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Overview of the DAB+
system
2
Contents
The DAB family of standards
DAB+ features
Ensemble structure
Service structure
Systems and networks
Transmission
Hybrid radio
A
3
The DAB family of standards
A
One family provides the most cost
effective delivery of digital radio
4The DAB family of standards
DAB : 1995 Original audio with PAD and data services standard
EN 300 401 Main document
TR 101 496 Guidelines of use and operation
DAB+ : 2007 Enhanced audio service efficiency
TS 102 563 Transport of AAC audio
Hybrid: 2015 Optimised digital broadcast radio and IP connectivity
TS 101 499 Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS);
SlideShow; User Application Specification
TS 102 818 Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS);
XML Specification for Service and
Programme Information (SPI)
www.etsi.org/standards
A
DAB+ features
6
Audio – room for lots of services
Simulcast stations (AM / FM) New DAB+ only stations
A
Australia example
7
For broadcasters: opportunity to extend brand portfolios A
United Kingdom example
8
For broadcasters: opportunity to extend brand portfolios
Analogue and digital Digital-only services
A
Norway example
9
DAB+ offers flexibility – pop-up stations A
10
Choose the station from a list
No more need to remember the station’s frequency!!!
Services are listed alphanumerically
Increasing use of logos for brand recognition
A
Easy to choose a
station, listener has
more information
about the services
available
11
Programme associated data (PAD)
Dynamic Label Segment (DLS) - Text
Straight forward, effective
Up to 128 characters per text segment
All DAB+ receivers have DLS text display
Good receivers block text display or have
an appropriate scrolling speed
A
12
Programme associated data (PAD)
Further strengthens the audio message
Standalone advertising during song items
Promotion of station activities
Traffic and weather reports
Sports results and stock market information
Local news, happenings, community events
A
13
Data services
Traffic e.g. TMC and TPEG can provide up to the
moment information on
• current traffic flow and congestion
• fuel locations and prices
• parking
Journaline
Hierarchical categorised data service
Custom applications
can be developed
A
14
Support features
Service and Programme Information (SPI)
• Station/service logos
• Website links
• Programme schedules
Announcements
• Traffic information / channel
• News, weather, travel information
Service Following
• Links services in different areas on different ensembles
• Provides continuity of service for services across multiple service areas
• In-car listening can continue on the same service in different transmission
and licence areas
Area 1
Ensemble 9C
Service = MyFavourite
Area 2
Ensemble 8B
Service = MyFavourite
A
15
Emergency features - signalling
Emergencies can be signalled using announcements in DAB+
• There are also alarms within the Announcements signalling
• These can be used for switching on receivers from standby mode
• Can be used to switch the ensemble being received to the one
with the emergency warning information
• Announcement switching is also used for other services such as
Traffic Announcements and traveller information
There are other alarms and signals that can also be used
• The EWS signal
• The alarm indicator in the MOT/SLS
A
16
Emergency features - hybrid radio
DAB can provide rich multimedia to support information delivery
Text and Images can have embedded links to provide additional information if the radio
receiver is connected to the internet
A
Accessing a website from a
URL delivered associated
with the information
provided
17
Emergency features - tunnel emergency example
Tunnel emergency systems have been deployed in many countries, e.g. Norway, UK,
Switzerland…
Operation is local and controlled by the tunnel operator
Often known as Emergency break-in systems – their role is to provide information to as
many people / vehicles in the tunnel as possible
There are 2 main ways the system can operate:
Audio replacement
• When the emergency system is activated the audio on all services is replaced with
the audio message from the tunnel operations controller
Announcement signalling and service switching
• When the emergency system is activated the audio on one service is replaced with
the audio message and the radio receivers are commanded using the DAB
announcement feature to switch to that service
A
18
Emergency features - tunnel system example A
Normal operation Tunnel control centre Leaker feeder antenna system
Rx
Multiplexer
system
Modulator
PA
DAB signals are retransmitted
in the tunnel for the reception
by in-vehicle receivers
Tunnel operator
observes the
tunnel status
Receive off-air signal
19
Emergency features - tunnel system example A
Emergency operation Tunnel control centre Leaker feeder antenna system
Receive off-air signal
Rx
Multiplexer
system
Modulator
PA
DAB rebroadcast system
Tunnel operator provides audio
instructions to tunnel occupants
Ensemble structure
21
Ensemble structure
Multiple different radio stations transmit on
the same frequency
Multiple different radio stations use the
