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Cooperation Between Research Institutes and Local Governments

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The world has never been more urban than it is now, and this trend isn’t expected to slow down anytime soon. By 2050, the world will have grown by 2.5 billion additional urban dwellers, with almost all of this growth occurring in cities in the developing world. The right ecosystem for change can make sustainable urban solutions a reality—not just in a few cities, but worldwide.

Presented by Ani Dasgupta, Global Director, WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities, at the ICLEI World Congress in Seoul, South Korea, April 9, 2015.

Read more on #TheCityFix: http://bit.ly/1Pp7rdU

Published in: Environment
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Cooperation Between Research Institutes and Local Governments

  1. 1. COOPERATION BETWEEN RESEARCH INSTITUTES & LOCAL GOVERNMENTS ICLEI World Congress – Seoul, South Korea – April 9, 2015 ANI DASGUPTA, GLOBAL DIRECTOR, WRI ROSS CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE CITIES, WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE (WRI) Photo  :  Andrew  Stokols
  2. 2. Sources: Land use and emissions, UN-HABITAT. Infrastructure needs, Resilient Cities. Air pollution and traffic fatalities, WHO; IEA. 2008. World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: International Energy Agency; Communitas Coalition, 2014. Universal Access to Affordable Housing. CO2 figure: UN-HABITAT >70% OF ENERGY-RELATED CO2 EMISSIONS 3.7 M ANNUAL PREMATURE AIR POLLUTION DEATHS 1.2 M ANNUAL TRAFFIC FATALITIES +2.5 billion people, a 63% increase EXPECTED INCREASE IN URBAN POP. BY 2050 2 THE URBAN CHALLENGE Risky business-as-usual
  3. 3. Source: OECD Environmental Outlook 2050, World Economic Forum, Infrastructure figure Global Infrastructure Basel. Photo by Andreas/Flickr THE URBAN POTENTIAL A window of opportunity to get cities right 80% CITIES’ SHARE OF GLOBAL GDP $5 TRILLION ANNUAL GLOBAL INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT NEEDED OVER NEXT 20 YEARS 75% OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE IN 2050 YET TO BE BUILT 3
  4. 4. Urban population +70% GHG Emissions +65% Traffic deaths +180% Land area +500% 0% 100% 200% 300% 400% 500% 600% 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Percentage Change Expected from 2010 CURRENT TRENDS ARE UNSUSTAINABLE Sources -- Urban population: NCE. 2014. Cities paper on Transformative Urban Growth; Prosperity: MGI. 2011. Mapping Our Urban World; GHG Emissions: Global GHG Calculator. 2014; Land area: Scientific American. 2012; Traffic deaths and injuries: WHO. 2013. Linear projection from Global Status Report on Road Safety data. 4 Cities are key to global sustainability. Cities needed to meet a 2-degree scenario to address climate change.
  5. 5. Photo: Asian Development Bank/Flickr WE NEED SOLUTIONS, BUT ALSO KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO IMPLEMENT THEM Institutions Partnerships Financing 5 HOW DO WE CHANGE COURSE? Towards livability, productivity, sustainability
  6. 6. NEED FOR BOTH SCALE AND CUSTOMIZATION Visuals: BRTData.org, T. Policanti/EMBARQ Mexico Scaling for GLOBAL impact LOCAL customization 6
  7. 7. PARTNERSHIPS Source: WRI The key to delivering both LOCAL and GLOBAL impact •  Global platforms like city networks (ICLEI, C40) allow rapid scaling of solutions and knowledge sharing Scaling for GLOBAL Impact •  Working with city governments, local businesses, bus driver unions, planners for 10+ years in key cities Customized LOCAL Solutions Mexico City DF 7
  8. 8. BUS RAPID TRANSIT: THE ROLE OF SCALING AND CUSTOMIZING Photo:  Taís  Polican7/EMBARQ  Mexico 8
  9. 9. 0" 40" 80" 120" 160" 200" 0" 5" 10" 15" 20" 25" 1965" 1970" 1975" 1980" 1985" 1990" 1995" 2000" 2005" 2010" CumulativeNumberofCities" NewCities"NUMBER OF CITIES WITH BUS PRIORITY SYSTEMS Partners: 2000: Bogotá (TransMilenio)" 1974: Curitiba" 1968: Liège" Source: BRTData.org, February 2015. City counted at start year for bus system. 2007: Istanbul BRT" 2009: Ahmedabad BRT" 2002: Mexico City" 9 .org
