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Hello, nice to meet you.
 INTRODUCTION
(greetings, numbers, What time is it?, me and my family, days of the week,
articles a/an, article the, imperatives, letters of the alphabet, colors, That’s
me, Presentation)
 PRESENT SIMPLE
(the verb “to be”, irregular verbs, regular verbs, do verbs, full forms to write
a sentence, prepositions of place, there is / are, “th” forms and possessive
adjectives, possessive case, prepositions of time, question words,
suggestions, objects pronouns, countable/uncountable nouns, from-during-
before-after, possessive pronouns, prepositions of movement-too-enough)
 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
(forms of write a sentence, spelling, present progressive vs present simple,
describe pictures, vocabulary, present simples with futures meaning, stative
verbs)
 PAST SIMPLE
(past simple of the verb “to be”, past simple of the “Do verbs“, irregular
verbs, examples using irregular verbs, formation of the past of the regular
verbs, regular verbs, there was / there were)
 FUTURE
(Future be going to, forms of write sentences, examples using be going to, want to –
would like to, the verb “should”, examples using “should”, more irregular verbs)
 PRESENT PERFECT
 PAST PROGRESSIVE
 PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
 CONDITIONALS
Greetings:
 Hello
 Hi
 Good morning
 Good afternoon
 Good evening
 Good night
 See you tomorrow
 Good bye
 Nice to meet you
 Nice to meet you, too.
4
Cardinal numbers:
 1 one
 2 two
 3 three
 4 four
 5 five
 6 six
 7 seven
 8 eight
 9 nine
 10 ten
 11 eleven
 12 twelve
 13 thirteen
 14 fourteen
 15 fifteen
 16 sixteen
 17 seventeen
 18 eighteen
 19 nineteen
 20 twenty
 30 thirty
 40 forty
 50 fifty
 60 sixty
 70 seventy
 80 eighty
 90 ninety
 100 one
hundred
 1 000 one
thousand
Ordinal numbers:
 1 first
 2 second
 3 third
 4 fourth
 5 fifth
 6 sixth
 7 seventh
 8 eighth
 9 ninth
 10 tenth
 11 eleventh
 12 twelfth
 13 thirteenth
 14 fourteenth
 15 fifteenth
 16 sixteenth
 17 seventeenth
 18 eighteenth
 19 nineteenth
 20 twentieth
 30 thirtieth
 40 fortieth
 50 fiftieth
 60 sixtieth
 70 seventieth
 80 eightieth
 90 ninetieth
 100 one
hundredth
 1 000 one
thousandth
5
What time is it?
8:00
 It’s eight o’clock
10:30
 It’s a half past ten
 It’s ten thirty
7:15
 It’s a quarter past seven.
 It’s seven fifteen.
11:45
 It’s a quarter to twelve.
 It’s eleven forty five.
4:05
 It’s five after four.
 It’s four five.
6:50
 It’s ten to seven.
 It’s six fifty.
9:20
 It’s twenty after nine.
 It’s nine twenty.
3:35
 It’s twenty five to four.
 It’s three thirty five.
1:10
 It’s ten past one.
 It’s one ten.
11:01
 It’s one past eleven
 It’s eleven one
2:53
 It’s seven to three
 It’s two fifty three
10:00
5:55
8:35
6
 Me and my family
 My grandparents:
 My grandfather
 My grandmother
 My parents:
 My mother
 My father
 My brother
 My sister
 My uncle
 My aunt
 My cousin
 My political family:
 My father-in-law
 My mother-in-law
 My sister-in-law
 My brother-in-law
 Son
 Daughter
 Grandson
 Granddaughter
 Neighbor
Now you write 2
sentences using my
7
Days of the week:
 Monday
 Tuesday
 Wednesday
 Thursday
 Friday
 Saturday
 Sunday
Months of the year:
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Seasons of the year:
Winter
Spring
Summer
Fall
8
The articles: “a/an”
 An ant.
 A ball.
 An elephant
 A cat.
 A sound system.
 An eraser.
 A picture.
 An umbrella.
 __ house.
 __ university.
 __ hospital.
You can write some sentences using it.
9
The articles: “the”
 The car in the street is blue.
 Pedro is the best student in the class.
 The world is polluted.
 The Bermuda Triangle is very mysterious.
 The Galápagos islands have a lot of species.
 The Japanese are very disciplined.
 The Moran travel to U.S.A.
 The Maltería is a great shopping center.
 My best friend play the piano.
 Cañar is in the south of the country.
10
Imperatives:
≈ Sit down
≈ Stand up
≈ Close the door
≈ Open the door
≈ Open the window
≈ Close the window
≈ Look at the board
≈ Pay attention
≈ Close your books
≈ Read the text
≈ Write a sentence
≈ Speak in English
≈ Talk in pairs
≈ Listen to the CD
≈ Don’t speak
≈ Don’t move
≈ Don’t breathe
≈ Take an umbrella
≈ Put your jacket
≈ Be quiet, please!
11
 Letters of the alphabet:
 A a = ei
 B b = bi
 C c = ci
 D d = di
 E e = i
 F f = ef
 G g = chi
 H h = éich
 I i = ai
 J j = yi
 K k = ke
 L l = el
 M m = em
 N n = en
 O o = o
 P p = pi
 Q q = kiú
 R r = ar
 S s = es
 T t = tí
 U u = iú
 V v = vi
 W w = dobliu
 X x = eks
 Y y = uai
 Z z = sed
12
 Colors:
 Blue :
 Red:
 Green:
 Yellow:
 Orange:
 Pink:
 Black:
 White:
 Purple:
 Gray:
 Brown:
 Sky
Blue:
13
That’s me:
 Canada
 U.S.A
 Mexico
 Brazil
 United
Kingdom
 Spain
 Italy
 China
 South Africa
 Australia
 I’m Canadian.
 I’m American.
 I’m Mexican.
 I’m Brazilian.
 I’m British.
 I’m Spanish.
 I’m Italian.
 I’m Chinese.
 I’m South
African.
 I’m Australian.
14
Presentation:
◙ My name is ___________. My last name is _________. My nickname is
___________. I am _______ years old. I am ______________________.
I live in _________.
◙ My favorite sport is __________. My favorite food is ___________. My
favorite color is ____________. My favorite movie is ____________.
◙ My mother is ____________. My father’s name is ___________. I have
__________ brothers and _________sisters.
◙ I study at ___________. Actually I’m in the __________.
◙ In my free time I like
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________.
15
Present simple:
we use the present simple for habits,
repeated, actions and permanents states
Time expressions
Always, usually. sometimes. rarely. often, never.
Every day/week, etc.
In the afternoons/summer, etc.
On Mondays, on the weekend, etc.
Subject Verb Complement
 The verb “to be”:
 Do verbs (irregular and
irregular verbs)
The verb “to be”:
Personal Pronouns:
 I
 YOU
 HE
 SHE
 IT
 WE
 YOU
 THEY
Subject + Verb “to be” + Complement
Questions and short answers (only speak).
1
 I am tall and handsome.
 I am not bored.
 I’m 20 years old
 I’m Xavier.
 I’m intelligent.
 I’m not in my house.
Next (You)
 You are short and chubby.
 You are intelligent.
 You are not in the park.
 You’re José.
 You aren’t lazy.
 Are you Mario?
Next (he)
Next (they)
 He is funny.
 He is not in the park.
 He is 25 years old.
 He’s always serious.
 He isn’t in his house.
 Is he at the University?
Next (she)
 She is very shy.
 She is 15 years old.
 She is not the new
classmate.
 She’s my mother.
 She isn’t in the kitchen.
 Is she pretty?
Next (it)
 It is my new pet.
 It is not my dog.
 It’s cold outside.
 It isn’t hot outside.
 Is it the next city?
Next (we)
 We are students.
 We are brothers.
 We are not in the house.
 We’re in Quito.
 We aren’t in the beach.
 Are we the best players?
Next (You)
 They are professional players.
 They are engineers.
 They are not in the play.
 They’re the best students.
 They aren’t my cousins.
 Are they very sociable?
“DO Verbs”:
Do verbs are in the next
list:
Irregular verbs:
 Become
 Begin
 Bite
 Blow
 Break
 Bring
 Build
 Burn
 Buy
 Can
 Catch
 Choose
 Come
 Cost
 Cut
 Do
 Draw
 Dream
 Drive
 Drink
 Eat
 Feel
 Fight
 Find
 Fly
 Forget
 Freeze
 Get
 Give
 Go
 Have
 Hear
 Hit
 Keep
 Know
 Learn
 Let
 Lose
 Make
 May
 Meet
 Must
 Pay
 Ride
 Rise
 Run
 Say
 See
 Show
 Sit
 Sleep
 Speak
 Swim
 Take
 Teach
 Tell
 Think
 Understand
 Wear
 Will
 Win
 Work
 Write
To return adverbs of frequency…
Past of these verbs…
2
“DO Verbs”:
Do verbs are in the next
list:
Regular verbs:
 Answer
 Appear
 Arrest
 Arrive
 Call
 Climb
 Continue
 Cry
 Dance
 Decide
 Die
 Disappear
 Drop
 Finish
 Fix
 Happen
 Help
 Jump
 Listen
 Love
 Notice
 Paint
 Practice
 Prefer
 Plant
 Play
 Pollute
 Rearrange
 Reserve
 Rob
 Shout
 Slip
 Sprain
 Start
 Stay
 Stop
 Study
 Surprise
 Touch
 Try
 Visit
 Wait
 Want
 Watch
 Work
 Worry
 Use
Use the adverbs of frequency
and this…
Past of these verbs…
3
Do verbs: examples:
 I drink soda every days.
 You ride a bike on the weekend.
 He works in the city.
 She goes to the center park.
 It flies in the mornings.
 We don’t go to Quito.
 You drink beer on weekends.
 They play soccer on Sundays.
 I don’t eat at 10 o’clock.
 She doesn’t cook at nights.
 She doesn’t do the homework.
 Do you come to the party?
 Does he play tennis every day?
Subject + Verb + Complement
Adverbs of frequency:
4
Formation of the third person of the singular: -s;-es;-ies:
 We travel to other country.
Most verbs add “s”:
 She travels to other country.
 He plays soccer every day.
 She eats pizza at home.
 He pays to have breakfast.
ss. ch. s. sh, o take “es”:
 He finishes his homework.
 She goes to the beach.
 He kisses to his girlfriend.
Consonant and “y” drop it and take “ies” (two consonants):
 He cries when he losses.
 She studies in the mornings.
 He tries to see an horror film.
It is different of the nouns.
Now you can use this with the
Do verbs:
Plural forms:
Most nouns take “s”:
 These dogs are brave.
 Those books are interesting.
 Those boys play in the garden of my house.
 He has two new cellphones.
s, ch, sh, s, o take “es”:
 The watches is on the desk.
 These boxes are brown.
f or fe change it and takes ves:
 I have three scarves in my house.
 Those knives are sharp.
Consonant and “y” drop it and take “ies” (two consonants):
 That tourist over there travel to other countries.
 Those families live in San Buenaventura.
Irregular nouns:
 We brush my teeth in the mornings.
 People destroy the environment.
It is different of the verbs.
Adjectives don’t have a
plural from:
These big boxes are brown.
Adverbs of frequency:
 Never 0%
 Rarely 20%
 Sometimes 40%
 Often 60%
 Usually 80%
 Always 100%
Do verbs:
→ I never drink beer.
→ She sometimes travels to another country.
→ My mother often visits her mother.
→ He never plays tennis with his friends.
→ We always play videogames.