same transmitter
Multiple different radio stations share the
cost of that single transmission
A
The flexible ensemble structure
allows broadcasters to deliver
the content they provide in the
most cost effective manner
22
Ensemble structure
An Ensemble will typically carry multiple services from multiple radio networks,
for example:
Stations (services) Capacity used
• Radio network 1 2 128kbps
• Radio network 2 4 256kbps
• Radio network 3 3 192kbps
• Radio network 4 9 576kbps
Total 18 stations 1152kbps
• Each network can have their own allocated capacity on the ensemble
• No other network has access to that capacity
• Each network can reconfigure their allocated capacity anytime without impacting the
other networks’ services
• Pop-up services change their name and sometimes bit rate regularly
A
23
Ensemble structure
Ensemble 1
Network 1 allocation, e.g. 128kbps Network N allocation, e.g. 192kbps
Sub-Channel 0 Sub-Channel 1 M M+2
Total Capacity = 1152kbps (FEC = EEP3A)
Station A Station B
64kbps 64kbps 32kbps 64kbps 96kbps
Station X Station Y Station Z
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Ensemble capacity allocated to
a network or group of stations
can be operated independently
of the other capacity allocations
within the ensemble
M+1
24
Ensemble structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Network
Network Capacity
service bit rate
Service Pop music Rock music Classical music Mixed music Regional news Current affairs
Day
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday Sport 1 Sport 2 Sport 3 weekend report special
Sunday events
Monday
64 64 64
The multi Network
256
The Music network
128
64 64 64
The music network is consistent
in content across the whole
week
Regional news still operates but
on reduced bitrate at the
weekend (64 reduced to
32kbps)
Current affairs splits to 2
services on the weekend
(48 + 32kbps)
Classical and Mixed music
replaced with 3 sport channels
on the weekend (3 x 48kbps)
Classical music has more bitrate for
“concerts on Wednesday’
25
Ensemble structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Fast Information Groups
(FIGs) provide a hierarchical
structure to deliver information
associated with the ensemble
and the services / sub-
channels contained within it.
Each ensemble has
• its own Ensemble Label
• its own unique Ensemble ID code
• can carry a unique identifying code of the transmitter (TII)
• a Signalling Channel – the Fast Information Channel (FIC)
• Provides details about all services (stations) carried
• Service labels
• Bit rates
• Data location in the stream
• Provides details of all data services and PAD
• Provides announcements and warnings
26
Ensemble structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
FIG type
number
FIG Application
0 MCI and part of the SI
1 Labels, etc. (part of the SI)
2 Labels, etc. (part of the SI)
3 Reserved
4 Reserved
5 Reserved
6 Conditional Access (CA)
7 Reserved (except for Length 31)
FIG type/extension Description
FIG 0/0 Ensemble information
FIG 0/1 Sub-channel organisation
FIG 0/2 Service organisation
FIG 0/3 Service component in packet mode
FIG 0/4 Service component with CA in stream
mode
FIG 0/5 Service component language
FIG 0/6 Service linking information
FIG 0/7 Configuration information
FIG 0/8 Service component global definition
FIG 0/9 Country, LTO and International table
FIG 0/10 Date and time
FIG 0/11 and 0/12 Reserved
FIG 0/13 User Application information
FIG 0/14 FEC sub-channel organisation
FIG 0/15 and 0/16 Reserved
FIG 0/17 Programme Type (PTy)
FIG 0/18 Announcement support
FIG 0/19 Announcement switching
FIG 0/20 Service component information
FIG 0/21 Frequency information
FIG 0/22 and 0/23 Reserved
FIG 0/24 OE services
FIG 0/25 OE announcement support
FIG 0/26 OE announcement switching
FIG 0/27 to 0/31 Reserved
Summary of type 0 FIGs
Service structure
28
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Why DAB+
• 2.5 times more audio services than DAB due to the use of HE AAC+ v2
• Typically 48kbps DAB+ service has the same audio quality as a
128kbps DAB service
• Slightly better coverage : 1 to 2dB better than DAB due to concatenated
FEC coding
• Greatly improved signal robustness for Programme Associated Data
delivery
A
29
System structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
HE AAC v2
audio encoder
Audio super
framing
Reed-
Solomon
outer FEC
encoder
Virtual
interleaver
Main service
channel
multiplexer
DAB+ audio encoding
Signal Flow with outer layer FEC
Outer layer of FEC coding and
interleaving provides protection
for PAD – especially important
to ensure robust SLS image
delivery
30
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
HE AAC+ V2 audio encoding table combinations
DAB+ audio
Many combinations to allow the
most cost effective delivery of
different audio content types
31
System structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
DAB+ audio coding – spectral band replication (SBR)
128kbps fs/2
64kbps – high frequencies removed
64kbps with high frequencies SBR encoded
Efficient sample rate and bit rate reduction method
Only slight audio degradation
32
