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English article-gopalakrishna-cftri

  1. 1. REVIEW Coconut Oil: Chemistry, Production and Its Applications - A Review Gopala Krishna A.G.,* Gaurav Raj, Ajit Singh Bhatnagar, Prasanth Kumar P.K. and Preeti Chandrashekar Abstract chemistry, MCT and its applications taking a holistic approach on the good C oconut oil is produced by crushing copra, the dried kernel, which contains about 60- and bad effects of coconut oil reported in the literature. 65% of the oil. The oil has the natural Introduction Coconut oil is consumed in sweet taste of coconut and contains tropical countries for 92% of saturated fatty acids(in the Coconut oil is an edible oil that thousands of years. Studies form of triglycerides), most of them has been consumed in tropical done on native diets high in (about 70%) are lower chain countries for thousands of years. Ascoconut oil consumption show saturated fatty acids known as it has a long shelf life and a melting medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). point of 76 °F, it is used in baking that this population is MCFAs are not common to different industries. A negative campaign generally in good health. vegetable oils with lauric acid at 45- against saturated fats in general, and Coconut oil has a long shelf 56%. Various fractions of coconut oil the tropical oils in particular, led to life and is used in baking have medium chain triglycerides and most food manufacturers abandoning industries, processed foods, are excellent solvent for flavours, coconut oil in recent years in favor infant formulae, essences, emulsifiers etc. These fatty of hydrogenated polyunsaturated pharmaceuticals, cosmetics acids are used in the preparation of oils, particularly soy, which contain and as hair oil. emulsifiers, as drugs and also in trans fatty acids. Studies done on cosmetics. Its metabolism is different populations consuming diets high in from that of the normal vegetable oils coconut oil show no adverse effects containing long chain fatty acids. on the health of the population (1). Hence, it cannot be generalized as an oil similar in properties to that of a Coconut oil has >90% saturated 92% long chain saturated fatty acids fatty acids, hence is less attractive containing oil/fat. More studies are to consumers. Saturated fat is one required to prove the good effects of that has no unsaturation or double coconut oil, medium chain bonds and tends to be solid at room triglycerides (MCT) and the fatty temperature. Coconut oil is rich in acids on humans especially on the ill short and medium chain fatty acids. effects on cardiovascular and other Shorter chain length allows fatty diseases. The review covers the acids to be metabolized without use production of coconut oil, its of the carnitine transport system. Department of Lipid Science & Traditional Foods, Central Food Technological Research Institute (CSIR), Mysore - 570020l 15 Indian Coconut Journal
  2. 2. REVIEWVarious fractions of coconut oil are and type 3 (grades 1, 2 and 3), manipulative methods. Part IIIused as drugs. Butyric acid is used milling copra for oil extraction. The prescribes detailed laboratoryto treat cancer, while lauric acid is material shall be the kernels techniques for determination of:effective in treating viral infections. obtained from the fruits of Cocos colour (lovibond scale); sp. gr. (sp.Hence, the literature is reviewed nucifera Linn. Requirements cover gr. bottle); refractive index;in the context of increase of fat physical and chemical properties, moisture (by distillation); volatilerelated disorders / diseases through packing, marking, sampling and matter (at 105 degree C/1 h);consumption of highly unsaturated test. impurities (filtration and drying);oils. Table 1. Indian specification for coconut oil (4)Importance of coconut as oil seed Expressed Solvent-extracted The coconut palm is the most Characteristics Refined Grade Grade Grade Refined Semi Grade Grade 1A (Raw) 1B (Raw) 2 (Raw) grade refined 1 (raw)important perennial source of oil,which is grown in India. The Moisture & insoluble 0.1 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.1 0.25 1.0 impurities (max) (%)cultivation of coconut is spread over Colour Lovibond 2 4 11 30 2 10 30the entire coastal belt and also some colour scale in Y+5Rinterior tracts. Compared to all other Refractive index 1.4480 to 1.4480 to 1.4480 to 1.4480 to 1.4480 to 1.4480 to 1.4480 tooil seed crops coconut has the at 40 °C 1.4490 1.4490 1.4490 1.4490 1.4490 1.4490 1.4490highest productivity as well Specific gravity 0.915 to 0.915 to 0.915 to 0.915 to 0.915 to 0.915 to 0.915 toas consistency in production. at 30 °C/30 °C 0.920 0.920 0.920 0.920 0.920 0.920 0.920Compared to other oil seed crops Saponification value 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 (min)coconut is less susceptible to Iodine value wijs) 7.5 to 10 7.5 to10 7.5 to10 7.5 to10 7.5 to 10 7.5 to10 8.0 to13abnormal climatic condition. Acid value (max) 0.5 2.0 6.0 8.0 0.5 1.0 10 Coconut oil production in India Unsaponifiable (max) 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.8 1.0 Polenske value (min) 13.0 13.0 13.0 - 13.0 - - Rotaries and expellers are usedfor crushing the dry coconuts Flash point, °C (min) - - - - 225 100 90(known as copra) for recovery of oil.The total production of edible grade Ceylon-Standard; CS 32: 1968 free fatty acids; I value (modifiedcoconut oil in the country is about describes the specification for Wij’s); saponification value;4.0 lakh tons which is 1.5 lakh tons coconut oil intended for export. unsaponifiable matter and mineralmore compared to that produced in Coconut oil is classified into 4 acidity (titration with 0.01N NaOH1980’s (2). grades: refined, deodorized to methyl orange) (4). (neutralized, bleached, final steam Specification for coconut oil (3) Common methods of production deodorization); refined (no steam of coconut oil Indian-Standard; IS: 6220-1971 treatment); white oil (higher freespecifies the quality parameters of fatty acids); and industrial oil (crude Different types of coconut oil forcopra for grading for different uses oil, not edible without processing). edible purposes are available viz,in India. This standard prescribes Part I specifies requirement virgin coconut oil from wet coconutsthe methods of grading and the for chemical and physical (unrefined grade); coconut oil fromrequirements of copra for extraction characteristics, analytical standards, dry coconuts (unrefined grade); andof oil and for table use, together appearance, freedom from coconut oil by solvent extractionwith methods of sampling and test. adulterants and suspended matter, method (refined from coconutThe 3 types of copra are defined: packaging and marking. Part II expeller cake). Virgin coconut oil istype 1 (grades 1, 2 and 3), ball copra describes and illustrates equipment claimed to have more health benefitsfor table purpose; type 2 (grades 1 for sampling, with special reference compared to coconut oil extractedand 2), cup copra for table purpose; to large bulk vessels, together with from copra.July 2010 16 l