→ She sometimes travels to other countries.
→ They don’t always do their homework.
→ He doesn’t usually stay in his house.
The verb “to be”:
∫ We are usually winners.
∫ My brother is always in his house.
∫ She isn’t often at the University.
∫ You are often alone.
∫ I am never down.
∫ They aren’t sometimes happy.
For more verbs
(regular and
irregular)
Full forms of write a sentences:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Full form Short form Affirmative Negative
I eat I do not eat I don’t eat Do I eat? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.
You eat You do not eat You don’t eat Do you eat? Yes, you do. No, you don’t.
He eats He does not eat He doesn’t eat Does he eat? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
She eats She does not eat She doesn’t eat Does she eat? Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t.
It eats It does not eat It doesn’t eat Does it eat? Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t.
We eat We do not eat We don’t eat Do we eat? Yes, we do. No, we don’t.
You eat You do not eat You don’t eat Do you eat? Yes, you do. No, you don’t.
They eat They do not eat They don’t eat Do they eat? Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
What is the difference between this and the present progressive?:
5
Prepositions of place:
o In
o On
o Under
o Next to
o Between
o In front of
2 Across from
o Behind
2 Above
6
© The beans are in the case.
© A glass isn’t in the kitchen.
© A notebook is in the backpack.
© I live in Latacunga.
© The airplane is in the airport.
Next (on)
© The marker is on the table.
© A computer is on the desk.
© The DVDs are on the TV.
© The picture is on the wall.
Next (under)
© The plugs are under the computer.
© The shoes are under the bed.
© The book is under the eraser.
© The keys aren’t under the table.
Next (nest to)
© The speaker is next to the dictionary.
© The hospital is next to the restaurant.
© The printer isn’t next to the kitchen.
© The shoes aren’t next to the computer.
© The keys are next to the window.
Next (between)
© U.S.A. is between Canada and Mexico.
© The shopping center isn’t between the hospital and the
high school.
© Pedro is between Jose and Marie.
© The river is between the garden and the library.
Next (in front of)
© The bed is in front of the television.
© The car is in front of the house.
© The museum isn’t in front of the
University.
© I’m in front of the computer.
Next (across from)
© The computer is across from the chair.
© The garage is across from the house.
© The hospital isn’t across from the movie theater.
© I’m across from the computer.
Next (behind)
© Paul is behind Roberto.
© The stadium is behind the
market.
© The garage is behind the house.
© A black cat isn’t behind
Ximena.
Next (above)
© A purse is above the computer.
© The light is above the table.
© A painting is above the bed.
© The great picture is above the couch.
© Rise above hate.
 There is / There are:
Singular Plural
There is There are
There is not There are not
There isn’t There aren’t
Is there ________? Are there _______?
7
 There is a famous bank in Latacunga.
 There is not an eraser in my backpack.
 There isn’t a library in San Buenaventura.
 Is there a cow in the garden?
 There are 3 books out of
the library.
 There are not ants on the
table.
 There aren’t five bathrooms
in the house.
 Are there birds on the
trees?
This/That; These/Those:
Singular:
 This, That
Plural:
 These, Those
Possessive Adjectives:
always go before nouns
and do not take articles
before them:
 My
 Your
 His
 Her
 Its
 Our
 Your
 Their
8
 This is a cheap pants.
 This is a colorful ball.
 This is a colorful handcuff of dragon ball.
 This is a beautiful butterfly.
 This is an expensive bike.
Next (that)
 That is a new classmate. He is over there.
 That car over there is very expensive.
 That is the new mascot of the school. It isn’t here.
 That cat has grey eyes. I like it.
 These are a blue umbrellas.
 These are a new bikes.
 These are an expensive books.
 These are the new neighbors.
Next (those):
► Those mirrors over there are broken.
► Those watches are ugly. I don’t like it.
► Those boys are over there.
► Those people over there are my
grandparents.
☻ My mother and my brother go to Quito once a month.
☻ My cat is small, grey and white.
☻ My sister has medium-length straight dark hair.
☻ My city is beautiful.
Next (your):
☻ This is your pen.
☻ Your parents always travel to Japan.
☻ Your country is very polluted.
☻ Your bike is in my house.
Next (his):
Next (their):
☻ This is my friend. His name is Roberto.
☻ His bedroom is often clean.
☻ His brother is 25 years old.
☻ His house is between the airport and the hospital.
Next (her):
☻ She drive her car for downtown.
☻ Her father practice tennis every day.
☻ Her cat is on the table because it is hungry.
☻ Her picture is on the wall next to the window.
Next (its):
☻ This is my cat, its eyes are blue.
☻ This is my new book, its cover and its title are interesting.
☻ The dog fell off of the tree and it hits its paw.
☻ This is my old car, its name is Wanda.
Next (our):
☻ Our world is very big.
☻ This is our new neighborhood.
☻ My brother say: “Angel and Maricela are our grandparents”.
☻ You and I are best friends. Our favorite sport is volleyball.
Next (your):
☻ I see the team. Their training is excellent.
☻ Their medals are very expensive.
☻ Their university is in Salache.
☻ Their house is in front of the airport.
Possessive case: express possession:
♣ That is Alfredo’s daughter.
♣ My grandmother’s house is old.
♣ The Maria’s father is Pedro.
♣ These are the Domenica’s new headphones.
♣ That is my parents’ house.
♣ That is my grandparents’ car.
♣ Here is the children’s room.
♣ This is Mary and Ben’s car.
♣ That is Angel and Jessica’s TV.
♣ These are John's and Rick’s bikes.
♣ Those are Paulo’s and Cesar’s books.
9
Forms of write sentences: examples:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I have I have not /
haven’t
Do I have …..? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.
You have You have not /
haven’t
Do you have
…..?
Yes, you do. No, you don’t.
He has He has not / hasn’t Does he have
…..?
Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t.
She has She has not /
hasn’t
Does she have
…..?
Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t.
It has It has not / hasn’t Does it have
…..?
Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t.
We have We have not /
haven’t
Do we have …..? Yes, we do. No, we don’t.
You have You have not /
haven’t
Do you have
…..?
Yes, you do. No, you don’t.
They have They have not /
haven’t
Do they have
…..?
Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
The verb “To have”
 I have one brother and two sisters.
 She has long and black hair.
 We have an apple, a pear, a lemon and a jicama.
 They have a important play.
 You have not blue eyes.
 Have you an airplane?
Forms of write sentences: examples:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I can drive I cannot / can’t drive Can I drive? Yes, I can. No, I can’t.
You can drive You cannot / can’t drive Can you drive? Yes, you can. No, you can’t.
He can drive He cannot / can’t drive Can he drive? Yes, he can. No, he can’t.
She can drive She cannot / can’t drive Can she drive? Yes, she can. No, she can’t.
It can drive It cannot / can’t drive Can it drive? Yes, it can. No, it can’t.
We can drive We cannot / can’t drive Can we drive? Yes, we can. No, we can’t.
You can drive You cannot / can’t drive Can you drive? Yes, you can. No, you can’t.
They can drive They cannot / can’t drive Can they drive? Yes, they can. No, they can’t.
The modal verb “can”
♥ I can play the guitar.
♥ You can type very fast.
♥ He cannot speak in English.
♥ We can’t cook.
♥ They can not swim.
♥ Can you draw well?
Prepositions of time:
o At (Hours)
o On (days and months)
o In (months and seasons)
Other prepositions of
time:
10
♠ I go to the University at 10 o’clock.
♠ I go to the gym at 3 o’clock.
♠ I sleep at night.
♠ I have lunch at night.
Next (on)
♦ I go to the church on Sundays.
♦ She gives catechism on Fridays.
♦ I go to Machala on Monday.
♦ My birthday is on November 11th.
♦ My sister read a book on Saturday morning.
♦ We drink some beer on the weekend.
♦ They practice soccer on weekdays.
Next (in)
♪ I have breakfast in the morning.
♪ She has lunch in the afternoon.
♪ They have dinner in the evening.
♪ We come out to vacations in August.
♪ This flowers are beautiful in the summer.
Question words (Who____?; What _____?; Where ______?;
How ____?)
 Who are that?
That is my brother, Patricio.
 What’s your favorite color?
My favorite color is black.
 Where are you from?
I am from Ecuador.
 How are you?
Fine thanks.
 How old are you?
I am twenty year old.
11
To make suggestions
we use:
o Let’s …..
o Why don’t we…..?
o How about …..?
o What about …..?  Like
 Love
 Enjoy
 Hate
+ noun
 Like
 Love
 Enjoy
 Don’t mind
 Hate
 Can’t stand
+ -ing form
12
 Let’s play.
 Let’s cook.
 Let’s do our homework.
 Let’s go to the beach.
 Let’s play the violin.
 Let’s eat in a restaurant.
Next (why don’t we)
 Why don’t we/you visit our grandparents?
 Why don’t we watch an horror film?
 Why don’t we eat in a restaurant?
 Why don’t we go to the cinema?
 Why don’t we listen to music?
 Why don’t we play basketball?
Next (how about/what about)
 How about/What about English classes?
 How about/What about Ecuadorian food?
 How about/What about eat a cake?
 How about/What about going out this Friday?
 How about/What about playing videogames tonight?
 How about/What about doing your homework?
 I like pop music.
 We like soccer.
 You like sunny days.
 She likes cats.
 They like English class.
 He hates horror films.
 She hates math.
 I hate spiders.
 You hate rock music.
 We hate school.
Like, hate + noun:
o I enjoy classical music.
o We enjoy soccer games.
o You enjoy the weekends.
o She enjoys Math classes.
o You enjoy English class.
 I love Bachata music.
 We love tennis.
 You love History.
 She loves cats.
 They love Science class.
 You love him.
Enjoy, love + noun:
Like, hate + -ing form:
 I like listening pop music.
 We like playing soccer.
 You like being a good
student.
 She likes buying cats.
 They like learning
English.
 He hates watching horror
films.
 She hates speaking English.
 I hate eating meat.
 You hate listening rock music.
 We hate going to the school.
o I enjoy running in the
mornings.
o We enjoy dancing.
o You enjoy learning Art.
o She enjoys seeing cats.
o You enjoy going to the
English class.
 I love listening Bachata music.
 We love playing tennis.
 You love teaching History.
 She loves feeding cats.
 They love listening Science
class.
Enjoy, love + -ing form:
o I don’t mind watching horror films.
o We don’t mind dancing.
o You don’t mind learning Chemistry.
o She doesn’t mind having boyfriend.
o You don’t mind eating salad.
 I can’t stand listening Romantic music.
 We can’t stand playing basketball.
 You can’t stand teaching Math.
 She can’t stand feeding cats.
 They can’t stand listening Science class.
Don’t mind, can’t stand+ -ing
form:
Objects Pronouns:
 Me
 You
 Him
 Her
 It
 Us
 You
 Them
13
 Tell me when she arrive.
 He drive me to the school every day.
 I don’t understand my homework, please, help me.
 Say me your secret.
 Do you love me?
Next (you)
 I love you.
 I don’t tell you his secret.
 I write you a poem.
 She doesn’t answer you the telephone in the
afternoons.
 Can I help you?
Next (him) Next (them)
 Come on! You can help him.
 My uncle lives in Colombia. I usually visit him.
 She draws him a drawing.
 I buy him two gifts.
 Do you love him?
Next (her)
 Let’s go! I accompany her.
 My aunt lives in Quito. I rarely visit her.
 You compose her a song.
 We talk her about of the last holiday.
 I don’t buy her a souvenir.
 Do you love her?