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Typical use: SBR on @ 24kHz core sampling rate, 3 frames per super-frame, 1
super-frame per 120mS
PAD for DLS
and SLS
delivery
XPAD size,
music/speech flag,
command channel
33
System structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Sub-Channel bit
rate
(kbps)
FEC Overhead
10%
Payload
capacity
(kbps)
PAD
(kbps)
Audio bit
rate (kbps)
32 3.2 28.8 1 27.8
32 3.2 28.8 2 26.8
32 3.2 28.8 4 24.8
32 3.2 28.8 8 20.8
48 4.8 43.2 1 42.2
48 4.8 43.2 2 41.2
48 4.8 43.2 4 39.2
48 4.8 43.2 8 35.2
64 6.4 57.6 1 56.6
64 6.4 57.6 2 55.6
64 6.4 57.6 4 53.6
64 6.4 57.6 8 49.6
64 6.4 57.6 16 41.6
80 8 72 1 71
80 8 72 2 70
80 8 72 4 68
80 8 72 8 64
80 8 72 16 56
DAB+ Audio bit rates v PAD bit rate
Need to ensure the correct
balance between audio bit rate,
audio settings and PAD
Audio bit rate ≈ Sub-Channel bit rate *0.9 – PAD bit rate
SLS images are best synchronised
with audio using pre-delivered
images and header update display
triggers, either
TriggerTime = time/date or
TriggerTime = now
34
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
IP data service
Packet or stream
encapsulation
Reed-
Solomon
outer FEC
encoder
Virtual
interleaver
Main service
channel
multiplexer
Many combinations to allow the
most cost effective delivery of
different audio content types
Data services
Enhanced Packet Mode
• Data services are uni-directional (UDP)
• Outer layer coding adds significant protection for data services - RS(204,188)
• Need specific applications to process the data on the receiver
• Can be made secure though the use of encryption / Conditional Access
Example services
- TPEG
- Journaline
35
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Video
encoder
MPEG-2
transport
multiplexer
Reed-
Solomon
outer FEC
encoder
Virtual
interleaver
Main service
channel
multiplexer
Video services : T-DMB
Video service structure
Example receiver e.g. LG smartphone
36
Service structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
FEC Code Code
Rate
Capacity
(kbps)
Number of 64kbps
channels
Approximate power
required relative to 3A
1A 1/4 576 9 -3 to -6dB
2A 3/8 864 13 -2 to -3dB
3A 1/2 1152 18 0
3B 2/3 1536 24 +3dB
4A 3/4 1728 27 +6dB
Comparative performance
Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes are applied per sub-channel
Payload capacity and transmit power can be traded
Stronger FEC protection = lower capacity BUT lower power for the
same coverage area
Systems and networks
38
System and networks
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Studio 1
PAD system
Audio
Encoders x N
Local
Controller
Service
Mux
(Opt)
Studio K
PAD system
Audio
Encoders x M
Local
Controller
Service
Mux
(Opt)
Contribution
Telecoms
cloud
Broadcast System
Switch /
Router
DMUX
EMUX
Ensemble
Controller
COFDM
Repeater
Transmitter
Distribution
Telecoms
cloud
Main
Transmitter
COFDM
IP is generally preferred for both contribution and
distribution networks
Studio and multiplexer site equipment can
now be virtualised on single servers
39
System and networks
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Central multiplexing equipment
Individual links per studio site
Simple networking
Stations are in control of their content
Privacy
This architecture is often used for stand-alone /
isolated installations such as single city or area
transmissions
40
System and networks
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
IP
Number of service encoders, PAD and
redundancy can vary between broadcasters
Redundant common ensemble
multiplexing and transmitters
41
System structure
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Transparent interconnect between
sites
High Redundancy and Reliability
Typically uses a multicast enabled
VPN
Content produced at any site can be
transmitted at any site
Number of service encoders, PAD and
redundancy can vary between broadcasters
42
System and networks
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Network management
Network Management
is essential for rapid
fault detection and
correction
Virtually all equipment
now has SNMP fault
reporting
Remote access via web
interface allows best
grade of service
43
System and networks
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Examples
A
Transmission
45
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
DAB+ Outer layer FEC coding and interleaving
here
46
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
47
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Modulation
• DQPSK
 Robust modulation for mobile channels
• Standard definition
• Detection is based on phase difference
detection between the current and
previous received symbol
 𝑑 𝑘 = 𝑟𝑘 𝑟 ∗ 𝑘−1
48
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Transmission channels
- Line of Sight / Ricean
- Rayleigh
The received signal is
composed of multiple signal
paths and USUALLY has no
direct line of sight
component, i.e. is a Rayleigh
channel
The received signal is
composed of multiple signal
paths and USUALLY has no
direct line of sight
component, i.e. is a Rayleigh
channel
49
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Change-
over
switch
Multiplexer
A
Transmitter amplifier section
Dummy
load
Amplifier unit
Amplifier unit
Amplifier unit
.