  3. 3. REVIEW Table 2. Codex standards for coconut oil (5) purposes. Traditionally, virgin coconut Characteristic Coconut oil oil is produced by fermentation Colour – Platinum cobalt scale (max) 50 method, where coconut milk expelled Relative density at 40°C/20° C 0.908-0.921 from freshly harvested coconuts is Refractive Index at 40°C 1.448-1.450 fermented for 24-36 hr, and during this Moisture & other volatiles at 105°C 0.1 period, the oil phase gets separated Free fatty acids, calculated as lauric acid % by mass (max) 0.3 from aqueous phase. Further, the Peroxide value (millequivalents of active oxygen per kg) Not more than 15 resulting wet oil is slightly heated for Iodine value 6.3-10.6 a short time to remove the moisture Sap. value 248-265 and finally filtered. The main Unsaponifiables, % by mass, max g/kg ≤ 15 disadvantages of this process are low Reichert value 6 – 8.5 oil recovery and fermented odor, Polenske value 13 –18 which masks the characteristic coconut flavor of the oil. Copra milling by traditional Hydraulic presses methods In conventional methods for These are used in the large virgin coconut oil, freshly extracted The extraction of oil from copra installations. They are of two main milk is centrifuged to obtain creamis one of the oldest seed crushing types-open or Anglo-American which is heated upto 60-80°C beforeoperations. In India and Sri Lanka presses and the closed or cage type centrifuging to obtain the oil.copra is still crushed for oil presses. In this the space between the Systematic research work has beenextraction in the primitive chekkus plates above ram and the head is carried out at CFTRI for theas well as in rotary ghanis, expellers divided by plates between which production of several value addedand hydraulic presses. copra is put wrapped in press clothes. products from coconut, one of them The chekku is a fixed wooden or The common method is to extract being virgin coconut oil. In thestone mortar inside which revolves oil from copra or the dry coconuts. CFTRI process, virgin coconut oil ison a hard wooden pestle. The pestle Conventionally coconut oil is obtained by ‘wet processing’ withoutis attached to a long pole which is produced by expelling dry copra, heat, shear and chemicals withmoved round via bullocks, donkey followed by refining during which an overall yield of 87.5%.or by human labor. About 20 – 40 oil is exposed to high temperature. Physicochemical properties and fattykg of copra can be handled by a The copra based refined coconut oil acid compositions were evaluated.chekku. or the solvent extracted and refined Sensory studies are also carried out coconut oil will have a bland taste and found that virgin coconut oil isCopra processing by continuous superior to the commercial sample. due to the refining processes. pressing Scale-up runs were carried out for Wet coconut processing the production of virgin coconut oil. This is done with the help ofexpellers. The oil expeller is The wet coconuts are subjected to The process technology has beenessentially a mechanical screw pressing to ooze the oil out along with transferred to several user industriespress in which the oil is expelled coconut milk. This is processed through Coconut Developmentfrom the copra by the pressure afterwards without employing heat, Board, Cochin.exerted by a continuous rotating shear, chemicals, refining and is Physico-chemical characteristicswarm shaft in the barrel or cage of known as virgin coconut oil. Virgin of coconut oilthe press. The barrel is built with coconut oil has applications in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. It is Solubilityopenings to allow the escape of oiland these can be adjusted colorless with characteristic coconut Coconut oil is insoluble in water.according to the type of seed being flavor and finds several applications At temperature above its meltingcrushed. in medicinal, cosmetics and cooking point it is completely miscible withl 17 Indian Coconut Journal
  4. 4. REVIEWmost of the non-hydroxylic solvents high saponification value, high Chemistry of fatty acids andsuch as light petroleum, benzene, saturated fatty acids content and is a triglyceridescarbon tetrachloride etc. In alcohol, liquid at room temperatures of 27°C. Medium chain triglyceridescoconut oil is more soluble than most Unsaponifiable mattercommon fats and oils. Medium chain triglycerides All natural fats contain minor (MCTs) are a class of lipids in which Chemical composition quantities of substance other than three saturated fats are bound to a Coconut oil contains a high fatty acid glycerides. The glycerol backbone. What distinguishesproportion of glycerides of lower unsaponified constituent is mostly MCTs from other triglycerides is thechain fatty acids (Tables 3, 4 & 5). sterols. The unsaponifiable fact that each fat molecule is betweenThe oil is highly stable towards constituent of coconut oil include a six and twelve carbons in length (9).atmospheric oxidation. The oil is small amount of tocopherols and MCTs are a component of many foods,characterized by a low iodine value, phytosterols (Table 3). with coconut and palm oils being the dietary sources with the highest Table 3. Physico-chemical Characteristics of coconut oil concentration of MCTs. MCTs are also Virgin coconut oil Unrefined coconut Refined coconut available as a dietary supplement (10). from wet coconut Oil from copra oil Appearance Colorless Slight brownish Colourless MCTs have a different pattern of Odour Coconut smell Coconut smell Odourless absorption and utilization than long-Melting point °C 24 24 24 chain triglycerides (LCTs) that makeMoisture (%) <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 up 97 percent of dietary fats. ForIodine value (cg I2/g) 12-15 12-15 10-12 absorption of LCTs to occur, the fattyPeroxide value (meq. O2/kg) 0-1 0-1 0-1 acid chains must be separated fromSaponification value(mg KOH/g) 245-255 245-255 250-255 the glycerol backbone by the lipasePhospholipids(%) 0.1 0.1 0.0 enzyme. These fatty acids formUnsaponifiable matter(%) — 0.42% 0.19% micelles, are then absorbed andTocopherols mg/kg 150-200 150-200 4-100 reattached to glycerol, and thePhytosterols mg/kg 400-1200Total phenolics mg/Kg 640 618 20 resultant triglycerides travel throughFatty acid composition(relative %) the lymphatics en route to theSaturates 92.0 92.0 92.0 bloodstream. Up to 30 percent ofMonounsaturates 6.0 6.0 6.0 MCTs are absorbed intact across thePolyunsaturates 2.0 2.0 2.0 intestinal barrier and directly enter the portal vein. This allows for much Table 4. Fatty acid composition of coconut oil and some other vegetable oils quicker absorption and utilization ofVegetable oils C8:0 C10:0 C12:0 C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C20:0 C22:0 Others MCTs compared to LCTs. MCTs are transported into the mitochondriaCoconut 7.0 5.4 48.9 20.2 8.4 2.5 6.2 1.4 - - - independent of the carnitine shuttle,Palm kernel - 1.2 51.6 22.9 12.2 1.3 10.8 - - - - -Sunflower - - - - 6.3 3.0 43.7 47.0 - - - which is necessary for LCT-Rice bran - - - 0.4 22.9 1.8 42.5 30.5 1.4 0.5 - mitochondrial absorption. OxidationSafflower - - - 0.3 11.9 2.3 29.2 55.9 0.4 - - of MCTs provides 8.3 calories perSesame - - - - 10.3 5.8 42.9 41.0 - - - gram, while LCTs provides 9.2Groundnut - - - - 14.0 3.8 41.9 34.7 1.0 1.2 3.4 calories per gram (11).Palm - - 0.2 1.1 42.6 3.8 41.9 10.4 - - - Coconut Oil as a source ofOlive - - - - 12.0 2.5 75.7 7.9 0.5 - - 1.4Soybean - - - - 11.6 4.0 18.8 56.1 8.5 - - 1.0 medium-chain triglyceridesGrape seed - - - - 7.2 4.8 19.4 68.1 0.1 - - 0.4 All fats and oils are composed ofLinseed - - - - 7.1 2.0 19.9 17.3 53.7 - - 0.4 triglyceride molecules, which are triJuly 2010 18 l