Next (it)
 Where are my sunglasses? I need it.
 My cat has blue eyes. I like it.
 My class is very interesting. I enjoy it.
 I don’t like this music. I hate it.
 I always practice soccer. I love it.
Next (us)
 Help us to protect the environment.
 Give us your cellphone number.
 My parents live in U.S.A. They never visit us.
 You can teach us English.
 Tell us what happen at the moment?
Next (you)
 They live in Boston. We usually visit them on the weekend.
 Call them to play soccer.
 Those are my friends, tell them.
 Give them their new book.
 The boys are late, drive them to the school.
 Countable nouns
 Uncountable nouns
 Some
 Any
 No
 Much
 Many
 How much _____?
 How many _____?
 A lot of
 Lots of
 A few
 A little
14
Countable nouns can be counted and have both a singular and a plural form. We
use a/an or one in the singular form and some, any or numbers in the plural form
A/an:
 A book
 An airport
 A table
 An orange
Numbers:
 One lemon
 Two grapes
Some:
► I drink some bottles of water.
Any:
► You don’t have any cheese.
Next (uncountable nouns)
Uncountable nouns only have a singular form and we can not count them:
 Coffee
 Water
 Sugar
 Salt
 Chicken
We don’t use a/an or numbers before uncountable nouns but we often use some and
any:
Some:
♫ I drink some water.
♫ There’s some soup.
Any:
◙ Is there any juice ?
◙ Is there any coffee?
We use some with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns in affirmative
sentences and offers?
Affirmative:
 There are some mushrooms in the refrigerator.
 There are some cherries in the refrigerator.
 I have some lettuces in my kitchen.
 There are some peppers in the refrigerator.
 There is some soda in the kitchen.
 I would like some bread whit this coffee.
Offers:
 Would you like some coffee?
 Would you like some rice with chicken?
 Can I have some French fries?
 Can I have some sausages?
Next (any)
We use any with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns in questions and
negative sentences:
Questions:
 Is there any water in the fridge?
 Is there any milk in the refrigerator?
 Are there any balls in the garden?
 Do we have any soft drinks in the refrigerator?
 Does he have any glass of orange juice in his kitchen?
Negative:
o I don’t have any tomatoes.
o There aren’t any coffee in the kitchen.
o We don’t have any bread.
o There aren’t any peas in the refrigerator.
o She doesn’t have any cheeseburger.
Next (no)
We use no (=not any) + uncountable or plural countable nouns, in
affirmative sentences:
 There is no water. There isn’t any water.
 There is no milk in the refrigerator. There isn’t any milk in the
refrigerator.
 There is no chicken in the kitchen. There isn’t any chicken in
the kitchen.
 There are no tomatoes. There aren't any tomatoes.
 There are no lettuces. There aren’t any lettuces.
 There are no books on the table. There aren’t any books on the
table.
 There are no magazines. There aren’t any magazines.
Next (much and how much)
We use much with uncountable nouns, in questions and negative sentences:
Negative:
 I don’t have much money.
 He doesn’t have much clothes.
 There isn’t much water in the kitchen.
 There isn’t much milk in the refrigerator.
We use How much ___? with uncountable nouns to ask about the quantity of something:
Questions:
 How much milk is there?
 How much rice does she eat every day?
 How much sugar do you take in your coffee?
 How much milk do you drink a day?
To ask about the cost or price or something:
 How much are there sneakers cost?
 How much does this DVD player cost?
 How much does it cost?
We use many with plural countable nouns, usually in questions and in negative
sentences:
Negative:
♦ I don’t have many carrots in my house.
♦ There aren’t many shoes in the bedroom.
♦ There aren’t many apples in the refrigerator.
♦ There aren’t many books in my backpack.
Questions:
 Does he have many apples in his refrigerator?
 Do you like many strawberries with your ice cream?
We use How many ___? with plural countable nouns to ask about the number of
something:
 How many students are in the class?
 How many apples do you eat a day?
 How many book do you have?
We use a lot of/lots of with uncountable and plural countable nouns, usually in
affirmative sentences:
 There is a lot of sugar on the table.
 There are lots of pots on the kitchen.
 He takes a lot of sugar in his coffee.
 There are lots of dresses .
 My cousins drink a lot of coffee.
 I have a lot of friends.
 You have lots of songs in your MP3 player.
 A lot of people surf the Internet nowadays.
 There is lots of coffee in my glass.
 There are a lot of lemons in my house.
 He has a lot of money.
 I have lots of posters.
Next (a little/a few)
We use a little with uncountable nouns, in affirmative sentences:
 There is a little cheese on the table.
 There’s a little milk in the refrigerator.
 There is a little water on the table.
 There’s a little chicken in the kitchen.
 There is a little sugar in this coffee.
We use a few with plural countable nouns, in affirmative sentences:
 There are a few magazines on the table.
 There’re a few books on my desk.
 There are a few questions I want to ask.
 There are a few fruits in this food.
 There’re a few airplanes in the airport.
 There are a few horses here.
⌂ From … till/until/to:
I study English from 2 o’clock to 4 o’clock.
My mother work from 7 o’clock until 4 o’clock
I travel from 11 p.m. till 6 a.m.
⌂ During
I never drink beer during the week.
He always sleeps during the holiday.
⌂ Before
I always brush my teeth before sleeping.
My sister often runs before breakfast.
⌂ After
We usually go to the University after lunch.
I don’t always sleep after dinner.
15
How often ______?
We use How often _____? to ask about the frequency of an action:
 How often are you in your house?
 I am always in my house.
 How often do you go to the University?
 I sometimes go to the University.
 How often does she sing a song?
 She rarely sings a song.
 How often do they play videogames?
 They usually play videogames.
14
 Possessive Pronouns: replace possessive adjectives +
noun, so they are never followed by nouns. They can be
used as short answers to questions starting with whose:
☼ Mine
☼ Yours
☼ His
☼ Hers
☼ Ours
☼ Yours
☼ Theirs
Whose ______?
We use whose when we want to ask who
the owner of a thing is:
16
☼ Your backpack is blue, but mine is green and black.
☼ Whose is this headphones?
This is my headphones. It’s mine.
☼ Whose is that car?
That is my car. That is mine.
☼ Whose are those bikes?
Those are my bikes. Those are mine.
☼ Whose are these books?
These are my books. These are mine.
☼ Whose is this dictionary?
This is my dictionary. It’s mine.
☼ Whose is this smartphone?
It’s mine.
Next (yours)
☼ My cellphone is black, but yours are rose.
☼ Whose is this laptop?
This is your headphones. It’s yours.
☼ Whose is that MP3 player?
That is your MP3 player. That is yours.
☼ Whose are those CDs?
Those are your CDs. Those are yours.
☼ Whose are these newspapers?
These are your newspapers. These are yours.
☼ Whose is this sunglasses?
This is your sunglasses. It’s yours.
☼ Whose is this bag?
It’s yours.
Next (his)
Next (theirs)
☼ I find a camera. I believe it is his.
☼ Whose is that ball?
This is his ball. It’s his.
☼ Whose is this motorcycle?
This is my cousin’s motorcycle. This is his motorcycle. It’s his.
☼ Whose is that house?
That is my father’s house. This is his house. It’s his.
☼ This jacket isn’t mine, it’s his.
☼ Whose are these belts?
These are his belts. These are his.
☼ Whose is this belts?
It’s his.
☼ I buy him a new tie. It’s his.
Next (hers)
☼ These are her new earrings. No it’s hers.
☼ Whose is this blouse?
This is her blouse. It’s hers.
☼ Whose is that sandals?
That is my sister’s sandals. That is her sandals. That is hers.
☼ Whose is that dress?
That is her dress. That is hers.
☼ Whose is this necklace?
It’s hers.
☼ Whose are those boots?
Those are my mother’s boots . Those are her boots. Those are hers.
☼ This isn’t my glasses. It’s hers.
☼ That isn’t my bottle. It’s hers.
☼ Whose is that house?
It’s Susan’s. It’s hers.
Next (ours)
☼ This is our new watch. This is ours.
☼ That is our new house. That is ours.
☼ Whose is this new stove?
This is our new stove. It’s ours.
☼ Whose is that old couch?
That is our old couch. That is ours.
☼ Whose are these gloves?
These are our gloves. These are ours.
☼ Whose are those pots on the kitchen?
Those are our pots. Those are ours.
☼ Whose is this car?
You joke! It’s our new car. It’s ours.
Next (yours)
☼ These are their trophies. These are theirs.
☼ Whose are these caps?
These are my grandparents’ caps. These are their caps. These are theirs.
☼ Whose are those bikes?
These are their bikes. These are theirs.
☼ Whose are these wallets?
I don’t know! These aren’t their wallets. These aren’t theirs.
☼ Whose are those T-shirts?
Those are theirs.
☼ Whose are these shoes?
These are their shoes. These are theirs.
☼ These are their new cameras. These are theirs.
 Too
 Enough
 One
 Ones
Prepositions of movement:
┼ Up
┼ Down
┼ Into
┼ Out of
┼ Through
┼ Across
┼ Along
┼ From ___ to
┼ Around
17
We use too before adjectives and adverbs. Too has a negative
meaning and it means “more than necessary”:
 He is too short, he can’t play basketball.
 That car is too small.
 The morning is too cold.
 These shoes are too small.
 These jeans are too big.
We use enough after adjectives and adverbs, but before nouns.
Enough has a positive meaning:
 He is tall enough to play basketball.
 She doesn’t have enough money.
 The weather is warm enough for a picnic.
 There’s enough food in the refrigerator.
 There are enough apples in the kitchen.
 There are enough children in the park.
We use one when we don’t want to repeat a singular countable
noun:
 Which jacket is yours? The brown one.
 Which car is yours? The black one.
 Which watch is hers? The small one.
 Which house is theirs? The old one.
We use ones when we don’t want to repeat a plural countable noun:
 Which shoes do you like? The red ones.
 Which dresses are yours? The blue ones.
 Can you give my sneakers? The white ones?
Present progressive: we use the
present progressive for actions that are
happening at the moment of speaking or for
temporary situations:
Time expressions
Now, right now, look, listen,
today, these days, this
week/year, etc.
At the moment.
Subject Verb to be
(am, is, are)
Verb -ing Complement
Forms of write sentences:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I’m eating I’m not eating Am I eating? Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
You’re eating You aren’t eating Are you eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
He’s eating He isn’t eating Is he eating? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.
She’s eating She isn’t eating Is she eating? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.
It’s eating It isn’t eating Is it eating? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.
We’re eating We aren’t eating Are we eating? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t.
You‘re eating You aren’t eating Are you eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
They’re eating They aren’t eating Are they eating? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.
What is the difference between this and the present?:
1
Spelling:
 I travel to other country.
Most verbs add “-ing”:
 I’m traveling to other country.
 He’s playing soccer every day.
 She’s eating pizza at home.
 He’s paying to have breakfast.
Verbs ending in “-e”, change it for “-ing”:
 He’s dancing with your sister.
 She’s coming to the party.
 I’m writing a letter to my girlfriend.
Verbs with a syllable ending in a vowel + a
consonant, double it before the “-ing”:
 He’s stopping the traffic.
 I’m getting a better qualification.
 They’re running in the marathon.
Now you can use this with the
Do verbs (irregular and regular):
Verbs with two or more syllables
ending in a stressed vowel + a
consonant, double it before the “-ing”:
 He’s beginning his career.
 What is it happening?
 He’s forgetting her.
Verbs ending in “-ie”, change it to “y”
before “-ing”:
 She’s lying me.
