Y11 Community & Family Studies: 'Leadership' Slide Show


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A not-as-colourful Powerpoint on Leadership covering topics such as leadership styles and their influences, factors of an effective leader, 'assumed' and 'negotiated' leadership and the differentiation of leadership and management. WARNING- It was done last-minute and shouldn't be heavily relied on!!

Done (last-minute) for Year 11 CAFS class
(June 2013)

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Y11 Community & Family Studies: 'Leadership' Slide Show

  1. 1. 1. Assumed & Negotiated Leadership A person may be appointed as a leader in two ways: 1. Assumed leadership is when a person becomes a leader not by their own efforts, but rather from outside forces such as authority or birthright. Some examples of assumed leadership include business leaders granted leadership by directors of a different group, and members of the royal family by the passing down of leadership from relatives. 2. Negotiated leadership is when group members either elect or agree upon another member appropriate enough for the position as leader. Some examples of groups involved with negotiated leadership include leaders of gangs and government leaders. Negotiated Leaders are usually better in running their job than Assumed Leaders as they possess the suitable skills in which they had been elected leader for in the first place. A person without any knowledge in soccer may become an Assumed Leader of a soccer group- they'd obviously turn out as a less effective Head than if they were a Negotiated Leader.
  2. 2. 2. Leadership Styles All leaders of the world emphasize on different values, and hold different approaches towards their job. These adopted styles of leadership may include at least one of the following: Task-oriented These leaders focus more accomplishing tasks, rather than dealing with the welfare of those whom they are in control over. It‟s all about the work for them; structuring it, preparing it and ensuring that it runs effectively. They‟re also pretty emotionally distant from group members- the last person you‟d want to talk about your personal problems with. Roles and standards are also of high priority for these leaders, so don‟t be surprised if your 50-page essay doesn‟t reach their stringent 51-page expectation. People-oriented These leaders only want to support, assist and care for his/her group so they are comfortable collaborating as a group. Very motherly. They are the „nice guy‟ who motivates the group and does everything to build and maintain positive relationships within it. The wellbeing of group members is their #1 priority, and they are always waiting to help for when the time comes. They make sure group member‟s self-esteems are maintained as well as that their achievements are acknowledged. Not very close friends with the task-oriented leader.
  3. 3. Autocratic These leaders are in complete control over his/her group. They don‟t request the rest of the group‟s input when making any decisions- they do it all themselves. It is said that Kevin Rudd lost his PM position from possessing an autocratic leadership style. He made all the decisions himself and refused to at least partake in some consensus decision-making nor receive advice from cabinet ministers and parliamentary colleagues. Collaborative/shared This leader doesn‟t make any decisions themselves; they encourage group members to participate in the decision-making process in order to achieve goals. When a problem regarding teamwork arises, this leader would help you out. Collaborative/shared leaders pay equal attention to group tasks and the wellbeing of group members, and assign tasks by holding discussions. Group members with this kind of leader need to guarantee that they have an sufficient amount of motivation as well as have the necessary skills to complete tasks by themselves. Laissez faire These leaders tell their group members to „leave it be‟ in French. Basically, the group does all the work while the only thing they, the leader, does is give advice and helpful supplies as support for group members when it is required. Ronald Reagan was a laissez faire leader. He wanted to lessen his people‟s reliance towards the government and was a strong believer of individual freedom. He trusted other leaders who were successful to do most of his work.
  4. 4. Transformational These supportive leaders encourage their group to transform in a positive manner. They‟re usually very passionate and devoted towards their group. They know what they are required to accomplish and they do everything they possibly can to help group members succeed. Due to this, they are known to be ideal role models who want their group to adopt the qualities of their highly effective style of leadership in the end. Business magnate Bill Gates is a Transformational leader for having made a contribution to transforming the computer industry. He‟s also very inspirational for his dedication towards philanthropy and his vision of „a healthier world‟. Cultural These leaders have an extensive knowledge of the various customs, values and traditions of group members. They bring the cultural groups of their persons together as one while making sure they preserve the individual identity of these groups. They also promote the sharing of differentiated aspects such as ideas and beliefs between cultural groups to increase acceptance of different cultures. Political leaders of multicultural nations such as Switzerland and Australia are ideal cultural leaders.
  5. 5. 3. Influences on Leadership Styles The following are some other factors that may influence a) the type of leadership a leader adopts, and b) the effectiveness of the person‟s leadership. Nature of the Group - Leaders who are more respected and admired by group members may have better relationships within the group. They may also have more influence than leaders with less intimate relationships with group members. Type of Task - Tasks with clear directives allow a leader to exercise more control and influence than if working on a task that is a lot more unstructured and imprecise. - Task-oriented leadership for formal and more complex tasks (like undertaking a medical emergency), may be ineffective for an informal situation (such as a volunteering task) that would require more of a people-oriented leadership style. Nature of Decisions - The type of decisions a leader may be required to undertake may determine how they play their role. During a serious situation requiring an immediate response – such as a medical emergency - a leader may not have enough time to consult with other group members and may need to be stronger and assertive in their role. Decisions that do not require an immediate response – such as choosing a new home to live in – allow the time for a leader to collaborate with other group members in order to reach a decision.