  5. 5. REVIEWTable 5. TAG (triacyl glycerols or triglycerides) molecular species in coconut oil from India, Malaysia and considered essential nutrients for Indonesia (12 & 13) infants as well as for people withTAG Coconut RBDCNO MAL MAL MAL MAL MAL IND IND IND IND IND serious digestive problems likeSpecies Oil (I) (MAL) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 cystic fibrosis (15, 16). Like otherCaCC 1.1 - - - - - - - - - - - essential nutrients, one must getCaCLa 3.4 - - - - - - - - - - - them directly from the diet.CCLa 12.8 13.1 16.6 15.1 16.4 15.9 16.2 14.4 14.3 16.7 14.7 16.1CpCpLa - 1.2 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.4 0.9 1.1 1.3 0.7 0.9 Literature on coconut oilCpCLa - 3.5 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.2 3.3 3.6 4.3 3.7 3.5 Philippines, Indonesia, India, SriCLaLa 17.8 17.2 21.4 19.8 19.7 19.8 20.0 19.5 19.2 21.1 19.9 20.3 Lanka, Mexico, West Malaysia, andLaLaLa 20.7 21.9 25.8 23.3 24.1 22.8 23.6 23.5 23.6 23.5 23.6 23.9 Papua & New Guinea are the 7LaLaM 16.1 17.2 15.1 15.6 13.8 14.6 13.6 15.4 16.5 14.2 16.2 14.8LaLaO 1.8 2.3 1.3 1.5 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.6 countries which produce majorLaMM 10.1 10.2 8.6 9.5 7.8 9.1 8.2 9.1 9.4 7.4 9.5 8.6 quantities of coconut in the world.LaMO 2.1 2.1 0.9 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 Coconut is available in two formsLLO/LaMP 6.2 5.8 4.8 4.8 5.0 4.9 4.8 5.7 5.5 4.8 5.4 4.7 viz., wet and dry materialsLaOO 1.6 1.4 0.3 1.8 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.1 commonly known as wet coconutLOO/LaPP 2.9 3.0 0.4 1.3 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.0 and dry coconut or copra. The oil canPLO 0.9 - - - - - - - - - - - be extracted from both these rawMOO - 0.7 - 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 materials. However, in India andMPO 0.8 - - - - - - - - - - - Srilanka, it is a general practice toOOO 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - use only copra for oil extraction andPOO - 0.3 - 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 the oil is used for food and cosmeticPOP 0.8 - - - - - - - - - - - purposes. In Phillippines, the oil isPPP 0.2 - - - - - - - - - - - extracted from wet coconut also and is known as virgin coconut oil. Inesters of glycerol and fatty acids. The diet (14). It is the MCT in coconut oil some countries solvent extraction offats upon hydrolysis yield fatty acids that make it different from all other fats the dry coconut followed by refining,and glycerol. There are two methods and for the most part gives it its unique bleaching and deodorization isof classifying fatty acids, character and healing properties. carried out to get the refinedmonounsaturated fatty acids, and Almost all of the medium-chain bleached and deodorized coconutpolyunsaturated fatty acids. The triglycerides used in research, oil. The technology for thesecond method of classification is medicine, and food products come production of coconut oil throughbased on molecular size or length of from coconut oil. expellers is well developed andthe carbon chain in the fatty acid. many medium scale industries in MCT are easily digested, The vast majority of the fats and absorbed, and put to use nourishing India produce oil by this method. the body. Unlike other fats, they put However, some small scaleoils whether they are saturated or industries produce the oil byunsaturated or from an animal or a little strain on the digestive system processing fresh coconut also usingplant, are composed of long-chain and provide a quick source of energy local expeller press. Problems oftriglycerides. All fats we eat consist of necessary to promote healing. This sediments and rancidity persist inLCT while, coconut oil is unique is important for patients who are these oils.because it is composed predominantly using every ounce of strength theyof MCT. The size of the fatty acid is have to overcome serious illness or The literature on coconut oilextremely important because injury. It’s no wonder why MCT are which has been reported asphysiological effects of medium-chain added to infant formulas. MCT are published papers and patents fromfatty acids in coconut oil are distinctly not only found in coconut oil but also 1970 onwards were reviewed anddifferent from the long-chain fatty are natural and vital components were classified under the followingacids more commonly found in our of human breast milk. MCT are heads:l 19 Indian Coconut Journal
  6. 6. REVIEW A. Production Methods and Oil feeding the expeller presses; coconut to obtain refined oil and to quality handling and filtering of crude oil; simultaneously recover coconut oil cooling system; and extraction by products including solid coconut A number of reviews are the solvent method. Loncin et al (20) products for human consumptionavailable on the different types of reviewed the utilization of palm oil which has also been patented inextraction and processing methods and coconut oil in the form of India. Castellanos and Asturias (26)for the preparation of coconut oil, interesterified fat. The utilization of investigated the wet millingcoconut flour, protein and coconut transesterified palm oil with 25% processes for the extraction of oilcake and meal. Cornelius (17) has coconut oil for production of cooking from decorticated fresh coconutreviewed the aspects of coconut fat of uniform consistency little under a variety of experimentalprocessing such as growing, affected by temperature. (solid fat conditions to get oil of better qualityharvesting, handling, storage, index at 10, 20 and 30 degree C being and it required less refining.composition of nut, processing, 45.6, 33.6, 9.2, consistency in 0.1 mm Hagenmaier et al (27) identified theprimary products (copra, ball copra, ASTM penetration depth after 9 days’ critical unit operations in the wetdesiccated coconut, fibre and shells), storage at 15, 21 and 25 degree C was processing of fresh coconuts for thecoconut oil (extraction methods, 19, 38 and 44). Due to its low recovery of oil and food gradecomposition of coconut oil), uses of oxidation during heating, liquid oil is protein.oil, coconut cake and meal, suitable for table and frying use.nutritional aspects, and the coconut Solvent extractionindustry in the 7 major producing Enzymatic process Cancel et al (28) has standardizedareas (Philippines, Indonesia, India, Coconut oil is extracted from conditions for coconut oil extractionSri Lanka, Mexico, West Malaysia, coconut paste by a new enzymatic from coconut milk press-cake.and Papua & New Guinea). Dendy process (1) and the method used less Gonzalez et al (29) studied theand Grimwood (18) have reviewed energy than the conventional