.
.
Exciter
section
Exciter /
modulator
Controller
Change-
over
switch
Exciter /
modulator
Output
summation
To antenna
system
Termination
Multiplexer
B
Optional change-over
switches as this function can
usually be done in the exciter
units
Redundant exciters /
modulators built into the
transmitter
Multiple amplifier units
provides in-built
redundancy
50
Transmitter redundancy
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Optional configurations
Dummy load
Transmitter
output
(redundant)
To antenna
system
Transmitter
output
(redundant)
1 + 1 redundancy configuration
Dummy load
Transmitter
output
Channel 2
Transmitter
output
Channel 1
To antenna
system
To antenna
system
Transmitter
output
(redundant)
51
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Example antenna switch
frame / patch panel and
combiner modules
Vertically polarised VHF
antenna panel used in high
gain arrays
52
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Signal bandwidth = 1536 carriers at 1kHz each => 1.535MHz
Channel bandwidth = 1.712 MHz
Far off adjacent
power at <-60dB
Channel edge
shoulders at -40dB
53
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Frequency plan
2 DTV channels allocated = 14MHz = 8
DAB channels = 8A, B, C, D, 9A, B, C, D
to cover all of Australia
UK channel allotments
Initial Band III allocation for
Australian metro cities
54
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Hello Hello Hello Hello
Hello Hello Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Service Monitor
Ensemble Recorder
Multiple monitoring points
throughout the system allow
rapid fault finding and
rectification
Listeners provide the
ultimate feedback!!
Repeaters
In-Field Monitors
Listeners
55
Transmission
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Example transmitters
A
Air cooled
Liquid cooler
Hybrid radio
57
The future – hybrid radio
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hybrid Radio combines digital radio broadcast to deliver audio and common PAD to
many AND the internet to provide individual actions and services
DL+ and CAT-SLS are examples of Hybrid Radio
Providing More Information to listeners on demand
Tagging and reminders for later content use
The standards are being written now!
A
58
What is hybrid radio?
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
AHybrid radio seamlessly combines Broadcast
radio and the Internet. Your broadcast signal
(FM, HD, DAB, DAB+) continues to carry audio
(and some data), but a radio with an Internet
connection (WiFi, 3G, 4G, LTE) can
seamlessly connect back to your station for
multimedia and interactivity.
Broadcast radio is the right technology to deliver radio to lots of
people across towns and cities. It’s a very economic way of
achieving ubiquity – radio that’s receivable in the home, in the
car, in the office and in all the places in between.
The Internet (IP) is the good way to deliver multi-media and
interactivity, but it’s not a great way to deliver live radio to large
numbers of people. The costs to the broadcaster rise with
demand, the devices are more expensive and require a
subscription with a network, and it’s an inefficient way of
delivering radio to people on the move.
Hybrid Radio combines broadcast with the internet - making
radio better.
https://radiodns.org/static/RadioDNS-Website-Factsheet-July-2014.pdf
59
What is hybrid radio?