 My grandfather is dying, please
help me.
2
Present Progressive vs Present Simple:
 We use the Present Progressive for
actions that are happening at the
moment ok speaking.
 We use the Present Simple for habits,
repeated actions and permanent states:.
Time expressions
Present Progressive Present Simple
Now, right now, look, listen,
today, these days, this
week/year, etc.
At the moment.
Usually, always, often, never,
rarely, sometimes.
Every day/week/year, etc.
On Mondays, on the weekend.,
etc
3
Present Progressive vs Present Simple:
 Look this picture and describe them using the present progressive.
 What is it happening in these pictures?
 What are doing those people?
4
 Vocabulary to use in this time:
 What’s the weather like?:
 It’s cloudy.
 It’s windy.
 It’s snowing.
 It’s sunny.
 It’s raining.
 It’s hot.
 It’s cold.
 What’s she wearing?:
 Jacket
 Skirt.
 Shirt.
 Pants.
 Dress.
 Jeans.
 Hat.
 Sweater.
 Shorts.
 Scarf.
 Shoes.
 Sneakers.
 Boots.
 Belt.
Now you write
sentences using this
time.
5
Present Progressive with future meaning:
 We use the Present Progressive for to talk about future arrangements or
plans.
Time expressions
Tomorrow
Tonight
Next month/ year/ week/ Monday , Tuesday, etc.
In an hour/ a year/ a month, etc.
Soon
Examples:
 He’s visiting his grandmother tomorrow.
 I’m not seeing to my brother tonight.
 We are having a party next Saturday.
 They’re running in the marathon in an hour.
 I’m graduating in a year.
 She’s leaving the hospital soon.
6
Stative verbs:
 The following verbs aren’t used in the Present Progressive . They are
called Stative verbs:
~ Hear, smell, see, etc.
~ Like, love, hate, want, need, etc.
~ Understand, know, believe, think, etc.
~ Be, have (=possess), etc.
Examples:
 I’m smelling the food. (this sentence doesn’t make
sense, a person always is smelling or using your
senses.)
 They love hanging out with me.
 I like your sister.
 I hate training.
 I think the marathon is very tired.
 I am being ???
7
Past simple: we use the past simple for:
- Actions that started and were completed at
a specific time in the past.
- Habitual or repeated actions in the past.
- Completed actions that happened one after
the other in the past.
Time expressions
Yesterday/ yesterday morning, afternoon, night.
In years/ in 1999/ in centuries/ two days, a week, two
months, five years ago.
Last night, week, month, year, Monday, summer, etc
Subject Verb in past Complement
Past simple of the verb “to be”:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I was at home. I was not at home. Was I happy? Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t.
You were at
home.
You were not at
home.
Were you happy? Yes, you were. No, you weren’t.
He was at home. He wasn’t at
home.
Was he happy? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t.
She was at home. She wasn’t at
home.
Was she happy? Yes, she was. No, she wasn’t.
It was at home. It wasn’t at home. Was it happy? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t.
We were at
home.
We weren’t at
home.
Were we happy? Yes, we were. No, we weren’t.
You were at
home.
You weren’t at
home.
Were you happy? Yes, you were. No, you weren’t.
They were at
home.
They weren’t at
home.
Were they
happy?
Yes, they were. No, they
weren’t.
Change the present simple of the verb “to be” to past simple:
1
Past simple of the “Do verbs”:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I found/ finished I didn’t find/finish Did I find/finish? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.
You found/
finished
You didn’t
find/finish
Did you
find/finish?
Yes, you did. No, you didn’t.
He found/
finished
He didn’t
find/finish
Did he
find/finish?
Yes, he did. No, he didn’t.
She found/
finished
She didn’t
find/finish
Did she
find/finish?
Yes, she did. No, she didn’t.
It found/ finished It didn’t
find/finish
Did it
find/finish?
Yes, it did. No, it didn’t.
We found/
finished
We didn’t
find/finish
Did we
find/finish?
Yes, we did. No, we didn’t.
You found/
finished
You didn’t
find/finish
Did you
find/finish?
Yes, you did. No, you didn’t.
They found/
finished
They didn’t
find/finish
Did they
find/finish?
Yes, they did. No, they didn’t.
2
“DO Verbs (past)”:
Past verbs are in the next
list:
Irregular verbs:
 Became
 Began
 Bit
 Blew
 Broke
 Brought
 Built
 Burnt/ burned
 Bought
 Could
 Caught
 Chose
 Came
 Cost
 Cut
 Did
 Drew
 Dreamt/dreamed
 Drove
 Drank
 Ate
 Felt
 Fought
 Found
 Flew
 Forgot
 Froze
 Got
 Gave
 Went
 Had
 Heard
 Hit
 Kept
 Knew
 Learned
 Let
 Lost
 Made
 Might
 Med
 Paid
 Rode
 Rose
 Ran
 Said
 Saw
 Showed
 Sat
 Slept
 Spoke
 Swam
 Took
 Taught
 Told
 Thought
 Understood
 Wore
 Would
 Won
 Worked/wrought
 Wrote
Present of these verbs…
3
Examples using the past simple of the
Irregular Verbs:
 I drank soda last night.
 You rode a bike the last weekend.
 He wrote a letter to his mother yesterday..
 She went to the center park yesterday
morning.
 The plane flew two yeas ago.
 We didn’t go to Quito the last week.
 You didn’t drink beer the last Friday.
 They won the soccer play yesterday
afternoon.
 I didn’t eat salad this morning.
 She didn’t help me with my homework.
 She didn’t do the homework in her house.
 Did you go to the party?
 Did he play tennis a week ago?
Subject + Past of Irregular
Verb + Complement
4
Formation of the past of the regular verbs :
 I travel to other country.
Most verbs add “-ed”:
 I traveled to other country.
 He played soccer yesterday.
 She called me last night.
 He painted in my notebook.
 I answered to your question.
Verbs ending in “-e”, add “-d”:
 He danced with your sister.
 She arrived to the party at 8:00.
 You loved her.
Verbs ending in a consonant “-y”, drop it and
change it to “-ied”:
 We studied for the quiz.
 She cried for her girlfriend.
 He worried about you..
Verbs with one syllable ending in a
vowel + a consonant, double it before
the “-ed”:
 He stopped the play when rained.
 The water dropped to the floor.
 I slipped in the pool the last Friday.
Verbs with two ore more syllable
ending in a stressed vowel + a
consonant, double it before the “-ing”:
 I preferred to eat healthy yesterday.
Subject + Past of Regular Verb
+ Complement
5
“DO Verbs (past)”:
Past verbs are in the next
list:
Regular verbs:
 Answered
 Appeared
 Arrested
 Arrived
 Called
 Climbed
 Continued
 Cried
 Danced
 Decided
 Died
 Disappeared
 Dropped
 Finished
 Fixed
 Happened
 Helped
 Jumped
 Listened
 Loved
 Noticed
 Painted
 Practiced
 Preferred
 Planted
 Played
 Polluted
 Rearranged
 Reserved
 Robbed
 Shouted
 Slipped
 Sprained
 Started
 Stayed
 Stopped
 Studied
 Surprised
 Touched
 Tried
 Visited
 Waited
 Wanted
 Watched
 Worked
 Worried
 Used
Present of these verbs…
6
 There was / There were:
Past of “there is / there are”
We use it before singular and plural nouns.
Singular Plural
There was There were
There was not There were not
There wasn’t There weren’t
Was there ________?
Yes, there was.
No, there wasn’t.
Were there _______?
Yes, there were.
No, there weren’t.
7
 There was a famous bank in Latacunga five years
ago.
 There was not an eraser in my backpack.
 There wasn’t a library in San Buenaventura the last
year.
 Was there a cow in the garden yesterday?
Yes, there was.
No, there wasn’t.
 There were 3 books out of
the library last night.
 There were not ants on the
table.
 There weren’t five
bathrooms in the previous
house.
 Were there birds on the
trees?
Yes, there were.
No, there weren’t.
future “Be GOING tO”: we use it for:
- To talk about future plans.
- For predictions based on evidence.
Time expressions
Tomorrow.
Tonight.
Soon.
Nest day, week, month, year, etc.
This week, month, year, etc.
In a hour, day, week, month, year, etc.
Subject Verb “to be
(am, is, are)”
Going to Verb in
infinitive
Complement
Forms of write sentences:
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I am going to
drink
I’m not going to
drink
Am I going to
drink?
Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
You are going to
drink
You aren’t going
to drink
Are you going to
drink?
Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
He is going to
drink
He isn’t going to
drink
Is he going to
drink?
Yes, he is. No, he isn’t.
She is going to
drink
She isn’t going to
drink
Is she going to
drink?
Yes, she is. No, she isn’t.
It is going to
drink
It isn’t going to
drink
Is it going to
drink?
Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.
We are going to
drink
We aren’t going to
drink
Are we going to
drink?
Yes, we are. No, we aren’t.
You are going to
drink
You aren’t going
to drink
Are you going to
drink?
Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
They are going
to drink
They aren’t going
to drink
Are they going to
drink?
Yes, they are. No, they aren’t.
1
Examples using the future be going to:
 I am going to drink a beer tomorrow.
 You are going to ride a bike in a hour.
 He is going to work in the city soon.
 She is going to go to the center park tonight.
 That plane is going to fly this afternoon.
 We aren’t going to go to Quito this month.
 You are going to eat rice with chicken in
five hours.
 They are going to play soccer this Sundays.
 I’m not going to eat at 10 o’clock.
 She isn’t going to cook tonight.
 Look her! She isn’t going to do her
homework.
 Are you going to come to the party
tomorrow?
 Is he going to play tennis soon?
Subject + Verb to be (am, is, are) +
Going to + Verb in infinitive +
Complement
2
Want to – would like to:
 We use “would like to” to say what we want to do and to make offers,
invitations, and requests.
 “Would like to” is more polite than “want to”:
Examples:
 Would you like to play soccer this
weekend?.
 I would like to visit Japan.
 Would you like to come with me
tomorrow?.
 Would you like to travel with me
tomorrow?.
 I would like to go out tonight.
 I would like to graduate of the
University this year.
 I want to buy a computer.
 Do you want to come with me
tomorrow?
 I want to travel to Canada.
 I want to organize a big party this
Friday.
 What do you want to do on this
weekend?
 I want to go out tonight.
 I want to graduate of the University
this year.
3
I’d love to, I’m sorry, I can’t:
 We use “I’d love to” to accept an invitation and “I’m sorry, I can’t “ to
refuse an invitation.
Examples:
 Would you like to play soccer this
weekend?.
 I would like to visit Japan.
 Would you like to come with me
tomorrow?.
 Would you like to travel with me
tomorrow?.
 I would like to go out tonight.
 I would like to graduate of the
University this year.
 I want to buy a computer.
 Do you want to come with me
tomorrow?
 I want to travel to Canada.
 I want to organize a big party this
Friday.
 What do you want to do on this
weekend?
 I want to go out tonight.
 I want to graduate of the University
this year.
The verb “should”: we use it:
» To ask for and give advice.
» To express an opinion.
Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer
Affirmative Negative
I should visit I shouldn’t visit Should I visit? Yes, I should. No, I shouldn’t.
You should visit You shouldn’t visit Should you visit? Yes, you should. No, you shouldn’t.
He should visit He shouldn’t visit Should he visit? Yes, he should. No, he shouldn’t.
She should visit She shouldn’t visit Should she visit? Yes, she should. No, she shouldn’t.
It should visit It shouldn’t visit Should it visit? Yes, it should. No, it shouldn’t.