  6. 6. • Gender Expectations - Despite agreeing that all leaders require intelligence, self-control, independence and other essential qualities, certain studies show that males and females do not perceive leaders in the same way. For example, female group members perceive female leaders are assertive and intuitive while they view male leaders as sympathetic and persistent. Male group members typically perceive female leaders as bitter and passive while viewing male leaders as more aggressive and sociable. - It has been said that male group members usually see female as less effective leaders. • Experience of the Leader - - Those who have held a leadership role before turn out to be more effective and experienced leaders. As leaders retain more experience, they may gain a position of power higher and more favourable than those of the inexperienced leaders. Inexperienced leaders haven‟t learnt how to interact with nor direct group members, as well as how to be aware of the needs of members. • Culture - Groups have their own individual culture, which may contain the group‟s history, occurrences and members; past and present. This culture cannot be altered by a leader but can influence the thoughts and actions of the leader.
  7. 7. 4. Effectiveness & Flexibility of Leadership Anyone can raise their hand to become a leader. But to be an effective leader, it is much more than simply indulging in the fact that you get to boss everyone else around. The following are some qualities that make an effective (and ineffective) leader: An EFFECTIVE Leader… Demonstrates confidence that he/she is able to withstand what stands in his/her way without panic. Shares a realistic vision with his/her team and can briefly describe the steps to reaching it. Controls a productive environment thanks to constructive communication with group members outside the working environment. Understands the importance of breaks from work during times of low morale. Practices and encourages enthusiasm and excitement towards the hard work he/she undertakes. Gives and earns respect due to their honesty, hardworking commitment to their role and their ‘tough but fair’ approach. Listens to what others have to say and clearly communicates his/her own ideas and perspectives. Willing to build trust with others to partake in assigned tasks suited specifically for group member’s strengths. Trusts him/herself enough to use his/her intuition wisely, ignoring the pressures of risk-taking, and guide the team through uncertain situations. Laughs and exercises a sense of humour when facing stress. Can crack a joke here and there with group members. Understands the importance of flexibility: unoblivious to the normality of obstacles; can efficiently react swiftly to changes to preserve group survival; willing to hear and consider other’s ideas and suggestions; identifies different methods of achieving goals if other methods fail; recognizes when other’s assistance may be required and knows how to obtain this assistance.
  8. 8. An INEFFECTIVE Leader… Doesn’t think ‘outside the box’ nor owns the courage to take risks and create his/her own innovative solutions. Cannot keep spirits up and doesn’t acknowledge nor display appreciation for the individual strengths and achievements of group members. Fails to see the ‘big picture’ and cannot Impatient with perceive problems undertaking the before they tedious period of arise/become working towards goal harder to achievement. overcome. Is incompetentunaware of what he/she is supposed to be doing. Is too afraid to call him/herself responsible and be blamed for any circumstances. Ignores the full potential of others and doesn’t encourage group members to reach personal best by not giving any constant assistance or praise. Egotistical; believes he/she is above everyone else. Worsens circumstances by avoiding setbacks rather than have them addressed. Fails to motivate the team to continue moving ahead through complications. Un-empathetic towards the personal emotions of group members, allowing unexpected issues to significantly disrupt group progress.
  9. 9. 5. Leadership & Management Roles ‘Leadership‟ and „management‟ are not two identical twins, though it is a norm for all the dictionary-haters out there in the world to mistake them for each other. LEADERS BOTH Inspires group members to work faster MANAGERS Tells group members to work faster Keeps in contact with members whom they are always available for “What will I get from undertaking this task?” “How do I undertake this task to get it?” Adapts team members to situations that may obstruct goal achievement Is the leader from possessing a popular vision, not from organisation skills (if they have any) Is the manager from time spent with company, not from leadership skills Discovers and provides helpful supplies for group members when required Group members can choose if they want to follow them MUST be followed by group members May be a newbie at a field without any expertise in it at all Experienced in field and adequate methodological skills Makes sure group members are working to
  10. 10. LEADERS BOTH Shows members how to perform tasks through own performance “So it‟s common to do this? Well I‟m going to try doing that.” Most likely to share a friendly conversation over a coffee with. MANAGERS Informs members on how to perform tasks “If it‟s common to do this, might as well do it as well.” Least likely to share a friendly conversation over a coffee with. Certifies if goals have been accomplished or not Interdependence Groups operate effectively if they include both of the beneficial roles of leadership and management. The qualities of a leader are improved when combined with some management qualities. It also works vice-versa. In order to achieve goals, leaders must partake in the same things managers regularly do. These include setting and planning how to achieve goals, allocating roles to group members, observing group progress and forming group rules.
  11. 11. Bibliography  Assumed & Negotiated Leadership  • • • Leadership Styles http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm http://psychology.about.com/od/leadership/a/transformational.htm http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/edleadership/n330.xml • • http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/jun/24/kevin-rudd-australia-labor http://prezi.com/oeg7wplih0e8/copy-of-laissez-faire/ • • Influences on Leadership Styles • Weihen, L., Chapman, S., Duggan, B., & Wood, B. (2002). Community and family studies : stage 6 preliminary and HSC course: Heinemann. • • Effectiveness & Flexibility of Leadership http://www.briantracy.com/blog/leadership-success/the-seven-leadership-qualities-of-great-leaders-strategic-planning/ http://web1.ungariec.schools.nsw.edu.au/internet/lap/Prelim/CAFS/Resources/CAFS%20%28Feet%29/Core%202/pdfs/c2_ch4.pd f • • • • • http://www.forbes.com/sites/tanyaprive/2012/12/19/top-10-qualities-that-make-a-great-leader/ http://www.ourcommunity.com.au/boards/boards_article.jsp?articleId=1356 http://smartblogs.com/leadership/2013/03/21/how-to-develop-a-flexible-leadership-style/ http://www.leadership-toolbox.com/characteristic-of-leadership.html http://www.fastcompany.com/3004914/5-characteristics-great-leaders  • • Leadership & Management Roles http://ideas.repec.org/a/cbu/jrnlec/y2012v2p126-135.html http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/Intro/leader.html