  10. 10. Source: WRI HOW DID THIS HAPPEN? High-profile successes Knowledge sharing Conferences National funding mechanisms 10
  11. 11. Source: BRTData.org, WRI Guangzhou, China BRT IN 190 CITIES AROUND THE WORLD iBus-Indore, IndiaAhmedabad, IndiaBogota, Colombia Mexico City, Mexico 11
  12. 12. MEXICO CITY’S METROBUS Photo: WRI 12
  13. 13. Photo: Mexico City •  19 million people •  22 million trips per day •  4,000 deaths per year due to pollution •  No coordinated transport policy at the federal, state, and municipal levels MEXICO CITY, 2002 13
  14. 14. FORMING A PARTNERSHIP Source: EMBARQ Mexico WRI partners with Mexico City, Ministry of Environment to find solutions to city’s pollution and transport problems 2002: Center for Sustainable Transport (now EMBARQ Mexico) formed WRI performs research, financial analyses, arranges site visits for city officials to view existing BRT systems in Curitiba and Bogota 14
  15. 15. Source: EMBARQ Mexico, Dario Hidalgo BRINGING PRIVATE SECTOR “ON BOARD” •  Individual owners of minibuses initially oppose new BRT •  Government negotiates with microbus owners to consolidate into a single company •  EMBARQ Mexico supports this process: –  technical assistance –  financial calculations 15
  16. 16. Photo Source: EMBARQ Mexico •  Coalition convinces Secretary of Transport and Mayor of Mexico City of the feasibility of BRT •  2005: First 20 km line of BRT system (called Metrobús) unveiled on a primary arterial road in Mexico City SUPPORTING LOCAL GOVERNMENTS 16
  17. 17. METROBUS TODAY Source: EMBARQ Mexico •  1 million daily ridership •  5 lines in service, 6th in construction, 7th announced •  Integrated system connects to existing metro network •  122,000 tons of CO2 reduced annually •  Reduced vehicle accidents by 20% 17
  18. 18. GLOBAL PLATFORMS FOR SCALING SOLUTIONS Global Protocol for Community-scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) 18
  19. 19. FRAMEWORK GPC is the first, global standard to consistently measure city-level emissions. -  Accounting -  Reporting -  City-wide Source: WRI 19
  20. 20. WHY GPC? Source: World Energy Outlook Different types of measurements Account for only a portion of emissions Unclear if targets will be met Incomplete data limits investment Unable to relate to national climate action WITHOUT GPC One measurement Consistently account for all emissions Emissions trajectory will understood Good data drives investment Can measure city’s contribution to national action WITH GPC 20
  21. 21. LEAD AUTHORS Over 30 years experience in promoting sustainability worldwide Represent 70 mega and innovative cities across the globe Represent >1,200 local governments across the globe 21
  22. 22. Photo Source: EMBARQ Brasil GOVERNANCE PROCESS •  Advisory Committee •  Transparent Trials •  Pilot cities selected from all over the world •  Rio de Janeiro (pictured) becomes one of first cities to implement standards 22
  23. 23. October 2011 Launched GHGP City Project Year 2 (2013): 60+ cities use GPC to measure emissions Year One (2012) Launched GPC Pilot Version 1.0 100+ citiesadopt GPC Year 3 (2014): Publish GPC Final Version, Convene 100 cities to adopt the GPC HOW DID WE GET HERE? 23
  24. 24. TESTED IN PILOT CITIES + WIDELY ENDORSED Photo: Juliana Swenson/The Climate Group Tested and scaled in 35 cities on 6 continents 24 Endorsed by the Compact of Mayors
  25. 25. CONSISTENLY CREATING SYSTEMATIC KNOWLEDGE Photo; Andrew Stokols, Pictured: Seoul Dongdaemun Design Plaza solutions evaluate adapt re-evaluate scale 25 PARTNERSHIPS = SUSTAINABLE LOCAL SOLUTIONS
  26. 26. CONSISTENLY CREATING SYSTEMATIC KNOWLEDGE Photo; Andrew Stokols, Pictured: Seoul Dongdaemun Design Plaza 26 PARTNERSHIPS = SUSTAINABLE LOCAL SOLUTIONS Join us!

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