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
A
Free to Air DAB+
broadcast with PAD
Telco network
Transmission Information from Broadcaster
WiFi
connection
Hybrid Radio
Touchscreen for
basic actions
Bluetooth connection
for browser actions
Broadcaster
interaction
3rd Party services
https://radiodns.org/static/RadioDNS-Website-Factsheet-July-2014.pdf
60
Hybrid radio – use cases
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Accessing a website
from a URL delivered
associated with a
product / service being
advertised
More Information: Use Case Example 1 – connection to an advertiser
A
Screen tap
61
Hybrid radio – use cases
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
More Information: Use Case Example 2 – Artist Information
Listeners can access more
information about the current artist,
tour dates, biographical info,
purchase
Screen tap
A
62
Hybrid radio – use cases
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Accessing a website from
a URL delivered
associated with the
information provided
More Information: Use Case Example 3 – Public Information
A
63
Hybrid radio – use cases
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Hello Hello
Drives listeners to use additional
broadcaster facilities, value add
advertising and cross promotion
What sport is on tonight, current and
previous results, betting
A
More Information: Use Case Example 4 – Sports Results

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Overview of the enhanced DAB+ digital radio system

  • 1. Overview of the DAB+ system
  • 2. 2 Contents The DAB family of standards DAB+ features Ensemble structure Service structure Systems and networks Transmission Hybrid radio A
  • 3. 3 The DAB family of standards A One family provides the most cost effective delivery of digital radio
  • 4. 4The DAB family of standards DAB : 1995 Original audio with PAD and data services standard EN 300 401 Main document TR 101 496 Guidelines of use and operation DAB+ : 2007 Enhanced audio service efficiency TS 102 563 Transport of AAC audio Hybrid: 2015 Optimised digital broadcast radio and IP connectivity TS 101 499 Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS); SlideShow; User Application Specification TS 102 818 Hybrid Digital Radio (DAB, DRM, RadioDNS); XML Specification for Service and Programme Information (SPI) www.etsi.org/standards A
  • 6. 6 Audio – room for lots of services Simulcast stations (AM / FM) New DAB+ only stations A Australia example
  • 7. 7 For broadcasters: opportunity to extend brand portfolios A United Kingdom example
  • 8. 8 For broadcasters: opportunity to extend brand portfolios Analogue and digital Digital-only services A Norway example
  • 9. 9 DAB+ offers flexibility – pop-up stations A
  • 10. 10 Choose the station from a list No more need to remember the station’s frequency!!! Services are listed alphanumerically Increasing use of logos for brand recognition A Easy to choose a station, listener has more information about the services available
  • 11. 11 Programme associated data (PAD) Dynamic Label Segment (DLS) - Text Straight forward, effective Up to 128 characters per text segment All DAB+ receivers have DLS text display Good receivers block text display or have an appropriate scrolling speed A
  • 12. 12 Programme associated data (PAD) Further strengthens the audio message Standalone advertising during song items Promotion of station activities Traffic and weather reports Sports results and stock market information Local news, happenings, community events A
  • 13. 13 Data services Traffic e.g. TMC and TPEG can provide up to the moment information on • current traffic flow and congestion • fuel locations and prices • parking Journaline Hierarchical categorised data service Custom applications can be developed A
  • 14. 14 Support features Service and Programme Information (SPI) • Station/service logos • Website links • Programme schedules Announcements • Traffic information / channel • News, weather, travel information Service Following • Links services in different areas on different ensembles • Provides continuity of service for services across multiple service areas • In-car listening can continue on the same service in different transmission and licence areas Area 1 Ensemble 9C Service = MyFavourite Area 2 Ensemble 8B Service = MyFavourite A
  • 15. 15 Emergency features - signalling Emergencies can be signalled using announcements in DAB+ • There are also alarms within the Announcements signalling • These can be used for switching on receivers from standby mode • Can be used to switch the ensemble being received to the one with the emergency warning information • Announcement switching is also used for other services such as Traffic Announcements and traveller information There are other alarms and signals that can also be used • The EWS signal • The alarm indicator in the MOT/SLS A
  • 16. 16 Emergency features - hybrid radio DAB can provide rich multimedia to support information delivery Text and Images can have embedded links to provide additional information if the radio receiver is connected to the internet A Accessing a website from a URL delivered associated with the information provided