We should visit We shouldn’t visit Should we visit? Yes, we should. No, we shouldn’t.
You should visit You shouldn’t visit Should you visit? Yes, you should. No, you
shouldn’t.
They should visit They shouldn’t visit Should they visit? Yes, they should. No, they
shouldn’t.
4
Examples using the verb “should”:
 I should drink a beer tomorrow.
 What should I do?
 You shouldn’t work until late.
 I think should people eat healthy food.
 You should go to the doctor.
 You shouldn’t eat goodies all the time.
 I have a headache. What should I do?
 You should sleep more.
 I don’t have any money?
 You shouldn’t buy expensive things.
 I don’t have any spare time?
 You shouldn’t work sixteen hours every day.
 You should visit your family.
 You should do more exercise.
Subject + Should + Verb in
infinitive + Complement
5
More “DO Verbs”:
Do verbs are in the next list:
Irregular verbs in base form:
 Fall
 Hurt
 Leave
 Put
 Read
 Sing
 Spend
Irregular verbs in past simple:
 Fell
 Hurt
 Left
 Put
 Read
 Sang
 Spend
6

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Backup material 1 the basic level

  • 2.  INTRODUCTION (greetings, numbers, What time is it?, me and my family, days of the week, articles a/an, article the, imperatives, letters of the alphabet, colors, That’s me, Presentation)  PRESENT SIMPLE (the verb “to be”, irregular verbs, regular verbs, do verbs, full forms to write a sentence, prepositions of place, there is / are, “th” forms and possessive adjectives, possessive case, prepositions of time, question words, suggestions, objects pronouns, countable/uncountable nouns, from-during- before-after, possessive pronouns, prepositions of movement-too-enough)  PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (forms of write a sentence, spelling, present progressive vs present simple, describe pictures, vocabulary, present simples with futures meaning, stative verbs)  PAST SIMPLE (past simple of the verb “to be”, past simple of the “Do verbs“, irregular verbs, examples using irregular verbs, formation of the past of the regular verbs, regular verbs, there was / there were)
  • 3.  FUTURE (Future be going to, forms of write sentences, examples using be going to, want to – would like to, the verb “should”, examples using “should”, more irregular verbs)  PRESENT PERFECT  PAST PROGRESSIVE  PAST PERFECT SIMPLE  PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE  CONDITIONALS
  • 4. Greetings:  Hello  Hi  Good morning  Good afternoon  Good evening  Good night  See you tomorrow  Good bye  Nice to meet you  Nice to meet you, too. 4
  • 5. Cardinal numbers:  1 one  2 two  3 three  4 four  5 five  6 six  7 seven  8 eight  9 nine  10 ten  11 eleven  12 twelve  13 thirteen  14 fourteen  15 fifteen  16 sixteen  17 seventeen  18 eighteen  19 nineteen  20 twenty  30 thirty  40 forty  50 fifty  60 sixty  70 seventy  80 eighty  90 ninety  100 one hundred  1 000 one thousand Ordinal numbers:  1 first  2 second  3 third  4 fourth  5 fifth  6 sixth  7 seventh  8 eighth  9 ninth  10 tenth  11 eleventh  12 twelfth  13 thirteenth  14 fourteenth  15 fifteenth  16 sixteenth  17 seventeenth  18 eighteenth  19 nineteenth  20 twentieth  30 thirtieth  40 fortieth  50 fiftieth  60 sixtieth  70 seventieth  80 eightieth  90 ninetieth  100 one hundredth  1 000 one thousandth 5
  • 6. What time is it? 8:00  It’s eight o’clock 10:30  It’s a half past ten  It’s ten thirty 7:15  It’s a quarter past seven.  It’s seven fifteen. 11:45  It’s a quarter to twelve.  It’s eleven forty five. 4:05  It’s five after four.  It’s four five. 6:50  It’s ten to seven.  It’s six fifty. 9:20  It’s twenty after nine.  It’s nine twenty. 3:35  It’s twenty five to four.  It’s three thirty five. 1:10  It’s ten past one.  It’s one ten. 11:01  It’s one past eleven  It’s eleven one 2:53  It’s seven to three  It’s two fifty three 10:00 5:55 8:35 6
  • 7.  Me and my family  My grandparents:  My grandfather  My grandmother  My parents:  My mother  My father  My brother  My sister  My uncle  My aunt  My cousin  My political family:  My father-in-law  My mother-in-law  My sister-in-law  My brother-in-law  Son  Daughter  Grandson  Granddaughter  Neighbor Now you write 2 sentences using my 7
  • 8. Days of the week:  Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday  Thursday  Friday  Saturday  Sunday Months of the year: January February March April May June July August September October November December Seasons of the year: Winter Spring Summer Fall 8
  • 9. The articles: “a/an”  An ant.  A ball.  An elephant  A cat.  A sound system.  An eraser.  A picture.  An umbrella.  __ house.  __ university.  __ hospital. You can write some sentences using it. 9
  • 10. The articles: “the”  The car in the street is blue.  Pedro is the best student in the class.  The world is polluted.  The Bermuda Triangle is very mysterious.  The Galápagos islands have a lot of species.  The Japanese are very disciplined.  The Moran travel to U.S.A.  The Maltería is a great shopping center.  My best friend play the piano.  Cañar is in the south of the country. 10
  • 11. Imperatives: ≈ Sit down ≈ Stand up ≈ Close the door ≈ Open the door ≈ Open the window ≈ Close the window ≈ Look at the board ≈ Pay attention ≈ Close your books ≈ Read the text ≈ Write a sentence ≈ Speak in English ≈ Talk in pairs ≈ Listen to the CD ≈ Don’t speak ≈ Don’t move ≈ Don’t breathe ≈ Take an umbrella ≈ Put your jacket ≈ Be quiet, please! 11
  • 12.  Letters of the alphabet:  A a = ei  B b = bi  C c = ci  D d = di  E e = i  F f = ef  G g = chi  H h = éich  I i = ai  J j = yi  K k = ke  L l = el  M m = em  N n = en  O o = o  P p = pi  Q q = kiú  R r = ar  S s = es  T t = tí  U u = iú  V v = vi  W w = dobliu  X x = eks  Y y = uai  Z z = sed 12
  • 13.  Colors:  Blue :  Red:  Green:  Yellow:  Orange:  Pink:  Black:  White:  Purple:  Gray:  Brown:  Sky Blue: 13
  • 14. That’s me:  Canada  U.S.A  Mexico  Brazil  United Kingdom  Spain  Italy  China  South Africa  Australia  I’m Canadian.  I’m American.  I’m Mexican.  I’m Brazilian.  I’m British.  I’m Spanish.  I’m Italian.  I’m Chinese.  I’m South African.  I’m Australian. 14
  • 15. Presentation: ◙ My name is ___________. My last name is _________. My nickname is ___________. I am _______ years old. I am ______________________. I live in _________. ◙ My favorite sport is __________. My favorite food is ___________. My favorite color is ____________. My favorite movie is ____________. ◙ My mother is ____________. My father’s name is ___________. I have __________ brothers and _________sisters. ◙ I study at ___________. Actually I’m in the __________. ◙ In my free time I like ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________. 15
  • 16. Present simple: we use the present simple for habits, repeated, actions and permanents states Time expressions Always, usually. sometimes. rarely. often, never. Every day/week, etc. In the afternoons/summer, etc. On Mondays, on the weekend, etc. Subject Verb Complement  The verb “to be”:  Do verbs (irregular and irregular verbs)
  • 17. The verb “to be”: Personal Pronouns:  I  YOU  HE  SHE  IT  WE  YOU  THEY Subject + Verb “to be” + Complement Questions and short answers (only speak). 1
  • 18.  I am tall and handsome.  I am not bored.  I’m 20 years old  I’m Xavier.  I’m intelligent.  I’m not in my house. Next (You)
  • 19.  You are short and chubby.  You are intelligent.  You are not in the park.  You’re José.  You aren’t lazy.  Are you Mario? Next (he) Next (they)
  • 20.  He is funny.  He is not in the park.  He is 25 years old.  He’s always serious.  He isn’t in his house.  Is he at the University? Next (she)
  • 21.  She is very shy.  She is 15 years old.  She is not the new classmate.  She’s my mother.  She isn’t in the kitchen.  Is she pretty? Next (it)
  • 22.  It is my new pet.  It is not my dog.  It’s cold outside.  It isn’t hot outside.  Is it the next city? Next (we)
  • 23.  We are students.  We are brothers.  We are not in the house.  We’re in Quito.  We aren’t in the beach.  Are we the best players? Next (You)
  • 24.  They are professional players.  They are engineers.  They are not in the play.  They’re the best students.  They aren’t my cousins.  Are they very sociable?
  • 25. “DO Verbs”: Do verbs are in the next list: Irregular verbs:  Become  Begin  Bite  Blow  Break  Bring  Build  Burn  Buy  Can  Catch  Choose  Come  Cost  Cut  Do  Draw  Dream  Drive  Drink  Eat  Feel  Fight  Find  Fly  Forget  Freeze  Get  Give  Go  Have  Hear  Hit  Keep  Know  Learn  Let  Lose  Make  May  Meet  Must  Pay  Ride  Rise  Run  Say  See  Show  Sit  Sleep  Speak  Swim  Take  Teach  Tell  Think  Understand  Wear  Will  Win  Work  Write To return adverbs of frequency… Past of these verbs… 2
  • 26. “DO Verbs”: Do verbs are in the next list: Regular verbs:  Answer  Appear  Arrest  Arrive  Call  Climb  Continue  Cry  Dance  Decide  Die  Disappear  Drop  Finish  Fix  Happen  Help  Jump  Listen  Love  Notice  Paint  Practice  Prefer  Plant  Play  Pollute  Rearrange  Reserve  Rob  Shout  Slip  Sprain  Start  Stay  Stop  Study  Surprise  Touch  Try  Visit  Wait  Want  Watch  Work  Worry  Use Use the adverbs of frequency and this… Past of these verbs… 3
  • 27. Do verbs: examples:  I drink soda every days.  You ride a bike on the weekend.  He works in the city.  She goes to the center park.  It flies in the mornings.  We don’t go to Quito.  You drink beer on weekends.  They play soccer on Sundays.  I don’t eat at 10 o’clock.  She doesn’t cook at nights.  She doesn’t do the homework.  Do you come to the party?  Does he play tennis every day? Subject + Verb + Complement Adverbs of frequency: 4
  • 28. Formation of the third person of the singular: -s;-es;-ies:  We travel to other country. Most verbs add “s”:  She travels to other country.  He plays soccer every day.  She eats pizza at home.  He pays to have breakfast. ss. ch. s. sh, o take “es”:  He finishes his homework.  She goes to the beach.  He kisses to his girlfriend. Consonant and “y” drop it and take “ies” (two consonants):  He cries when he losses.  She studies in the mornings.  He tries to see an horror film. It is different of the nouns. Now you can use this with the Do verbs:
  • 29. Plural forms: Most nouns take “s”:  These dogs are brave.  Those books are interesting.  Those boys play in the garden of my house.  He has two new cellphones. s, ch, sh, s, o take “es”:  The watches is on the desk.  These boxes are brown. f or fe change it and takes ves:  I have three scarves in my house.  Those knives are sharp. Consonant and “y” drop it and take “ies” (two consonants):  That tourist over there travel to other countries.  Those families live in San Buenaventura. Irregular nouns:  We brush my teeth in the mornings.  People destroy the environment. It is different of the verbs. Adjectives don’t have a plural from: These big boxes are brown.