solvent extraction of residual oilthe various processes for wet processes. A Sri Lankan inventor (21) from wet coconut meal usingtreatment which have been proposed has developed a simple method for isopropanol. Bernardini (30) hasfor extraction of oil and protein from making high quality coconut oil and described a new single solvent directfresh coconut meat: The Chayen, desiccated coconut. Using more extraction process (by CMB,Robledano, ICAIT, Krauss-Maffei, manpower and little or no electricity, Pomezia) which obviates the needRoxas and Sugarman processes, it involves breaking the coconut, for pressing. Aliwalas and Buccatintegrated processes, methods used scraping it and drying in a specially (31) studied the filtration-extractionby the Texas A&M University and designed solar drier. The desiccated of granulated coconut on a benchthe Tropical Products Institute, coconut produced can be used for scale. Claudio et al (32) carried outLondon. The problem of obtaining mechanical extraction of colourless, laboratory scale studies on thecheap protein-based food products, odourless coconut oil suitable for preparation of a highly nutritiouscoconut milk and cream, frozen direct consumption (22). Mojika (23) coconut flour from granulatedmilk, syrup, etc. is then examined. developed a simple process for coconut. Preliminary feeding expt.A few indications are given producing coconut oil and food grade indicate a PER comparable withregarding the nutritive and chemical copra cake which has been patented. casein. Prepared foods (cakes,aspects of coconut protein. Baltasar Nambiar (24) developed a method for doughnuts, cookies, pastries) with(19) has reviewed the extraction the production of refined oil from the 20-30% wheat flour replaced byprocess of coconut oil by the dry milk of fresh ripe coconuts and has coconut flour obtained high tasteprocessing technology. Coconut oil been granted an Indian patent. rating.extraction employing dry processingtechnology is discussed under the Wet processing of coconut Fatty acid compositionfollowing headings: preparation of Nambiar (25) has developed a Banzon and Resurreccion (33)raw material; drying or cooking; method of processing fresh ripe carried out a study on the fatty acidJuly 2010 20 l
  7. 7. REVIEWdistribution in coconut oil obtained (CECO). However, high temperatures coconut oil can be used as a naturalby four processing methods and used in the hot extraction of coconut antioxidant through the blendingsecured from four Philippine types oil favor the incorporation of more process. Bhatnagar et al (37) haveof coconuts. There was no observed thermally stable phenolic observed that addition of coconut oilchange in the fatty acid distribution antioxidants into coconut oil. to either safflower oil, sunflower oil,in samples of coconut oil obtained Therefore, the consumption of rice bran oil increased the oxidativeby 4 methods, namely: solvent HECO may result in improvement stability of the resultant blend.extraction, fermentation, freeze- of antioxidant related health benefits Phase separationthawing and heating. Neither was compared with the consumption ofthere such a change observed in CECO. Murthi et al (38) studied thecoconut oil samples obtained from storage stability of edible oils and Moura (6) studied the changes in their blends. Among the blends,4 types of coconuts. some components of the sesame oil or groundnut oil blendedPhenolics and antioxidant activity unsaponifiable fraction of coconut oil with refined cottonseed oil showed Kapila and Dissanayake (34) during refining. 8 lots of coconut oil the least increase in FFA. PV of rawstudied the phenolic compounds were sampled at 5 points in the refining edible oils and their blends tendedpresent in the nonsaponifiable process. The unsaponifiable matter to rise steadily to a maximum,fraction of coconut oil by high- (UNS) comprised hydrocarbons declining gradually thereafter.performance liquid chromatography (including squalene), aliphatic Acceptability became poor for rawwith florescence detection. Mass alcohols and triterpenoid alcohols, edible oils after 120 days, when thespectra of the phenolic compounds sterols and a final group containing PV was between 5.9 and 16 m-were also obtained separately by free fatty acids (FFA), campesterol and equiv./kg, and for refined oils afterLC–MS to confirm the presence of some unidentified components. 90 days (PV was 4.4-9) and for thethe phenolic compounds. Caffeic Tocopherols were not detected in the blends after 90-120 days (PV 4-45).acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid coconut samples analysed. Manalac The consumer preference in variousand catechin were observed in and Harder (36) analysed the areas was for oil blends containingcoconut oil. Phenolic acid fraction tocopherol content of coconut oil from cottonseed oil with sesame oil orof the coconut oil prepared by a commercial processing plant at groundnut oil, coconut oil with palmboiling coconut milk (traditional different stages of refining. One olein, and rapeseed oil with mustardcoconut oil) was more complex sample of crude oil containing oil. Blends containing palm oil werecompared with that of coconut oil 721.06µg/g lost 94.5% resulting in less acceptable, as a waxy solid massprepared by pressing copra 38.9µg/g in the final product. separates out in these oils.(commercial coconut oil). Total It is observed from the above Coconut oil emulsionsphenol content of traditional coconut literature reports that there isoil was nearly seven times higher Garti and Arkad (39) studied the variation in the composition of process of preparation of cloudythan that of commercial coconut oil coconut oil with respect to natural coconut oil emulsions containing(618 ± 46 vs. 91 ± 11 mg kg )1 ), antioxidants level with the method dispersed TiO2 using atomizer.suggesting that the phenol content used for its extraction which may Rogov et al (40) studied the viscosityvaries with the extraction method. have a bearing on the nutritional of the fat components of margarine Kapila, Chamil and Sagarika (35) quality of the oil. emulsions. Technological procedurescompared the antioxidant activities B. Blending of coconut oil with in margarine manufacture (dosage,of coconut oil extracted under hot other vegetable oils transport, mixing) are affected by theand cold conditions. The coconut oil viscosity of the fat component. Oxidative stabilityextracted under hot conditions Viscosities of some fats (hardened(HECO) contained more phenolic Coconut oil addition to other fat, qualities 1, 2 and 3, coconut oil,substances than the coconut oil vegetable oils improves their vegetable oil blends, etc.) and of theextracted under cold conditions oxidative stability indicating that fat components used for margarinel 21 Indian Coconut Journal