  • 17. 17 Emergency features - tunnel emergency example Tunnel emergency systems have been deployed in many countries, e.g. Norway, UK, Switzerland… Operation is local and controlled by the tunnel operator Often known as Emergency break-in systems – their role is to provide information to as many people / vehicles in the tunnel as possible There are 2 main ways the system can operate: Audio replacement • When the emergency system is activated the audio on all services is replaced with the audio message from the tunnel operations controller Announcement signalling and service switching • When the emergency system is activated the audio on one service is replaced with the audio message and the radio receivers are commanded using the DAB announcement feature to switch to that service A
  • 18. 18 Emergency features - tunnel system example A Normal operation Tunnel control centre Leaker feeder antenna system Rx Multiplexer system Modulator PA DAB signals are retransmitted in the tunnel for the reception by in-vehicle receivers Tunnel operator observes the tunnel status Receive off-air signal
  • 19. 19 Emergency features - tunnel system example A Emergency operation Tunnel control centre Leaker feeder antenna system Receive off-air signal Rx Multiplexer system Modulator PA DAB rebroadcast system Tunnel operator provides audio instructions to tunnel occupants
  • 21. 21 Ensemble structure Multiple different radio stations transmit on the same frequency Multiple different radio stations use the same transmitter Multiple different radio stations share the cost of that single transmission A The flexible ensemble structure allows broadcasters to deliver the content they provide in the most cost effective manner
  • 22. 22 Ensemble structure An Ensemble will typically carry multiple services from multiple radio networks, for example: Stations (services) Capacity used • Radio network 1 2 128kbps • Radio network 2 4 256kbps • Radio network 3 3 192kbps • Radio network 4 9 576kbps Total 18 stations 1152kbps • Each network can have their own allocated capacity on the ensemble • No other network has access to that capacity • Each network can reconfigure their allocated capacity anytime without impacting the other networks’ services • Pop-up services change their name and sometimes bit rate regularly A
  • 23. 23 Ensemble structure Ensemble 1 Network 1 allocation, e.g. 128kbps Network N allocation, e.g. 192kbps Sub-Channel 0 Sub-Channel 1 M M+2 Total Capacity = 1152kbps (FEC = EEP3A) Station A Station B 64kbps 64kbps 32kbps 64kbps 96kbps Station X Station Y Station Z Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Ensemble capacity allocated to a network or group of stations can be operated independently of the other capacity allocations within the ensemble M+1
  • 24. 24 Ensemble structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Network Network Capacity service bit rate Service Pop music Rock music Classical music Mixed music Regional news Current affairs Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sport 1 Sport 2 Sport 3 weekend report special Sunday events Monday 64 64 64 The multi Network 256 The Music network 128 64 64 64 The music network is consistent in content across the whole week Regional news still operates but on reduced bitrate at the weekend (64 reduced to 32kbps) Current affairs splits to 2 services on the weekend (48 + 32kbps) Classical and Mixed music replaced with 3 sport channels on the weekend (3 x 48kbps) Classical music has more bitrate for “concerts on Wednesday’
  • 25. 25 Ensemble structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Fast Information Groups (FIGs) provide a hierarchical structure to deliver information associated with the ensemble and the services / sub- channels contained within it. Each ensemble has • its own Ensemble Label • its own unique Ensemble ID code • can carry a unique identifying code of the transmitter (TII) • a Signalling Channel – the Fast Information Channel (FIC) • Provides details about all services (stations) carried • Service labels • Bit rates • Data location in the stream • Provides details of all data services and PAD • Provides announcements and warnings
  • 26. 26 Ensemble structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello FIG type number FIG Application 0 MCI and part of the SI 1 Labels, etc. (part of the SI) 2 Labels, etc. (part of the SI) 3 Reserved 4 Reserved 5 Reserved 6 Conditional Access (CA) 7 Reserved (except for Length 31) FIG type/extension Description FIG 0/0 Ensemble information FIG 0/1 Sub-channel organisation FIG 0/2 Service organisation FIG 0/3 Service component in packet mode FIG 0/4 Service component with CA in stream mode FIG 0/5 Service component language FIG 0/6 Service linking information FIG 0/7 Configuration information FIG 0/8 Service component global definition FIG 0/9 Country, LTO and International table FIG 0/10 Date and time FIG 0/11 and 0/12 Reserved FIG 0/13 User Application information FIG 0/14 FEC sub-channel organisation FIG 0/15 and 0/16 Reserved FIG 0/17 Programme Type (PTy) FIG 0/18 Announcement support FIG 0/19 Announcement switching FIG 0/20 Service component information FIG 0/21 Frequency information FIG 0/22 and 0/23 Reserved FIG 0/24 OE services FIG 0/25 OE announcement support FIG 0/26 OE announcement switching FIG 0/27 to 0/31 Reserved Summary of type 0 FIGs
  • 28. 28 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Why DAB+ • 2.5 times more audio services than DAB due to the use of HE AAC+ v2 • Typically 48kbps DAB+ service has the same audio quality as a 128kbps DAB service • Slightly better coverage : 1 to 2dB better than DAB due to concatenated FEC coding • Greatly improved signal robustness for Programme Associated Data delivery A