  • 30. Adverbs of frequency:  Never 0%  Rarely 20%  Sometimes 40%  Often 60%  Usually 80%  Always 100% Do verbs: → I never drink beer. → She sometimes travels to another country. → My mother often visits her mother. → He never plays tennis with his friends. → We always play videogames. → She sometimes travels to other countries. → They don’t always do their homework. → He doesn’t usually stay in his house. The verb “to be”: ∫ We are usually winners. ∫ My brother is always in his house. ∫ She isn’t often at the University. ∫ You are often alone. ∫ I am never down. ∫ They aren’t sometimes happy. For more verbs (regular and irregular)
  • 31. Full forms of write a sentences: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Full form Short form Affirmative Negative I eat I do not eat I don’t eat Do I eat? Yes, I do. No, I don’t. You eat You do not eat You don’t eat Do you eat? Yes, you do. No, you don’t. He eats He does not eat He doesn’t eat Does he eat? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. She eats She does not eat She doesn’t eat Does she eat? Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t. It eats It does not eat It doesn’t eat Does it eat? Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t. We eat We do not eat We don’t eat Do we eat? Yes, we do. No, we don’t. You eat You do not eat You don’t eat Do you eat? Yes, you do. No, you don’t. They eat They do not eat They don’t eat Do they eat? Yes, they do. No, they don’t. What is the difference between this and the present progressive?: 5
  • 32. Prepositions of place: o In o On o Under o Next to o Between o In front of 2 Across from o Behind 2 Above 6
  • 33. © The beans are in the case. © A glass isn’t in the kitchen. © A notebook is in the backpack. © I live in Latacunga. © The airplane is in the airport. Next (on)
  • 34. © The marker is on the table. © A computer is on the desk. © The DVDs are on the TV. © The picture is on the wall. Next (under)
  • 35. © The plugs are under the computer. © The shoes are under the bed. © The book is under the eraser. © The keys aren’t under the table. Next (nest to)
  • 36. © The speaker is next to the dictionary. © The hospital is next to the restaurant. © The printer isn’t next to the kitchen. © The shoes aren’t next to the computer. © The keys are next to the window. Next (between)
  • 37. © U.S.A. is between Canada and Mexico. © The shopping center isn’t between the hospital and the high school. © Pedro is between Jose and Marie. © The river is between the garden and the library. Next (in front of)
  • 38. © The bed is in front of the television. © The car is in front of the house. © The museum isn’t in front of the University. © I’m in front of the computer. Next (across from)
  • 39. © The computer is across from the chair. © The garage is across from the house. © The hospital isn’t across from the movie theater. © I’m across from the computer. Next (behind)
  • 40. © Paul is behind Roberto. © The stadium is behind the market. © The garage is behind the house. © A black cat isn’t behind Ximena. Next (above)
  • 41. © A purse is above the computer. © The light is above the table. © A painting is above the bed. © The great picture is above the couch. © Rise above hate.
  • 42.  There is / There are: Singular Plural There is There are There is not There are not There isn’t There aren’t Is there ________? Are there _______? 7
  • 43.  There is a famous bank in Latacunga.  There is not an eraser in my backpack.  There isn’t a library in San Buenaventura.  Is there a cow in the garden?
  • 44.  There are 3 books out of the library.  There are not ants on the table.  There aren’t five bathrooms in the house.  Are there birds on the trees?
  • 45. This/That; These/Those: Singular:  This, That Plural:  These, Those Possessive Adjectives: always go before nouns and do not take articles before them:  My  Your  His  Her  Its  Our  Your  Their 8
  • 46.  This is a cheap pants.  This is a colorful ball.  This is a colorful handcuff of dragon ball.  This is a beautiful butterfly.  This is an expensive bike. Next (that)
  • 47.  That is a new classmate. He is over there.  That car over there is very expensive.  That is the new mascot of the school. It isn’t here.  That cat has grey eyes. I like it.
  • 48.  These are a blue umbrellas.  These are a new bikes.  These are an expensive books.  These are the new neighbors. Next (those):
  • 49. ► Those mirrors over there are broken. ► Those watches are ugly. I don’t like it. ► Those boys are over there. ► Those people over there are my grandparents.
  • 50. ☻ My mother and my brother go to Quito once a month. ☻ My cat is small, grey and white. ☻ My sister has medium-length straight dark hair. ☻ My city is beautiful. Next (your):
  • 51. ☻ This is your pen. ☻ Your parents always travel to Japan. ☻ Your country is very polluted. ☻ Your bike is in my house. Next (his): Next (their):
  • 52. ☻ This is my friend. His name is Roberto. ☻ His bedroom is often clean. ☻ His brother is 25 years old. ☻ His house is between the airport and the hospital. Next (her):
  • 53. ☻ She drive her car for downtown. ☻ Her father practice tennis every day. ☻ Her cat is on the table because it is hungry. ☻ Her picture is on the wall next to the window. Next (its):
  • 54. ☻ This is my cat, its eyes are blue. ☻ This is my new book, its cover and its title are interesting. ☻ The dog fell off of the tree and it hits its paw. ☻ This is my old car, its name is Wanda. Next (our):
  • 55. ☻ Our world is very big. ☻ This is our new neighborhood. ☻ My brother say: “Angel and Maricela are our grandparents”. ☻ You and I are best friends. Our favorite sport is volleyball. Next (your):
  • 56. ☻ I see the team. Their training is excellent. ☻ Their medals are very expensive. ☻ Their university is in Salache. ☻ Their house is in front of the airport.
  • 57. Possessive case: express possession: ♣ That is Alfredo’s daughter. ♣ My grandmother’s house is old. ♣ The Maria’s father is Pedro. ♣ These are the Domenica’s new headphones. ♣ That is my parents’ house. ♣ That is my grandparents’ car. ♣ Here is the children’s room. ♣ This is Mary and Ben’s car. ♣ That is Angel and Jessica’s TV. ♣ These are John's and Rick’s bikes. ♣ Those are Paulo’s and Cesar’s books. 9
  • 58. Forms of write sentences: examples: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I have I have not / haven’t Do I have …..? Yes, I do. No, I don’t. You have You have not / haven’t Do you have …..? Yes, you do. No, you don’t. He has He has not / hasn’t Does he have …..? Yes, he does. No, he doesn’t. She has She has not / hasn’t Does she have …..? Yes, she does. No, she doesn’t. It has It has not / hasn’t Does it have …..? Yes, it does. No, it doesn’t. We have We have not / haven’t Do we have …..? Yes, we do. No, we don’t. You have You have not / haven’t Do you have …..? Yes, you do. No, you don’t. They have They have not / haven’t Do they have …..? Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
  • 59. The verb “To have”  I have one brother and two sisters.  She has long and black hair.  We have an apple, a pear, a lemon and a jicama.  They have a important play.  You have not blue eyes.  Have you an airplane?
  • 60. Forms of write sentences: examples: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I can drive I cannot / can’t drive Can I drive? Yes, I can. No, I can’t. You can drive You cannot / can’t drive Can you drive? Yes, you can. No, you can’t. He can drive He cannot / can’t drive Can he drive? Yes, he can. No, he can’t. She can drive She cannot / can’t drive Can she drive? Yes, she can. No, she can’t. It can drive It cannot / can’t drive Can it drive? Yes, it can. No, it can’t. We can drive We cannot / can’t drive Can we drive? Yes, we can. No, we can’t. You can drive You cannot / can’t drive Can you drive? Yes, you can. No, you can’t. They can drive They cannot / can’t drive Can they drive? Yes, they can. No, they can’t.
  • 61. The modal verb “can” ♥ I can play the guitar. ♥ You can type very fast. ♥ He cannot speak in English. ♥ We can’t cook. ♥ They can not swim. ♥ Can you draw well?
  • 62. Prepositions of time: o At (Hours) o On (days and months) o In (months and seasons) Other prepositions of time: 10
  • 63. ♠ I go to the University at 10 o’clock. ♠ I go to the gym at 3 o’clock. ♠ I sleep at night. ♠ I have lunch at night. Next (on)
  • 64. ♦ I go to the church on Sundays. ♦ She gives catechism on Fridays. ♦ I go to Machala on Monday. ♦ My birthday is on November 11th. ♦ My sister read a book on Saturday morning. ♦ We drink some beer on the weekend. ♦ They practice soccer on weekdays. Next (in)
  • 65. ♪ I have breakfast in the morning. ♪ She has lunch in the afternoon. ♪ They have dinner in the evening. ♪ We come out to vacations in August. ♪ This flowers are beautiful in the summer.
  • 66. Question words (Who____?; What _____?; Where ______?; How ____?)  Who are that? That is my brother, Patricio.  What’s your favorite color? My favorite color is black.  Where are you from? I am from Ecuador.  How are you? Fine thanks.  How old are you? I am twenty year old. 11
  • 67. To make suggestions we use: o Let’s ….. o Why don’t we…..? o How about …..? o What about …..?  Like  Love  Enjoy  Hate + noun  Like  Love  Enjoy  Don’t mind  Hate  Can’t stand + -ing form 12
  • 68.  Let’s play.  Let’s cook.  Let’s do our homework.  Let’s go to the beach.  Let’s play the violin.  Let’s eat in a restaurant. Next (why don’t we)
  • 69.  Why don’t we/you visit our grandparents?  Why don’t we watch an horror film?  Why don’t we eat in a restaurant?  Why don’t we go to the cinema?  Why don’t we listen to music?  Why don’t we play basketball? Next (how about/what about)
  • 70.  How about/What about English classes?  How about/What about Ecuadorian food?  How about/What about eat a cake?  How about/What about going out this Friday?  How about/What about playing videogames tonight?  How about/What about doing your homework?
  • 71.  I like pop music.  We like soccer.  You like sunny days.  She likes cats.  They like English class.  He hates horror films.  She hates math.  I hate spiders.  You hate rock music.  We hate school. Like, hate + noun:
  • 72. o I enjoy classical music. o We enjoy soccer games. o You enjoy the weekends. o She enjoys Math classes. o You enjoy English class.  I love Bachata music.  We love tennis.  You love History.  She loves cats.  They love Science class.  You love him. Enjoy, love + noun:
  • 73. Like, hate + -ing form:  I like listening pop music.  We like playing soccer.  You like being a good student.  She likes buying cats.  They like learning English.  He hates watching horror films.  She hates speaking English.  I hate eating meat.  You hate listening rock music.  We hate going to the school.
  • 74. o I enjoy running in the mornings. o We enjoy dancing. o You enjoy learning Art. o She enjoys seeing cats. o You enjoy going to the English class.  I love listening Bachata music.  We love playing tennis.  You love teaching History.  She loves feeding cats.  They love listening Science class. Enjoy, love + -ing form:
  • 75. o I don’t mind watching horror films. o We don’t mind dancing. o You don’t mind learning Chemistry. o She doesn’t mind having boyfriend. o You don’t mind eating salad.  I can’t stand listening Romantic music.  We can’t stand playing basketball.  You can’t stand teaching Math.  She can’t stand feeding cats.  They can’t stand listening Science class. Don’t mind, can’t stand+ -ing form:
  • 76. Objects Pronouns:  Me  You  Him  Her  It  Us  You  Them 13
  • 77.  Tell me when she arrive.  He drive me to the school every day.  I don’t understand my homework, please, help me.  Say me your secret.  Do you love me? Next (you)
  • 78.  I love you.  I don’t tell you his secret.  I write you a poem.  She doesn’t answer you the telephone in the afternoons.  Can I help you? Next (him) Next (them)
  • 79.  Come on! You can help him.  My uncle lives in Colombia. I usually visit him.  She draws him a drawing.  I buy him two gifts.  Do you love him? Next (her)
  • 80.  Let’s go! I accompany her.  My aunt lives in Quito. I rarely visit her.  You compose her a song.  We talk her about of the last holiday.  I don’t buy her a souvenir.  Do you love her? Next (it)
  • 81.  Where are my sunglasses? I need it.  My cat has blue eyes. I like it.  My class is very interesting. I enjoy it.  I don’t like this music. I hate it.  I always practice soccer. I love it. Next (us)
  • 82.  Help us to protect the environment.  Give us your cellphone number.  My parents live in U.S.A. They never visit us.  You can teach us English.  Tell us what happen at the moment? Next (you)
  • 83.  They live in Boston. We usually visit them on the weekend.  Call them to play soccer.  Those are my friends, tell them.  Give them their new book.  The boys are late, drive them to the school.
