. 5. PLANTS THAT ARE IN SPAIN In Spain there are six nuclear power  plants locations, two of which,  Almaraz and Ascó, have twin units,  so the number of reactors is eight  (2010). The nuclear plant Jose Cabrera  (Zorita) located 70 km from Madrid  was closed down on April 30, 2006 as  it was the oldest in Spain .
  13. 13. 6. PLANTS THAT ARE IN EUROPESlovenia, Lithuania, theNetherlands and Romania have one,Bulgaria has two, Finland andHungary have four, Slovakia andSwitzerland have five, the CzechRepublic has six; Belgium seven,Spain eight, Sweden ten, Ukrainefifteen, Germany seventeen, the UKnineteen, and the highestconcentration is in France, with 59nuclear power plants.
  15. 15. 8. ACCIDENTS THAT TOOK PLACE INTHESE PLANTSBy nuclear accidents, we refer to those situations in which a considerable level of radiation is produced. To determine the severity of an accident, we use the International Nuclear Event Scale .
  16. 16. ACCIDENT AT THE THREE-MILEISLAND NUCLEAR PLANT In March 1979, the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island had a serious nuclear accident after the first year of operation. The accident was classified as level 5 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)
  17. 17. CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENTIn April 1986, the largest nuclearaccident in history occurred atChernobyl nuclear power plantdue to a series of human errors. Itwas classified as a level 7 ("seriousnuclear accident") on the INESscale.
  18. 18. NUCLEAR ACCIDENT 1 VANDELLÓSIn October 1989, the incident at the nuclearpower plant of Vandellós took place. It wasclassified as level 3 ("major incident") on theINES scale.
  19. 19. Tokaimura NUCLEAR ACCIDENTIn September 1999, theaccident at the nuclear fuelprocessing plant ofTokaimura took place. Allsigns indicated that it wasdue to a human error. Theincident was classified aslevel 4 on the INES Scale.
  20. 20. FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT The nuclear accident at Fukushima’s nuclear plant happened on March 11, 2011. There were a series of incidents, such as explosions in the buildings which contained the nuclear reactors, some faulty cooling systems, a triple fusion core and an outer radiation release.
  21. 21. 9. CONCLUSIONS There are a lot of nuclear power plants. One 0f the places that has more nuclear power plants is France, with 59. There are nuclear power plants that are environmentally-friendly and produce the same amount of energy. However, none of them produce much electricity.