  • 29. 29 System structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A HE AAC v2 audio encoder Audio super framing Reed- Solomon outer FEC encoder Virtual interleaver Main service channel multiplexer DAB+ audio encoding Signal Flow with outer layer FEC Outer layer of FEC coding and interleaving provides protection for PAD – especially important to ensure robust SLS image delivery
  • 30. 30 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A HE AAC+ V2 audio encoding table combinations DAB+ audio Many combinations to allow the most cost effective delivery of different audio content types
  • 31. 31 System structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A DAB+ audio coding – spectral band replication (SBR) 128kbps fs/2 64kbps – high frequencies removed 64kbps with high frequencies SBR encoded Efficient sample rate and bit rate reduction method Only slight audio degradation
  • 32. 32 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Typical use: SBR on @ 24kHz core sampling rate, 3 frames per super-frame, 1 super-frame per 120mS PAD for DLS and SLS delivery XPAD size, music/speech flag, command channel
  • 33. 33 System structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Sub-Channel bit rate (kbps) FEC Overhead 10% Payload capacity (kbps) PAD (kbps) Audio bit rate (kbps) 32 3.2 28.8 1 27.8 32 3.2 28.8 2 26.8 32 3.2 28.8 4 24.8 32 3.2 28.8 8 20.8 48 4.8 43.2 1 42.2 48 4.8 43.2 2 41.2 48 4.8 43.2 4 39.2 48 4.8 43.2 8 35.2 64 6.4 57.6 1 56.6 64 6.4 57.6 2 55.6 64 6.4 57.6 4 53.6 64 6.4 57.6 8 49.6 64 6.4 57.6 16 41.6 80 8 72 1 71 80 8 72 2 70 80 8 72 4 68 80 8 72 8 64 80 8 72 16 56 DAB+ Audio bit rates v PAD bit rate Need to ensure the correct balance between audio bit rate, audio settings and PAD Audio bit rate ≈ Sub-Channel bit rate *0.9 – PAD bit rate SLS images are best synchronised with audio using pre-delivered images and header update display triggers, either TriggerTime = time/date or TriggerTime = now
  • 34. 34 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A IP data service Packet or stream encapsulation Reed- Solomon outer FEC encoder Virtual interleaver Main service channel multiplexer Many combinations to allow the most cost effective delivery of different audio content types Data services Enhanced Packet Mode • Data services are uni-directional (UDP) • Outer layer coding adds significant protection for data services - RS(204,188) • Need specific applications to process the data on the receiver • Can be made secure though the use of encryption / Conditional Access Example services - TPEG - Journaline
  • 35. 35 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Video encoder MPEG-2 transport multiplexer Reed- Solomon outer FEC encoder Virtual interleaver Main service channel multiplexer Video services : T-DMB Video service structure Example receiver e.g. LG smartphone
  • 36. 36 Service structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A FEC Code Code Rate Capacity (kbps) Number of 64kbps channels Approximate power required relative to 3A 1A 1/4 576 9 -3 to -6dB 2A 3/8 864 13 -2 to -3dB 3A 1/2 1152 18 0 3B 2/3 1536 24 +3dB 4A 3/4 1728 27 +6dB Comparative performance Forward Error Correction (FEC) codes are applied per sub-channel Payload capacity and transmit power can be traded Stronger FEC protection = lower capacity BUT lower power for the same coverage area
  • 38. 38 System and networks Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Studio 1 PAD system Audio Encoders x N Local Controller Service Mux (Opt) Studio K PAD system Audio Encoders x M Local Controller Service Mux (Opt) Contribution Telecoms cloud Broadcast System Switch / Router DMUX EMUX Ensemble Controller COFDM Repeater Transmitter Distribution Telecoms cloud Main Transmitter COFDM IP is generally preferred for both contribution and distribution networks Studio and multiplexer site equipment can now be virtualised on single servers
  • 39. 39 System and networks Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Central multiplexing equipment Individual links per studio site Simple networking Stations are in control of their content Privacy This architecture is often used for stand-alone / isolated installations such as single city or area transmissions
  • 40. 40 System and networks Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A IP Number of service encoders, PAD and redundancy can vary between broadcasters Redundant common ensemble multiplexing and transmitters
  • 41. 41 System structure Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Transparent interconnect between sites High Redundancy and Reliability Typically uses a multicast enabled VPN Content produced at any site can be transmitted at any site Number of service encoders, PAD and redundancy can vary between broadcasters
  • 42. 42 System and networks Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Network management Network Management is essential for rapid fault detection and correction Virtually all equipment now has SNMP fault reporting Remote access via web interface allows best grade of service
  • 43. 43 System and networks Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Examples A
  • 45. 45 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A DAB+ Outer layer FEC coding and interleaving here
  • 46. 46 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A