  • 84.  Countable nouns  Uncountable nouns  Some  Any  No  Much  Many  How much _____?  How many _____?  A lot of  Lots of  A few  A little 14
  • 85. Countable nouns can be counted and have both a singular and a plural form. We use a/an or one in the singular form and some, any or numbers in the plural form A/an:  A book  An airport  A table  An orange Numbers:  One lemon  Two grapes Some: ► I drink some bottles of water. Any: ► You don’t have any cheese. Next (uncountable nouns)
  • 86. Uncountable nouns only have a singular form and we can not count them:  Coffee  Water  Sugar  Salt  Chicken We don’t use a/an or numbers before uncountable nouns but we often use some and any: Some: ♫ I drink some water. ♫ There’s some soup. Any: ◙ Is there any juice ? ◙ Is there any coffee?
  • 87. We use some with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns in affirmative sentences and offers? Affirmative:  There are some mushrooms in the refrigerator.  There are some cherries in the refrigerator.  I have some lettuces in my kitchen.  There are some peppers in the refrigerator.  There is some soda in the kitchen.  I would like some bread whit this coffee. Offers:  Would you like some coffee?  Would you like some rice with chicken?  Can I have some French fries?  Can I have some sausages? Next (any)
  • 88. We use any with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns in questions and negative sentences: Questions:  Is there any water in the fridge?  Is there any milk in the refrigerator?  Are there any balls in the garden?  Do we have any soft drinks in the refrigerator?  Does he have any glass of orange juice in his kitchen? Negative: o I don’t have any tomatoes. o There aren’t any coffee in the kitchen. o We don’t have any bread. o There aren’t any peas in the refrigerator. o She doesn’t have any cheeseburger. Next (no)
  • 89. We use no (=not any) + uncountable or plural countable nouns, in affirmative sentences:  There is no water. There isn’t any water.  There is no milk in the refrigerator. There isn’t any milk in the refrigerator.  There is no chicken in the kitchen. There isn’t any chicken in the kitchen.  There are no tomatoes. There aren't any tomatoes.  There are no lettuces. There aren’t any lettuces.  There are no books on the table. There aren’t any books on the table.  There are no magazines. There aren’t any magazines. Next (much and how much)
  • 90. We use much with uncountable nouns, in questions and negative sentences: Negative:  I don’t have much money.  He doesn’t have much clothes.  There isn’t much water in the kitchen.  There isn’t much milk in the refrigerator. We use How much ___? with uncountable nouns to ask about the quantity of something: Questions:  How much milk is there?  How much rice does she eat every day?  How much sugar do you take in your coffee?  How much milk do you drink a day? To ask about the cost or price or something:  How much are there sneakers cost?  How much does this DVD player cost?  How much does it cost?
  • 91. We use many with plural countable nouns, usually in questions and in negative sentences: Negative: ♦ I don’t have many carrots in my house. ♦ There aren’t many shoes in the bedroom. ♦ There aren’t many apples in the refrigerator. ♦ There aren’t many books in my backpack. Questions:  Does he have many apples in his refrigerator?  Do you like many strawberries with your ice cream? We use How many ___? with plural countable nouns to ask about the number of something:  How many students are in the class?  How many apples do you eat a day?  How many book do you have?
  • 92. We use a lot of/lots of with uncountable and plural countable nouns, usually in affirmative sentences:  There is a lot of sugar on the table.  There are lots of pots on the kitchen.  He takes a lot of sugar in his coffee.  There are lots of dresses .  My cousins drink a lot of coffee.  I have a lot of friends.  You have lots of songs in your MP3 player.  A lot of people surf the Internet nowadays.  There is lots of coffee in my glass.  There are a lot of lemons in my house.  He has a lot of money.  I have lots of posters. Next (a little/a few)
  • 93. We use a little with uncountable nouns, in affirmative sentences:  There is a little cheese on the table.  There’s a little milk in the refrigerator.  There is a little water on the table.  There’s a little chicken in the kitchen.  There is a little sugar in this coffee. We use a few with plural countable nouns, in affirmative sentences:  There are a few magazines on the table.  There’re a few books on my desk.  There are a few questions I want to ask.  There are a few fruits in this food.  There’re a few airplanes in the airport.  There are a few horses here.
  • 94. ⌂ From … till/until/to: I study English from 2 o’clock to 4 o’clock. My mother work from 7 o’clock until 4 o’clock I travel from 11 p.m. till 6 a.m. ⌂ During I never drink beer during the week. He always sleeps during the holiday. ⌂ Before I always brush my teeth before sleeping. My sister often runs before breakfast. ⌂ After We usually go to the University after lunch. I don’t always sleep after dinner. 15
  • 95. How often ______? We use How often _____? to ask about the frequency of an action:  How often are you in your house?  I am always in my house.  How often do you go to the University?  I sometimes go to the University.  How often does she sing a song?  She rarely sings a song.  How often do they play videogames?  They usually play videogames. 14
  • 96.  Possessive Pronouns: replace possessive adjectives + noun, so they are never followed by nouns. They can be used as short answers to questions starting with whose: ☼ Mine ☼ Yours ☼ His ☼ Hers ☼ Ours ☼ Yours ☼ Theirs Whose ______? We use whose when we want to ask who the owner of a thing is: 16
  • 97. ☼ Your backpack is blue, but mine is green and black. ☼ Whose is this headphones? This is my headphones. It’s mine. ☼ Whose is that car? That is my car. That is mine. ☼ Whose are those bikes? Those are my bikes. Those are mine. ☼ Whose are these books? These are my books. These are mine. ☼ Whose is this dictionary? This is my dictionary. It’s mine. ☼ Whose is this smartphone? It’s mine. Next (yours)
  • 98. ☼ My cellphone is black, but yours are rose. ☼ Whose is this laptop? This is your headphones. It’s yours. ☼ Whose is that MP3 player? That is your MP3 player. That is yours. ☼ Whose are those CDs? Those are your CDs. Those are yours. ☼ Whose are these newspapers? These are your newspapers. These are yours. ☼ Whose is this sunglasses? This is your sunglasses. It’s yours. ☼ Whose is this bag? It’s yours. Next (his) Next (theirs)
  • 99. ☼ I find a camera. I believe it is his. ☼ Whose is that ball? This is his ball. It’s his. ☼ Whose is this motorcycle? This is my cousin’s motorcycle. This is his motorcycle. It’s his. ☼ Whose is that house? That is my father’s house. This is his house. It’s his. ☼ This jacket isn’t mine, it’s his. ☼ Whose are these belts? These are his belts. These are his. ☼ Whose is this belts? It’s his. ☼ I buy him a new tie. It’s his. Next (hers)
  • 100. ☼ These are her new earrings. No it’s hers. ☼ Whose is this blouse? This is her blouse. It’s hers. ☼ Whose is that sandals? That is my sister’s sandals. That is her sandals. That is hers. ☼ Whose is that dress? That is her dress. That is hers. ☼ Whose is this necklace? It’s hers. ☼ Whose are those boots? Those are my mother’s boots . Those are her boots. Those are hers. ☼ This isn’t my glasses. It’s hers. ☼ That isn’t my bottle. It’s hers. ☼ Whose is that house? It’s Susan’s. It’s hers. Next (ours)
  • 101. ☼ This is our new watch. This is ours. ☼ That is our new house. That is ours. ☼ Whose is this new stove? This is our new stove. It’s ours. ☼ Whose is that old couch? That is our old couch. That is ours. ☼ Whose are these gloves? These are our gloves. These are ours. ☼ Whose are those pots on the kitchen? Those are our pots. Those are ours. ☼ Whose is this car? You joke! It’s our new car. It’s ours. Next (yours)
  • 102. ☼ These are their trophies. These are theirs. ☼ Whose are these caps? These are my grandparents’ caps. These are their caps. These are theirs. ☼ Whose are those bikes? These are their bikes. These are theirs. ☼ Whose are these wallets? I don’t know! These aren’t their wallets. These aren’t theirs. ☼ Whose are those T-shirts? Those are theirs. ☼ Whose are these shoes? These are their shoes. These are theirs. ☼ These are their new cameras. These are theirs.
  • 103.  Too  Enough  One  Ones Prepositions of movement: ┼ Up ┼ Down ┼ Into ┼ Out of ┼ Through ┼ Across ┼ Along ┼ From ___ to ┼ Around 17
  • 104. We use too before adjectives and adverbs. Too has a negative meaning and it means “more than necessary”:  He is too short, he can’t play basketball.  That car is too small.  The morning is too cold.  These shoes are too small.  These jeans are too big. We use enough after adjectives and adverbs, but before nouns. Enough has a positive meaning:  He is tall enough to play basketball.  She doesn’t have enough money.  The weather is warm enough for a picnic.  There’s enough food in the refrigerator.  There are enough apples in the kitchen.  There are enough children in the park.
  • 105. We use one when we don’t want to repeat a singular countable noun:  Which jacket is yours? The brown one.  Which car is yours? The black one.  Which watch is hers? The small one.  Which house is theirs? The old one. We use ones when we don’t want to repeat a plural countable noun:  Which shoes do you like? The red ones.  Which dresses are yours? The blue ones.  Can you give my sneakers? The white ones?
