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Lec 14.SST 201 Sesame seed production.pptx

  1. Seed production techniques in sesame varieties V.MANONMANI Professor(SST)
  2. Sesame • Sesamum is often cross pollinated crop • Cross pollination extends up to 60% by insect • Flowers arise in leaf axis & on the stem upper portion and branches • Corolla colour is generally white or pale pink
  3. Flowers open very early morning (3 AM to 4 AM) Receptivity of the stigma - up to 8 AM Flower selfing is done by tying the unopened corolla top by a thread
  4. Variety Plant Flower Pod /seed Duration (days) TMV 3 Plants bushy, profusely branched, leaves simple, dark green, bottom leaves divided, mostly three lobed, higher up are lanceolate and linear Corolla bell shaped with outer surface being covered with short hairs seeds dark brown to black in colour - TMV 4 Stem green throughout shape angular, profuse branching, dark green leaves - 4 loculed capsules, light brown seeds, 650 kg/ha 85-90 TMV 5 Plants 95-110 cm height, 6 primary branches, green colour stem, cordate with acuminate tipped leaves One flower per axil, pale purple corolla Light brown coloured capsule, four loculed, 60-80 capsule per plant, light brown seed 80-85 TMV 6 Plants erect, 80-130cm height, 4-6 primary branches, green, angular stem, cordate leaves One flower per axil, purple corolla Four loculed, one capsule per axil, brown seed, 700 kg/ha 85-90 Varieties
  5. Variety Plant Flower Pod /seed Duration (days) CO 1 Branched type with narrow angle of branching, 120-130cm height, 4-8 primary branches, short internodes on the main stem, simple, dark green leaves - Bold, four loculed, one per axil capsule; intense dark brown seed, 1000 seed wt 3.3 g. 85-90 VRI 1 Plants 85-115 cm height, 5-9 branches, glabrous, basally branched stem, glabrous leaves One flower per axil, white flowers with slight purple colour on the exterior part of the corolla Capsules densely arranged on the main stem and branches, brown seed; 1000 gm seed wt 3.11g. 70-75 VRI 2 (2005) 60-120 cm height, glabrous, 4-8 branches Purplish white flower Reddish brown seeds, 52% oil content, 700 kg/ha 80-85 SVPR 1 Plants 92 cm height, densely arranged capsules on stem and branches White flower to purple wash, Green capsule, 65 capsules per plant, 4 loculed, 60 seeds per capsule, 1000 seed wt. 3.42 g, white colour seed, 800 kg/ha 75-80
  6. TMV(Sv) 7 Si 250 x ES 22 2009 85-90 750 820 High yield, 4 loculed, tolerant to root rot disease, Lustrous brown testa, oil content 50%Notification No: 2137 (E) / 31.08.2010 VRI 3 SVPR 1 x TKG 87 2017 75-80 995 1055 Moderately resistant to phyllody and root rot diseases.White seed.50.1 per cent oil content.S.O.1379(E) 27.03.2018
  7. Land requirement – The land should not have been cultivated with the same crop in the previous season – If cultivated it should be the same variety proposed for cultivation subjected to seed certification Isolation (m) FS CS Varieties 100 50 Season It can be grown in all 3 seasons viz., – Rabi (October – November) – Kharif (June – July) – summer (February – March)
  8. Seeds and sowing Seeds pelleted with MnSO4 @ 50 mg /ha using maida 5% as adhesive and Arappu leaf powder as the filler material Seeds sown both in beds and channels or ridges and furrows Seed treatment Treat seeds with Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg or treat with carbendazim @ 2 g / kg Seed rate 3-4 kg / ha
  9. Definition • It is process of packaging effective quantities of materials • To increase the size, shape and weight of the seed
  10. Process of pelleting • System resembles a cement mixer • Seeds are introduced into a coating drum or pan. • First sprayed with water followed by the addition of the pelleting materials with binder. • The wet seed attracts –gets coated with the dry pelleting material - pellet gradually increases in size with each turn of coating drum. • Longer rotation times with greater amounts of pelleting materials lead to greater pellet size and roundness.
  11. • At the end of the pelleting process, a binder is added to harden the outer layer of the pellet. • This also reduces the amount of dust produced during handling, shipping and planting. • Cementing adhesives (gum arabic, gelatin, methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol) • Pelleting materials (clays, limestone, calcium carbonate, talc, vermiculite) • Other compounds such as inoculants, fungicides, etc. may be added to enhance seed performance
  12. Advantages • The mechanical planting • Small and irregular shaped seeds …… • Precision sowing: Correct plant distribution - reduces the seed rate • Accurate dosing of seeds with chemicals. • Packing of inoculant, protectant, nutrient, herbicide and hydrophilic substance as well as to increase supply of oxygen. • Soil acidity problems- may be overcome by lime pelleting of seed. • Lime pelleting • Better protection - reduced environmental pollution. • Birds and small animals can not recognise the seeds.