  • 47. 47 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Modulation • DQPSK  Robust modulation for mobile channels • Standard definition • Detection is based on phase difference detection between the current and previous received symbol  𝑑 𝑘 = 𝑟𝑘 𝑟 ∗ 𝑘−1
  • 48. 48 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Transmission channels - Line of Sight / Ricean - Rayleigh The received signal is composed of multiple signal paths and USUALLY has no direct line of sight component, i.e. is a Rayleigh channel The received signal is composed of multiple signal paths and USUALLY has no direct line of sight component, i.e. is a Rayleigh channel
  • 49. 49 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Change- over switch Multiplexer A Transmitter amplifier section Dummy load Amplifier unit Amplifier unit Amplifier unit . . . Exciter section Exciter / modulator Controller Change- over switch Exciter / modulator Output summation To antenna system Termination Multiplexer B Optional change-over switches as this function can usually be done in the exciter units Redundant exciters / modulators built into the transmitter Multiple amplifier units provides in-built redundancy
  • 50. 50 Transmitter redundancy Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Optional configurations Dummy load Transmitter output (redundant) To antenna system Transmitter output (redundant) 1 + 1 redundancy configuration Dummy load Transmitter output Channel 2 Transmitter output Channel 1 To antenna system To antenna system Transmitter output (redundant)
  • 51. 51 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Example antenna switch frame / patch panel and combiner modules Vertically polarised VHF antenna panel used in high gain arrays
  • 52. 52 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Signal bandwidth = 1536 carriers at 1kHz each => 1.535MHz Channel bandwidth = 1.712 MHz Far off adjacent power at <-60dB Channel edge shoulders at -40dB
  • 53. 53 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Frequency plan 2 DTV channels allocated = 14MHz = 8 DAB channels = 8A, B, C, D, 9A, B, C, D to cover all of Australia UK channel allotments Initial Band III allocation for Australian metro cities
  • 54. 54 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Service Monitor Ensemble Recorder Multiple monitoring points throughout the system allow rapid fault finding and rectification Listeners provide the ultimate feedback!! Repeaters In-Field Monitors Listeners
  • 55. 55 Transmission Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Example transmitters A Air cooled Liquid cooler
  • 57. 57 The future – hybrid radio Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hybrid Radio combines digital radio broadcast to deliver audio and common PAD to many AND the internet to provide individual actions and services DL+ and CAT-SLS are examples of Hybrid Radio Providing More Information to listeners on demand Tagging and reminders for later content use The standards are being written now! A
  • 58. 58 What is hybrid radio? Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello AHybrid radio seamlessly combines Broadcast radio and the Internet. Your broadcast signal (FM, HD, DAB, DAB+) continues to carry audio (and some data), but a radio with an Internet connection (WiFi, 3G, 4G, LTE) can seamlessly connect back to your station for multimedia and interactivity. Broadcast radio is the right technology to deliver radio to lots of people across towns and cities. It’s a very economic way of achieving ubiquity – radio that’s receivable in the home, in the car, in the office and in all the places in between. The Internet (IP) is the good way to deliver multi-media and interactivity, but it’s not a great way to deliver live radio to large numbers of people. The costs to the broadcaster rise with demand, the devices are more expensive and require a subscription with a network, and it’s an inefficient way of delivering radio to people on the move. Hybrid Radio combines broadcast with the internet - making radio better. https://radiodns.org/static/RadioDNS-Website-Factsheet-July-2014.pdf
  • 59. 59 What is hybrid radio? Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello A Free to Air DAB+ broadcast with PAD Telco network Transmission Information from Broadcaster WiFi connection Hybrid Radio Touchscreen for basic actions Bluetooth connection for browser actions Broadcaster interaction 3rd Party services https://radiodns.org/static/RadioDNS-Website-Factsheet-July-2014.pdf
  • 60. 60 Hybrid radio – use cases Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Accessing a website from a URL delivered associated with a product / service being advertised More Information: Use Case Example 1 – connection to an advertiser A Screen tap
  • 61. 61 Hybrid radio – use cases Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello More Information: Use Case Example 2 – Artist Information Listeners can access more information about the current artist, tour dates, biographical info, purchase Screen tap A
  • 62. 62 Hybrid radio – use cases Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Accessing a website from a URL delivered associated with the information provided More Information: Use Case Example 3 – Public Information A
  • 63. 63 Hybrid radio – use cases Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello Drives listeners to use additional broadcaster facilities, value add advertising and cross promotion What sport is on tonight, current and previous results, betting A More Information: Use Case Example 4 – Sports Results