3 CORE DESIGN
ACTIVITIES: 
1- CREATIVITY
2- MANIFESTING
3- ETHICS
© John Knight - 2013
CREATIVITY
There is arguably something unique about designers
ANALYSIS 
IMAGINATION
EVALUATION
DesignThinking/Creativity comprises…….
ANALYSIS
EVALUATION
IMAGINATION
RECURSION
However, Creativity is recursive…….it goes round
TRIANGLUATION
And good creativity goes beyond ‘pure design’ issues 
Feasibility
Scope
Market 
Cost
TTM
Legislation
Innovat...
Continually ask the 12 Questions for Design:
1.  What is the problem/opportunity?
2.  Are the risks known/mitigated?
3.  W...
MANIFESTING
The doing is as important as the thinking….
MANIFESTATION
‘The action of making manifest;
†exposition, explanation (obs.); the fact of
being manifested; the demonstra...
BLUEPRINTS
MODELS
SKETCHES
DOCUMENTS
MANIFESTING
Design Doing is manifesting DesignThinking….
Such manifestations are akin to Boundary Objects
‘A boundary object is a concept in boundary
object is a concept in sociol...
Create and communicate thinking through
boundary objects as early as possible and ensure
involvement and buy-in among stak...
ETHICS
Designing for others arguably necessitates responsibility
IMPACT 
Design has….(an)…
Design’s intent and impact can be more or less explicit
‘NewYork's Long Island highway overpasses
were deliberately design...
HOWEVER,
ACCOUNTING
FUTURE IMPACT
INTO DESIGN IS
DIFFICULT
Create user stories that account for impact
based on ethical principles such as:
• Autonomy
• Fairness
• Non-maleficence
• ...
Example Universal User Stories:
As a user I can tailor my experience to meet my needs without
loss of quality
As a user my...
Kiitos
John.knight@aalto.fi
@worldofknight
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Design Thinking - Creativity, Manifesting and Ethics

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Presentation covering three aspects of my research - Ethical Design, Agile-creativity and Boundary Objects

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Design Thinking - Creativity, Manifesting and Ethics

  1. 1. 3 CORE DESIGN ACTIVITIES: 1- CREATIVITY 2- MANIFESTING 3- ETHICS © John Knight - 2013
  2. 2. CREATIVITY There is arguably something unique about designers
  3. 3. ANALYSIS IMAGINATION EVALUATION DesignThinking/Creativity comprises…….
  4. 4. ANALYSIS EVALUATION IMAGINATION RECURSION However, Creativity is recursive…….it goes round
  5. 5. TRIANGLUATION And good creativity goes beyond ‘pure design’ issues Feasibility Scope Market Cost TTM Legislation Innovation Economics
  6. 6. Continually ask the 12 Questions for Design: 1.  What is the problem/opportunity? 2.  Are the risks known/mitigated? 3.  What is possible/impossible? 4.  What is fixed/changeable? 5.  What is the design brief? 6.  What is the likely future impact predictable? 7.  What are the elements of design? 8.  How is value created/consumed 9.  What happens after design? 10.  What solutions are there? 11.  Is the proposed design successful? 12.  What is the design rationale? Practical recommendation
  7. 7. MANIFESTING The doing is as important as the thinking….
  8. 8. MANIFESTATION ‘The action of making manifest; †exposition, explanation (obs.); the fact of being manifested; the demonstration, revelation, or display of the existence, presence, qualities, or nature of some person or thing.’ OED And the real value of DesignThinking is…….
  9. 9. BLUEPRINTS MODELS SKETCHES DOCUMENTS MANIFESTING Design Doing is manifesting DesignThinking….
  10. 10. Such manifestations are akin to Boundary Objects ‘A boundary object is a concept in boundary object is a concept in sociology to describe information used in different ways by different communities.They are plastic, interpreted differently across communities but with enough immutable content to maintain integrity.The concept was introduced by Susan Leigh Star and James R. Griesemer in a 1989 publication (p. 393):’ Wikipedia
  11. 11. Create and communicate thinking through boundary objects as early as possible and ensure involvement and buy-in among stakeholders Practical recommendation
  12. 12. ETHICS Designing for others arguably necessitates responsibility
  13. 13. IMPACT Design has….(an)…
  14. 14. Design’s intent and impact can be more or less explicit ‘NewYork's Long Island highway overpasses were deliberately designed by Robert Moses so as to be too low to allow passage beneath them by public buses.This design decision was also a political decision, and the technical arrangement it put in place was also a political arrangement….low overpasses effectively denied poor people and racial minorities…access to the public park and beaches.’ Winner, 1980
  15. 15. HOWEVER, ACCOUNTING FUTURE IMPACT INTO DESIGN IS DIFFICULT
  16. 16. Create user stories that account for impact based on ethical principles such as: • Autonomy • Fairness • Non-maleficence • Beneficence Practical recommendation
  17. 17. Example Universal User Stories: As a user I can tailor my experience to meet my needs without loss of quality As a user my experience is effective, efficient and satisfying throughout the product/service lifecycle As a user I am enabled to be fully in control of my experience and learn from it. As a user I derive sustainable value and benefit from my experience. As a user I am made aware of potential harm and protected from it. As a user my freedom and the respect for others is enhanced. As a user I am able to provide feedback in anonymity. Practical recommendation (2)
  18. 18. Kiitos John.knight@aalto.fi @worldofknight

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