  8. 8. REVIEWemulsion preparation were following process for oil extraction specification for a vegetable oildetermined at 40 degree C. The from coconut meat: (i) wet method blend.viscosities of different fat blend (using a De Laval centrifuge), (ii) A.17.24. “Blended Edibleemulsions applied in Russian hydraulic pressing, (iii) pressing plus Vegetable Oil” means an admixturemargarine formulations were also solvent extraction, (iv) filtration of any two edible vegetable oilsdetermined and are tabulated. extraction (direct solvent extraction). where the proportion by weight of Oil extraction efficiencies obtainedNutritional effects of coconut oil any edible vegetable oil used in the were: (i) 79.56% (increased to 96.3%blends admixture is not less than 20 per by subsequent solvent extraction), Bellenand et al (41) studied the cent. The individual oils in the blend (ii) 76.47%, (iii) 99.65%, (iv) 96.58.effects of coconut oil on heart lipids shall conform to the respective Protein contents of isolates from (i)and on fatty acid utilization in standards prescribed by these rules. ranged from 59 to 75%. Proteinrapeseed oil. The cardiac lipidosis The blend shall be clear, free from efficiency ratio (PER) biologicalwas proportional to the content of rancidity, suspended or insoluble value (BV), true digestibility (TD)erucic acid in the diet. At 60 days, matter or any other foreign matter, and net protein utilization (NPU) ofthe high level of 22:6 in the cardiac separated water, added colouring coconut flour from (ii), (iii) and (iv)phospholipids of rats fed rapeseed oil matter, flavouring substance, were: PER 2.42, 2.55, 2.42; BV 77,was reduced by the addition of mineral oil, hydrocyanic acid, castor 84, 79; TD 76, 74, 72; NPU 68, 64,sunflower oil but not by coconut oil. oil and tricresyl phosphate. It shall 66. Values for coconut isolateThus, the blending of rapeseed oil also conform to the following prepared by heat coagulation ofwith coconut oil apparently is less standards, namely; cream or aqueous portion of freshdesirable than that of rapeseed oil coconut milk from (i) were: PER Based on the PFA specifications,and sunflower oil. McCutcheon et al 1.50, 2.20; BV 72, 80; TD 88, 92; a process has been developed at the(42) studied the cardiopathogenicity NPU 59, 65. The traditional rural Central Food Technologicalof rapeseed oils and oil blends method gave an oil extraction Research Institute, Mysore underdiffering in erucic, linoleic and efficiency of 82.45, and a protein sponsorship from the Coconutlinolenic acid content on male Wistar isolate with PER 1.25, BV 62, TD Development Board, Cochin and israts using semipurified diets. Lowest 86 and NPU 58. ready for commercialization.lesion incidence was obtained with Reena Rao and Lokesh (46, 47), C. Edible applications ofsafflower oil and hydrogenated Anitha Nagaraju and Lokesh (48, 49) coconut oilcoconut oil. It has been postulated and Reena and Lokesh (50) havethat linolenic acid plays a role in the Coconut oil has a high degree of used immobilized lipase systems foretiology of cardiac necrosis observed saturation with a high content of the synthesis of structured lipidswhen rats are fed diets containing saturated fatty acids. Because of from coconut oil and omega 6 andlow erucic acid rapeseed oils. high content of saturated fatty acids omega 3 fatty acids and carried out Theuer (43) developed fat nutritional evaluation of the same in coconut oil is highly resistant tocompositions for infant formulas rats. They found beneficial effects in oxidative rancidity, coconut oil iscontaining vegetable fats with a fatty the lipid profile after enzymatic used as a component of infant milkacid simulating that of human milk. acidolysis of coconut oil with omega powders because of its easyGrandadam (44) developed 6 and omega 3 fatty acids. digestibility and stable flavor.processes to recover the proteins of Coconut oil is extensively used in Indian Specification for blending the food industries as athe coconut from copra cake, or of vegetable oils confectionery fat particularly in thedirectly from fresh coconut meat bydifferent processes. The improved As per the Prevention of Food preparation of ice creams. InItipat process of double pressing Adulteration Act 1954 Rules imitation chocolates coconut oil isallows recovery of 93.45% of the oil and Regulations and updated used in place of cocoa butter alongand 91.9%. Aliwalas (45) studied the amendments following is the with cocoa powder.July 2010 22 l
  9. 9. REVIEW Indian Specification for blending of two oils materials. These MCTs can also bea. Moisture and volatile matter Not more than 0.2 per cent by weight used as a glaze and polishing agentb. Acid Value for confectionery products such as Nature of oil Acid value gummy- type candies. Solid MCTs 1. Both raw edible vegetable oils in the blend Not more than 6.0 can help to enhance aeration 2. One raw edible vegetable oil and one refined edible properties in bakery products (55, vegetable oil in the blend Not more than 5.0 56). 3. Both refined edible vegetable oils in the blend Not more than 5.0c. Unsaponifiable matter: MCT derivatives- structured 1. Blend with rice bran oil Not more than 3.0 per cent by weight lipids 2. Blend with other edible vegetable oils Not more than 1.50 per cent by weight Medium chain triglycerides cand. Flash point (Penske Martin closed method) Not less than 250ºC be used to custom design fats. MCTs 1. Test for argemone oil shall be negative for the blend with conventional long chain fats give 2. However, blend may contain food additives permitted in these rules and Appendix ‘C’. products with unique physical andUse in the synthesis of medium Functional benefits of medium nutritional products. MCT derivativeschain triglycerides chain triglycerides show unique properties compared to their corresponding physical blends. Medium chain triacylglycerols Medium chain triglycerides are They may contribute nutritional andare unique categories of lipids widely used in the flavor industries functional benefits to value addedproduced by the esterification of as they are more polar and therefore foods (57, 58, 59).glycerol with medium chain fatty more hydrophilic and can dissolveacids, which come from high lauric a variety of polar substances that are D. Non-edible applicationsoils. Coconut and palm kernel oils insoluble in conventional fats and of coconut oilare the only commercially important oils. Hydrocarbons, esters and One of the major non-ediblesources of medium chain fatty acids natural oils as well as alcohols, applications of coconut oil is in the(52). These oils are hydrolyzed to ketones and acids are miscible with soap industries; one importantliberate their fatty acids from MCTs. These properties make chemical derivative of coconut oilglycerol, and then the fatty acids are MCTs superior carrier for flavors, is methyl esters of coconut fattyseparated by fractional distillation. vitamins and colors when compared acids, which are produced byThe lower boiling or top fraction of to conventional oils. MCTs have a treating coconut oil with methylthe fatty acids contains the medium lower molecular weight than alcohol. These methyl esterschain acids (53).The esterification conventional oils. This gives MCTs constitutes an important rawreaction between glycerol and the a lower viscosity than conventional material for the chemical industriesmedium chain fatty acids is carried oils, even at low temperatures. as they are more stable and areout at high temperatures with orwithout use of a catalyst. The water