  13. Factors affecting germinability of pellets SIZE Small Vs Large WEIGHT (SAW DUST) Lower wight PHYSICAL BARRIER Oxygen availability Easy to dissolve, tough to break OSMOTIC BARRIER Concentration of solutes
  14. Pelleting of Sesamum seeds Mn So4 (Micronutrient) 100 mg/Kg Carbendazim 2 g/Kg Pseudomonas 10 g /Kg Wood ash (Filler) 500 g Rice gruel (Adhesive ) 150 ml
  15. 50 60 70 80 90 Control Saw dust (Dry) Saw dust (Moist) Sand (40%) Percentage 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Days and Speed of germination Percentage of radicle protrusion Germination percentage Days for 50% germination Days for maximum germination Speed of germination Seed germination of pellets compared to non-pelleted mustard seeds Pelleted Non -pelleted
  16. Spacing : 60 x 40 cm (11 plants / m2) Manure’s and fertilizers Compost : 12.5 t/ha NPK : 50:25:25 kg/ha (basal) MnSO4 : 5 kg/ha (basal) DAP : Given as 1% foliar spray at 1st flowering and again 10 days after 1st spray Mn is essential to photosynthesis reactions, enzyme activation and root growth (Mortvedt et al., 1999). Therefore, the steady supply of macro nutrients and Mn (Jeyabal et al., 1997) was found to increase stem height and nodes for capsule development in sesame.
  17. Rouging – Based on branching behaviour, capsule size & colour and seed colour Water management – Irrigate at sowing and give life irrigation – depending on soil moisture conditions, – give one pre flowering irrigation (at 25 days), – one at flowering, – two at pod setting Weed management – Apply Alachlor @ 1.25 kg ai/ha on 20th DAS & irrigate the crop immediately
  18. Pest management Shoot webber / pod borer / gall midge – Apply one of the following pesticides per ha on 25, 35 and 50th DAS Dust 25 kg of Endosulphan 4 D, Phasalone 4 D or spray Dichlorvas 76 EC 500 ml, Monocrotophos 36 WSC 625 ml endosulphan 35 EC 1000 ml, Carbaryl 50 WP 1000 g in 500 ml of water.
  19. Disease management Phyllody Remove and destroy the affected plants. Intercropping with sesamum + red gram (6:1) reduces the incidence of phyllody and root rot. Root rot Spot drench Carbendazim 1 g / litre or Pseudomonas fluorescence @ 2.5 kg / ha mixed with 50 kg of well decomposed FYM / sand at 30 DAS. Soil application of neem cake (150 kg/ha) combined with Trichoderma viride seed treatment (4 kg/ha) effectively reduces root rot.
  20. Intercultural operations – Earthing up at fruiting stage to avoid lodging of the crop up to harvest Storage pests – Dust on gunny bags – Malathion 5 D or Phasalone 4 D or Carbaryl 10 D. – Mix 1 kg of activated clay with 100 kg of seeds after adequate drying of seeds.
  21. Harvesting • Harvesting at 75-80% of pods have become brown and bottom 1 to 2 pods have dehisced • At this stage, the pod MC is 50 % and seed MC is 25-30% • Examine the 10th capsule from the bottom by opening. • If the seeds turn black, harvest may be taken up for the black seeded varieties. • If harvest is delayed, the capsules will dehisce resulting in yield reduction
  22. Stacking and drying – Plants stacked upright down in the threshing floor, so that the immature pods of the terminal edge also will mature – It is done for 3 days & during that period MC reduces to 15-18% Threshing – It is done manually by beating with pliable bamboo stocks Processing – Seeds graded using 5/64” round perforated metal sieves
  23. Seed storage Seeds with 7-8 % MC treated with thiram @ 2 g/kg treated seeds can be stored up to 1 year in open storage and up to 2 years in 700 gauge polyethylene containers Mid storage corrections Soaking the seeds in double the volume Na2HPO4 (10-4 m) (3.6 g/100 l of water) can prolong the storability of seed. Floaters should be removed, soaked seeds should be spread over a clean gunny bag and air dried, dressed with carbendazim @ 2 g/kg of seeds and stored.
  24. Seed standards Factors Foundation Seed Certified Seed Pure seed % (max) 97 97 Inert matter % (max) 3 3 Other crop seed % (min) 1 1 Weed seed % (min) 1 1 Germination % (max) 80 80 Moisture content % a) Open storage b) Vapour proof container 10 8 10 8 Field standards FS CS Off types (%) 0.1 0.2