  • 106. Present progressive: we use the present progressive for actions that are happening at the moment of speaking or for temporary situations: Time expressions Now, right now, look, listen, today, these days, this week/year, etc. At the moment. Subject Verb to be (am, is, are) Verb -ing Complement
  • 107. Forms of write sentences: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I’m eating I’m not eating Am I eating? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. You’re eating You aren’t eating Are you eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. He’s eating He isn’t eating Is he eating? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. She’s eating She isn’t eating Is she eating? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t. It’s eating It isn’t eating Is it eating? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t. We’re eating We aren’t eating Are we eating? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. You‘re eating You aren’t eating Are you eating? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. They’re eating They aren’t eating Are they eating? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. What is the difference between this and the present?: 1
  • 108. Spelling:  I travel to other country. Most verbs add “-ing”:  I’m traveling to other country.  He’s playing soccer every day.  She’s eating pizza at home.  He’s paying to have breakfast. Verbs ending in “-e”, change it for “-ing”:  He’s dancing with your sister.  She’s coming to the party.  I’m writing a letter to my girlfriend. Verbs with a syllable ending in a vowel + a consonant, double it before the “-ing”:  He’s stopping the traffic.  I’m getting a better qualification.  They’re running in the marathon. Now you can use this with the Do verbs (irregular and regular): Verbs with two or more syllables ending in a stressed vowel + a consonant, double it before the “-ing”:  He’s beginning his career.  What is it happening?  He’s forgetting her. Verbs ending in “-ie”, change it to “y” before “-ing”:  She’s lying me.  My grandfather is dying, please help me. 2
  • 109. Present Progressive vs Present Simple:  We use the Present Progressive for actions that are happening at the moment ok speaking.  We use the Present Simple for habits, repeated actions and permanent states:. Time expressions Present Progressive Present Simple Now, right now, look, listen, today, these days, this week/year, etc. At the moment. Usually, always, often, never, rarely, sometimes. Every day/week/year, etc. On Mondays, on the weekend., etc 3
  • 110. Present Progressive vs Present Simple:  Look this picture and describe them using the present progressive.  What is it happening in these pictures?  What are doing those people? 4
  • 111.  Vocabulary to use in this time:  What’s the weather like?:  It’s cloudy.  It’s windy.  It’s snowing.  It’s sunny.  It’s raining.  It’s hot.  It’s cold.  What’s she wearing?:  Jacket  Skirt.  Shirt.  Pants.  Dress.  Jeans.  Hat.  Sweater.  Shorts.  Scarf.  Shoes.  Sneakers.  Boots.  Belt. Now you write sentences using this time. 5
  • 112. Present Progressive with future meaning:  We use the Present Progressive for to talk about future arrangements or plans. Time expressions Tomorrow Tonight Next month/ year/ week/ Monday , Tuesday, etc. In an hour/ a year/ a month, etc. Soon Examples:  He’s visiting his grandmother tomorrow.  I’m not seeing to my brother tonight.  We are having a party next Saturday.  They’re running in the marathon in an hour.  I’m graduating in a year.  She’s leaving the hospital soon. 6
  • 113. Stative verbs:  The following verbs aren’t used in the Present Progressive . They are called Stative verbs: ~ Hear, smell, see, etc. ~ Like, love, hate, want, need, etc. ~ Understand, know, believe, think, etc. ~ Be, have (=possess), etc. Examples:  I’m smelling the food. (this sentence doesn’t make sense, a person always is smelling or using your senses.)  They love hanging out with me.  I like your sister.  I hate training.  I think the marathon is very tired.  I am being ??? 7
  • 114. Past simple: we use the past simple for: - Actions that started and were completed at a specific time in the past. - Habitual or repeated actions in the past. - Completed actions that happened one after the other in the past. Time expressions Yesterday/ yesterday morning, afternoon, night. In years/ in 1999/ in centuries/ two days, a week, two months, five years ago. Last night, week, month, year, Monday, summer, etc Subject Verb in past Complement
  • 115. Past simple of the verb “to be”: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I was at home. I was not at home. Was I happy? Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t. You were at home. You were not at home. Were you happy? Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. He was at home. He wasn’t at home. Was he happy? Yes, he was. No, he wasn’t. She was at home. She wasn’t at home. Was she happy? Yes, she was. No, she wasn’t. It was at home. It wasn’t at home. Was it happy? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t. We were at home. We weren’t at home. Were we happy? Yes, we were. No, we weren’t. You were at home. You weren’t at home. Were you happy? Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. They were at home. They weren’t at home. Were they happy? Yes, they were. No, they weren’t. Change the present simple of the verb “to be” to past simple: 1
  • 116. Past simple of the “Do verbs”: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I found/ finished I didn’t find/finish Did I find/finish? Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. You found/ finished You didn’t find/finish Did you find/finish? Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. He found/ finished He didn’t find/finish Did he find/finish? Yes, he did. No, he didn’t. She found/ finished She didn’t find/finish Did she find/finish? Yes, she did. No, she didn’t. It found/ finished It didn’t find/finish Did it find/finish? Yes, it did. No, it didn’t. We found/ finished We didn’t find/finish Did we find/finish? Yes, we did. No, we didn’t. You found/ finished You didn’t find/finish Did you find/finish? Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. They found/ finished They didn’t find/finish Did they find/finish? Yes, they did. No, they didn’t. 2
  • 117. “DO Verbs (past)”: Past verbs are in the next list: Irregular verbs:  Became  Began  Bit  Blew  Broke  Brought  Built  Burnt/ burned  Bought  Could  Caught  Chose  Came  Cost  Cut  Did  Drew  Dreamt/dreamed  Drove  Drank  Ate  Felt  Fought  Found  Flew  Forgot  Froze  Got  Gave  Went  Had  Heard  Hit  Kept  Knew  Learned  Let  Lost  Made  Might  Med  Paid  Rode  Rose  Ran  Said  Saw  Showed  Sat  Slept  Spoke  Swam  Took  Taught  Told  Thought  Understood  Wore  Would  Won  Worked/wrought  Wrote Present of these verbs… 3
  • 118. Examples using the past simple of the Irregular Verbs:  I drank soda last night.  You rode a bike the last weekend.  He wrote a letter to his mother yesterday..  She went to the center park yesterday morning.  The plane flew two yeas ago.  We didn’t go to Quito the last week.  You didn’t drink beer the last Friday.  They won the soccer play yesterday afternoon.  I didn’t eat salad this morning.  She didn’t help me with my homework.  She didn’t do the homework in her house.  Did you go to the party?  Did he play tennis a week ago? Subject + Past of Irregular Verb + Complement 4
  • 119. Formation of the past of the regular verbs :  I travel to other country. Most verbs add “-ed”:  I traveled to other country.  He played soccer yesterday.  She called me last night.  He painted in my notebook.  I answered to your question. Verbs ending in “-e”, add “-d”:  He danced with your sister.  She arrived to the party at 8:00.  You loved her. Verbs ending in a consonant “-y”, drop it and change it to “-ied”:  We studied for the quiz.  She cried for her girlfriend.  He worried about you.. Verbs with one syllable ending in a vowel + a consonant, double it before the “-ed”:  He stopped the play when rained.  The water dropped to the floor.  I slipped in the pool the last Friday. Verbs with two ore more syllable ending in a stressed vowel + a consonant, double it before the “-ing”:  I preferred to eat healthy yesterday. Subject + Past of Regular Verb + Complement 5
  • 120. “DO Verbs (past)”: Past verbs are in the next list: Regular verbs:  Answered  Appeared  Arrested  Arrived  Called  Climbed  Continued  Cried  Danced  Decided  Died  Disappeared  Dropped  Finished  Fixed  Happened  Helped  Jumped  Listened  Loved  Noticed  Painted  Practiced  Preferred  Planted  Played  Polluted  Rearranged  Reserved  Robbed  Shouted  Slipped  Sprained  Started  Stayed  Stopped  Studied  Surprised  Touched  Tried  Visited  Waited  Wanted  Watched  Worked  Worried  Used Present of these verbs… 6
  • 121.  There was / There were: Past of “there is / there are” We use it before singular and plural nouns. Singular Plural There was There were There was not There were not There wasn’t There weren’t Was there ________? Yes, there was. No, there wasn’t. Were there _______? Yes, there were. No, there weren’t. 7
  • 122.  There was a famous bank in Latacunga five years ago.  There was not an eraser in my backpack.  There wasn’t a library in San Buenaventura the last year.  Was there a cow in the garden yesterday? Yes, there was. No, there wasn’t.
  • 123.  There were 3 books out of the library last night.  There were not ants on the table.  There weren’t five bathrooms in the previous house.  Were there birds on the trees? Yes, there were. No, there weren’t.
  • 124. future “Be GOING tO”: we use it for: - To talk about future plans. - For predictions based on evidence. Time expressions Tomorrow. Tonight. Soon. Nest day, week, month, year, etc. This week, month, year, etc. In a hour, day, week, month, year, etc. Subject Verb “to be (am, is, are)” Going to Verb in infinitive Complement
  • 125. Forms of write sentences: Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I am going to drink I’m not going to drink Am I going to drink? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. You are going to drink You aren’t going to drink Are you going to drink? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. He is going to drink He isn’t going to drink Is he going to drink? Yes, he is. No, he isn’t. She is going to drink She isn’t going to drink Is she going to drink? Yes, she is. No, she isn’t. It is going to drink It isn’t going to drink Is it going to drink? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t. We are going to drink We aren’t going to drink Are we going to drink? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. You are going to drink You aren’t going to drink Are you going to drink? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. They are going to drink They aren’t going to drink Are they going to drink? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. 1
  • 126. Examples using the future be going to:  I am going to drink a beer tomorrow.  You are going to ride a bike in a hour.  He is going to work in the city soon.  She is going to go to the center park tonight.  That plane is going to fly this afternoon.  We aren’t going to go to Quito this month.  You are going to eat rice with chicken in five hours.  They are going to play soccer this Sundays.  I’m not going to eat at 10 o’clock.  She isn’t going to cook tonight.  Look her! She isn’t going to do her homework.  Are you going to come to the party tomorrow?  Is he going to play tennis soon? Subject + Verb to be (am, is, are) + Going to + Verb in infinitive + Complement 2
  • 127. Want to – would like to:  We use “would like to” to say what we want to do and to make offers, invitations, and requests.  “Would like to” is more polite than “want to”: Examples:  Would you like to play soccer this weekend?.  I would like to visit Japan.  Would you like to come with me tomorrow?.  Would you like to travel with me tomorrow?.  I would like to go out tonight.  I would like to graduate of the University this year.  I want to buy a computer.  Do you want to come with me tomorrow?  I want to travel to Canada.  I want to organize a big party this Friday.  What do you want to do on this weekend?  I want to go out tonight.  I want to graduate of the University this year. 3
  • 128. I’d love to, I’m sorry, I can’t:  We use “I’d love to” to accept an invitation and “I’m sorry, I can’t “ to refuse an invitation. Examples:  Would you like to play soccer this weekend?.  I would like to visit Japan.  Would you like to come with me tomorrow?.  Would you like to travel with me tomorrow?.  I would like to go out tonight.  I would like to graduate of the University this year.  I want to buy a computer.  Do you want to come with me tomorrow?  I want to travel to Canada.  I want to organize a big party this Friday.  What do you want to do on this weekend?  I want to go out tonight.  I want to graduate of the University this year.
  • 129. The verb “should”: we use it: » To ask for and give advice. » To express an opinion. Affirmative Negative Question Short Answer Affirmative Negative I should visit I shouldn’t visit Should I visit? Yes, I should. No, I shouldn’t. You should visit You shouldn’t visit Should you visit? Yes, you should. No, you shouldn’t. He should visit He shouldn’t visit Should he visit? Yes, he should. No, he shouldn’t. She should visit She shouldn’t visit Should she visit? Yes, she should. No, she shouldn’t. It should visit It shouldn’t visit Should it visit? Yes, it should. No, it shouldn’t. We should visit We shouldn’t visit Should we visit? Yes, we should. No, we shouldn’t. You should visit You shouldn’t visit Should you visit? Yes, you should. No, you shouldn’t. They should visit They shouldn’t visit Should they visit? Yes, they should. No, they shouldn’t. 4
  • 130. Examples using the verb “should”:  I should drink a beer tomorrow.  What should I do?  You shouldn’t work until late.  I think should people eat healthy food.  You should go to the doctor.  You shouldn’t eat goodies all the time.  I have a headache. What should I do?  You should sleep more.  I don’t have any money?  You shouldn’t buy expensive things.  I don’t have any spare time?  You shouldn’t work sixteen hours every day.  You should visit your family.  You should do more exercise. Subject + Should + Verb in infinitive + Complement 5
  • 131. More “DO Verbs”: Do verbs are in the next list: Irregular verbs in base form:  Fall  Hurt  Leave  Put  Read  Sing  Spend Irregular verbs in past simple:  Fell  Hurt  Left  Put  Read  Sang  Spend 6