MCTs oils have no unsaturated fatty easier to separate by fractionalliberated in the reaction is removed acids present; therefore they are distillation. Coconut oil has manycontinuously to drive the reaction to exceptionally stable to oxidation. other industrial uses in thecompletion (54). When the MCTs have excellent keeping pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, plastics,esterification reaction is complete, qualities and therefore help to rubber substitutes, synthetic resinsexcess fatty acids are removed from increase shelf- life of finished etc. Coconut oil has also been foundthe reaction mixture by vacuum products. MCTs are ideal for useful for mixing with diesel. Thesedistillation. To remove the volatile treating the surfaces of crackers to mixture in the proportion as 30:70odor and flavor components as well act as a moisture barrier. They has given excellent roadas any residual fatty acids, the crude adhere well to surfaces, including performance of diesel vehicles.MCTs are deodorized to get a final metals. They are excellent release Methyl esters of coconut oil fattyproduct that has a bland flavor and agent for surfaces that come into acids is also being used as lubricantsis odorless and colorless. contact with food products or raw and biodiesel in aviation industry.l 23 Indian Coconut Journal
  10. 10. REVIEW E. Clinical Applications of Healing properties of coconut oil Saturated fatty acids of coconut oil medium chain triglycerides and having medicinal properties Coconut oil is antiviral, anti- saturated fatty acids Roughly 45 to 50% of fatty acids fungal (kills yeast too) andMalabsorption antibacterial. It attacks and kills of coconut oil form lauric acid. viruses that have a lipid (fatty) Lauric acid is known to kill viruses Children with cystic fibrosis coating, such as herpes, HIV, and bacteria that are enveloped in asupplemented with up to 75 ml of hepatitis C, the flu, and phospholipid membrane. ExamplesMCTs per day experienced greater mononucleosis. It kills the bacteria of viruses with a fatty capsule are:weight gain and reduced fecal fat that cause pneumonia, sore throats, influenza viruses and HIV. Coconutcompared to a trial period on a dental cavities, urinary tract itself contains about 75% fiber, notcontrol diet (9). When MCTs are infections, meningitis, gonorrhea, bran fiber from wheat and grainsgiven concurrently with a pancreatic (which contains phytic acid thatenzyme preparation, absorption is food poisoning and many more bacterial infections (63). It kills the absorbs calcium and other mineralimproved (58). MCTs have been from your body before it isused in other malabsorption fungus/yeast infections that cause candida, ringworm, athletes foot, excreted), but dietary fiber that feedssyndromes, including short-bowel beneficial colon flora. As the fibersyndrome, celiac disease, and thrush, jock itch and diaper rash. is metabolized by the naturallyhepatic disease (15). occurring bacteria, they by default,HIV/AIDS Use of saturated fats in therapeutic crowd out other potentially harmful applications pathogens and produce short chain MCTs may help with weight Saturated fatty acids can be fatty acids (SCFA’s) like acetic acidmaintenance in AIDS patients. An (minute amounts of vinegar andenteral formula containing 85 used to: boost the immune system, for weight management, as butyric acid (originally isolate inpercent of fat calories from MCTs butter) both compounds are known(35% of total calories from fat) led antimicrobials, to support the to have varying degrees of antito decreases in stool fat, number of structure of gut mucosa, and as microbial activity. These fatty acidsbowel movements, and abdominal dietary adjuncts in cases of chronic are absorbed directly into the colonsymptoms, as well as increased fat degenerative disease, such as and serve as energy in that way.absorption compared to baseline cardiovascular disease, liver Butyric acid has been shown to have(59). No improvement was seen in disease and cancer. As far as the anti-tumor properties. Manysubjects taking a control LCT- integrity of the gut mucosa is researchers have reported thatcontaining formula. Another concerned, the use of short and coconut oil lowers cholesterol. Thecontrolled trial confirmed these medium chain fatty acids can cholesterol-lowering properties ofresults (60). MCT-containing reduce mucosal irritation coconut oil are a direct result of itscaloric supplements do not appear characteristic of aliments such as: ability to stimulate thyroid function.to cause weight gain in AIDS IBS, ulcerative colitis, and In the presence of adequate thyroidpatients compared to a control diet. dysbiosis, to name a few. In hormone, cholesterol (specificallyIn 1978, Kabara and others (61) particular, short chain fatty acids LDL-cholesterol) is converted byreported that certain medium chain are antihistaminic and may find use enzymatic processes to the vitallyfatty acids, such as lauric acid have in the treatment of allergic-type necessary anti-aging steroids,adverse effects on other pathogenic conditions, such as asthma, pregnenolone, progesterone andmicroorganisms, including bacteria, urticaria and food sensitivities. DHEA. These substances areyeast and fungi. These fatty acids Studies have also shown that short required to help prevent heartand their derivatives actually chain saturated fatty acids can be disease, senility, obesity, cancer anddisrupt the lipid membranes of the used in the treatment of dental other diseases associated with ageingorganisms and thus inactivate them caries, peptic ulcers, BPH, genital and chronic degenerative diseases(62). herpes, and hepatitis (64). (64).July 2010 24 l
  11. 11. REVIEWAnti-Cancer Effects of Coconut effects of the oil has also been Section B. Sci. and Engg., 1971 32 (6)Oil reported especially in cardiovascular 3424-3425 order no. 72-1709. diseases due to the presence of less 7. Lucita R Lauretes, Felicito M In 1987 Lim-Sylianco (64) Rodriguez, Consorcia E. Reano, of unsaturated fatty acids in thepublished a 50-year literature review Genardo A Santos, Antonio CLaurena, triglycerides of the oil. It is Evelyn Mae Tecson Mendoza.showing the anti-cancer effects of hypothesized that due to lower Variability in fatty acid andcoconut oil. In chemically induced amount of PUFA, there is a triacylglycerol composition of the oil ofcancers of the colon and breast, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) hybrid and possibility of atherogenecityCohen et al (65) showed that coconut their parental. J. Agric. Food Chem., development during long term usageoil was by far more protective than (2002) 50 1581-1586. of the oil. However, more researchunsaturated oils. For example 32% 8. Frank D Gunstone, John L Harwood, is needed to clearly understand the Albert J Dikstra. The lipid handbook.of corn oil eaters got colon cancer many good effects of the oil. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.whereas only 3% of coconut oileaters got the cancer. Animals fed Acknowledgements 9. Babayan, V.K. Medium chain triglycerides. In dietary fat requirementsunsaturated oils had more tumors. The authors thank Dr. V. Prakash, in health and development. (CJ Beare-This shows the thyroid-suppressive Director, CFTRI, Mysore and the Rogers, ed) AOCS press, Champain,and hence, immuno-suppressive Coconut Development Board, Kochi Illinois (USA) 1988 73-86.effect of unsaturated oils. for enthusing us to write this review 10. J. A. Heydnger, D. K. Nakhasi, Medium chain Triacylglycerols. J. of Food Conclusions and Dr. B.R. Lokesh, Head, Dept. of Lipids, (3) 1996 251-257. Lipid Science & Traditional Foods, Coconut oil is consumed in 11. Ralph Hoahland,George G. Snider, for critically going through the Digestability of certain higher saturatedtropical countries for thousands of manuscript. fatty acids and triglycerides. J. Nutri.,years. Studies done on native diets 1943 26(3) 219-225.high in coconut oil consumption References 12. Malongil B. Reena, Sunki R. Y. Reddy,show that this population is generally 1. Thampan, P.K., Glimpses of coconut Belur R. Lokesh, Changes inin good health. Coconut oil has a industry in India, Coconut triglyceride molecular species and Development Board, Cochin 1988. thermal properties of blended andlong shelf life and is used in baking 2. http://www.seaofindia.com/. Import interesterified mixtures of coconut oilindustries, processed foods, infant of vegetable oils, The Solvent or palm oil with rice bran oil or sesameformulas, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics Extractors’ Association of India, oil. Eur. J. of Lipid Sci. and Tech., 2009and as hair oil. The oil contains 92% Mumbai, India. 111: 346-357.of saturates consisting of medium 3. Indian Standards Institution 13. A. M. Marina, Y. B. Che Man, S. A. H.chain fatty acids in the form of Specification, Grading for copra for Nasimah, I. Amin, Chemical propertiestriglycerides, and about 8% of table use and for oil milling. India, of virgin coconut oil. J. Amer. Oil Indian- Standard; IS: 6220-1971, Chem. Soc., 2009 86 301-307.unsaturates consisting of oleic and 10pp. Methods of sampling and testlinoleic acids as triglycerides. The oil 14. Furman, R.H., Howard R.P., Brusco for oils and fats, Indian Standard O.J., Alaupoic P, Effects of Mediumhas a small amount of unsaponifiable specification for coconut oil IS:542- chain length triglyceride on serummatter (< 0.5%), is colourless and 1968. Indian Standards Institution lipids. In medium chain triglyceride. U New Delhi. 1971.has a odour typical of the coconuts. Penn Press Pennysylvania 51-61.The oil has small amounts of 4. Specification for coconut oil. Ceylon, Ceylon-Standard: CS 32: 1968 24pp. 15. Johnson R.C., Cotter R. Metabolism oftocopherols and tocotrienols and Bureau of Ceylon Standards. 1968. medium chain triglyceride lipidphytosterols. The oil is known to emulsions. Nutr. Int., 1986 2 150-158. 5. Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO),have antiviral and antibacterial Codex Standards for Named Vegetable 16. Marie-Pierre St-Onge, Robert Ross,effects and excellent healing Oils, Codex Stan 210-1999. Codex William D. Parsons, Peter J.H. Johns, Alimentarius, V.8-2001. Rome, Italy, p Medium chain triglycerides increaseproperties. It gets easily absorbed in 11-25. energy expenditure and decreasethe body and is a nature mimic of adiposity in overweight men. Obesity 6. Moura Fe J de A, Changes in somethe human breast milk fat and hence Res., 2003 11(3) 395-402. components of the unsaponifiableused in infant formulae. With all fraction of coconut oil during refining. 17. Cornelius J.A., Coconuts: a review.these good quality attributes, the side Dissertation Abstracts International. Trop. Sci., 1973 15 (1) 15-37.l 25 Indian Coconut Journal
  12. 12. REVIEW18. Dendy DAY, Grimwood BE, Coconut C., Studies on solvent extraction of atomizer. J. Dispersion Sci. and Processing for the production of residual oil from wet coconut meal Technol., 1986 7 (5) 513-523. coconut oil and coconut protein food using isopropanol. Phillip. J. Sci., 1973 40. Rogov B.A., Stetsenko A.V., and feed products. Oleagineux, 1973 28 102 (1/2) 31-43. Kuznetsova N.M., Viscosity of the fat (2)93-98. 30. Bernardini E., Direct extraction of oil components of margarine emulsions.19. Baltasar S.F., Coconut oil extraction from oilseeds without pressing. Riv. Maslozhirovaya Promyshlennost, 1984, employing the dry processing Itali. de. Sost. Gras., 1970 47 (8) 385- No. 11, 19-20. technology. Phillip. J. Coconut Studies, 391 41. Bellenand J.F., Baloutch G., Ong N.; 1977 2 (4) 40-42. 31. Aliwalas A.R., Buccat C.P., Filtration- Lecerf J., Effects of coconut oil on heart20. Loncin M., Palm oil. Fette Seif. extraction of granulated coconut on a lipids and on fatty acid utilization in Anstrichm., 1974 76 (3) 104-112. bench scale. Phillip. J. Sci., 1970, 96 rapeseed oil. Lipids, 1980 15 (11) 938- (3) 215-285. 943.21. Leonard E., Sri Lankan inventor who 32. Claudio-TR; Capulso S.A., Gonzales 42. McCutcheon J.S., Umermura T; makes life easier for his countrymen. A.L., Fuente F. S. de la; Manalac G.C., Bhatnagar M.K., Walker B.L., 1983, Cocomunity, APCC/QS/45/83, Laboratory scale studies on the Cardiopathogenicity of rapeseed oils 33-35. preparation of coconut flour from and oil blends differing in erucic,22. Small-scale oil extraction from granulated coconut. Phillip. J. Sci., 1968 linoleic and linolenic acid content. groundnuts and copra. International 97 (1) 45-56. Lipids, 1976. 11 (7) 545-552. Labour Office; United Nations 43. Theuer R.C., Fat compositions for 33. Banzon J.A., Resurreccion A.P., Fatty Industrial Development Organization, infant formulas. 1981 US Patent 4, 282, acid distribution in coconut oil obtained Technical Memorandum, United 265. by four processing methods and secured Nations Industrial Development from four Philippine types of coconuts. 44. Grandadam Y., The proteins of the Organization; 1983, No. 4, xi + 111pp. Phillip. J. Coconut Studies, 1979 4 (2) coconut. Industries Alimentaires et ISBN 92 2 103503 4. 1-8. Agricoles, 1973 90 (9/10) 1253-1268.23. Mojica I.N. Jr, Process for producing 34. Kapila N. Seneviratne, Dissanayake M. 45. Aliwalas A.R., Gonzales A.L., Claudio coconut oil and food grade copra cake. Sudarshana Dissanayake, Variation of T.R., Benet R., A study of the wet and 1978, Philippines-Patent 11661/C. phenolic content in coconut oil dry methods of extracting oil from24. Nambiar T.V.P., Method for the extracted by two conventional methods. coconut meat. Phillip. J. Sci., 1969 98 production of refined oil from the milk International J. Food Sci. and Technol., (2) 139-149. of fresh ripe coconuts. 1977. Indian- 2008 43 597–602 597. 46. Reena Rao, Enzymatic synthesis of Patent. 35. Kapila N. Seneviratne, Chamil D. structured lipids by immobilized lipase25. Nambiar T.V.P., A method of processing HapuarachchI , Sagarika Ekanayake, systems in organic solvents. Ph.D. fresh ripe coconut to obtain refined oil Comparison of the phenolic-dependent Thesis, CFTRI, Mysore, University of and to simultaneously recover coconut antioxidant properties of coconut oil Mysore 2001. products including solid coconut extracted under cold and hot conditions. 47. Reena Rao and B.R. Lokesh, products for human consumption. 1977, Food Chem., 2009 114 1444–1449. Nutritional evaluation of an omega 6 Indian-Patent. 36. Manalac G.C., Harder Soliven A., fatty acid containing structured lipid26. Castellanos P.S., Asturias C.R., Tocopherol content of coconut oil at synthesized from coconut oil. Lipids, Extraction of oil from fresh coconut. various stages of processing. Phillip. J. Mol. and Cell. Biochem., 2003 248 (1- Oleagineux, 1969 24 (7) 419-21; 24 (8/ Sci., 1970 96 (3) 239-48. 2) 25-33. 9) 505-09. 37. Bhatnagar, A.S., Prasanth Kumar P.K., 48. Anitha Nagaraju, and B.R. Lokesh,27. Hagenmaier R. D., Cater C. M., Mattil J. Hemavathy and A.G. Gopala Krishna. Interesterified coconut oil blends with K. F., Identification of the critical unit Fatty Acid Composition, Oxidative groundnut oil or olive oil exhibit greater operations in the wet processing of fresh Stability, and Radical Scavenging hypocholesterolemic effects compared coconuts for the recovery of oil and food Activity of Vegetable Oil Blends with with their native physical blends in rats. grade protein. 1971, Abstr. Papers. Coconut Oil, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Nutri. Res., 2007 27 580-586. American Chemical Society, J. Amer. Soc.,2009 86(10) 991-999. 49. Anitha Nagaraju, and B.R. Lokesh, Rat Chem. Soc., 1971 162: AGFD 8. 38. Murthi T.N., Sharma M., Devdhara V. fed blended oils containing coconut oil28. Cancel L.E., Rosario Hernandez J. A., D., Chatterjee S., Chakraborty B.K., with groundnut oil or olive oil showed Hernandez E. R. de, Coconut oil Storage stability of edible oils and their an enhanced activity of hepatic extraction from coconut milk press- blends. J. Food Sci. and Technol. antioxidant enzymes and a reduction in cake. J. Agric. Uni. Puerto Rico, 1976 (India), 1987 24 (2) 84-87. LDL oxidation. Food Chem., 2008 108 60 (3) 281-293. 39. Garti N., Arkad O. Preparation of 950-957.29. Gonzalez A.L., Buccat E., Claudio-TR; cloudy coconut oil emulsions 50. Malongil B. Reena and Belur R. Bueser-NM; Landig R. C., Manalac G. containing dispersed TiO2 using Lokesh, Hypolipidemic effect of oilsJuly 2010 26 l
  13. 13. Edited by Foxit PDF Editor Copyright (c) by Foxit Software Company, 2004 - 2007 For Evaluation Only. REVIEW with balanced amounts of fatty acids 55. S. Ghosh, D.K. Bhattacharyya, Medium 61. Isaacs C.E., Thomas H., The role of obtained by blending and chain fatty acid-rich glycerides by milk derived antimicrobial lipids as interesterification of coconut oil with chemical and lipase-catalysed plyester- antiviral and antibacterial agents. Adv. rice bran oil or sesame oil. J. Agric. monoester interchange reaction. J. Amer. Exp. Med. Bio, 1991 310 159-165. Food Chem., 2007 55: 10461- Oil Chem. Soc., 1997 74 (5) 593-595. 62. Bruce Fite, ND, The healing miracle of 10469. 56. Hans Kaunits, Nutritional properties of coconut oil. Piccadilly Books Ltd.51. Indian Standard Blended Edible coconut oil. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. Healthwise publications, Colorado Vegetable Oils-Specification, BIS. IS: 1970 47(10) 462A-465A. Springs, Co. 2000 1-46. 14309, ICS, 67.200.10 (1995). Babayan 57. Ellen Marie Straarup, Carl-Erik Hoy, V. K., Medium chain Triglycerides and 63. Kabara J.J. (Professor Emeritus, Mich Structured Lipids Improve Fat structured lipids. Lipids, 1987 22(6) State University and Consut) Health oils Absorption in Normal and 417-420. from the tree of life (Nutrition and Malabsorbing Rats 2000 130 (11) 2802- health aspects of coconut oil).52. Babayan V.K., Medium chain 2808 Triglycerides-their composition, 58. Dayrit C.S., Coconut oil in health and 64. Lim Sylianco C.Y., Anticarcinogenic preparation and application. J. Amer. desease. Its and monolaurin’s potential effects of coconut oil. Phillip. J. Oil Chem. Soc. 1968 45(1) 23-25. as cure for HIV/AIDS. Read at the Coconut Studies, 1987 12 (2) 89-53. S. Nandi, S. Gangopadhyay, S. Ghosh, XXXVIII Cocotech meeting, Chennai, 102. Production of medium chain glycerides India. 65. Cohen L. A., Thompson D. O., from coconut and palm kernel fatty acid 59. Gina L. Nick, Coconuts as a functional Maeura, Choi K., Blank M. E., Rose distillates by lipase-catalyzed reactions. food in the prevention and treatment of D. P., Dietary fat and mammary cancer. Enz. and Microbial Technol. 2005 36 AIDS. Towesnd letter for doctors and 1. Promoting effects of different 725-728. patients, June, 2006. dietary fats on N-nitrosomethylurea-54. Garfinkel A, Spano M.L. Ditto W.L., 60. Robert J.J., Pharmacological effects of induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. Weiss J.N., Controlling cardiac chaos. lipids. AOCS Press, Champaign, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 1986 77 (1) 33- Sci., 1992 257 1230-1235. Illinois, 1978 1-14. 42. Crazy for coconut oil For hundreds of years coconut oil has been a staple in the diets of those who live in tropical regions as an important source of nutrients. Coconuts that the PCA-Davao Reseach Center conducted a Field play an important role in a total The administrator revealed and extra virgin coconut oil are pure foods that can Release Evaluation where a well of 1,948 parasitoid adults were released in infested barangays in Region XI and parallel laboratory tests. balanced diet. "The parasitoids collected in the field inflicted about 30-50 percent parasitism on the pest&apos;s larva or pupa" Research has shown that unrefined coconut oil can be very beneficial. Some of its benefits include: nutrient absorption, Garin noted adding that laboratory results showed that around 7 to 47 adult parasitoids emerged from one larva/pupa 18 boosting energy, promoting weight loss, preventing cardiovascular disease, blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia, to 26 days from injection for parasitization. strengthening of bones, promoting healthy skin and hair, proper digestion and metabolism, skin conditions and moisturizing the "With the earwigs, we now have three indigenous species for biological control of this foreign pest" the administrator skin. enthused as he underscored the need to adopt a long-term integrated pest management system. Coconut oil is natures richest source of medium chain triglycerides. It has antiviral, anti-bacterial and anti-fungal The administrator further stressed that use of chemical insecticides through trunk injection or spraying should only be properties. Recently, the western world has discovered coconut oil for its ability in promoting weight loss and preventing in severe cases and at first treatment, with the long term and sustainable approach to be comprised of biological control, premature aging. Coconut oil contains short practices and strict quarantine controls.advantageous in losing weight and use of entomophatogen fungi, good farming and medium-chain fatty acids that are because it is easy to digest it supports the healthy function of the thyroid and enzymes systems. Its antioxidant properties "Our research centers are now mass rearing these parasitoids for immediate use in areas that may suffer recurrence of have been shown to slow the aging process. It is safe for cooking at high temperatures. And it is delicious!! Brontispa infestation" he concluded. (http://www.innisfilscope.com) http://www.pca.da.gov.ph/pr040109.phpl 27 Indian Coconut Journal