Ultimate online resources for bible scholars


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Ultimate online resources for bible scholars

  1. 1. Ultimate Online Resources For Bible Scholars Web Directory For Bible Scholars1. Hebrew Tanakh -Torah, Ketubhim, Nebhiim (Torah, Writings, Prophets better known as The Old Testament) • http://biblescholarsforums.com - Forum for students of the Bible and Biblical Scholars • http://ot.ultimasurf.com - The Hebrew Old Testament - Torah, Ketuvim, Neviim. • http://tanakh.ultimasurf.com - The Hebrew Tanakh - Torah, Ketubhim, Nebhiim. • http://www.mechon-mamre.org/ - The Hebrew Bible (Tanach) in four editions in Hebrew (including one with cantillation marks), one in Aramaic (Targum Onqelos), one in English (JPS 1917), and one in parallel Hebrew and English (voweled Hebrew and JPS English) • http://www.audioscriptures.org/audio/0123-01/OT/OT.htm - FREE audio Hebrew Old Testament in MP3 format for downloading. Total size: 683MB divided into 39 books • http://www.zalag.net/OTstudies/Hebrew%20Audio.htm - Hebrew Bible Audio. Only a portion of the Old Testament has been included • http://www.aoal.org/hebrew_audiobible.htm - Hebrew Bible: Audio Tracks. This site also offers courses in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Aramaic, and Akkadian for US$295 for one course per quarter • http://kodesh.snunit.k12.il/i/t/t0.htm - The Tanakh in Hebrew with the ability to listen to the audio recitation of the Tanakh. Site is completely in Hebrew • http://bible.ort.org/books/torahd5.asp - The Torah in Hebrew with English translation and transliteration and also the ability to listen to the recitation of the Torah in Hebrew • http://levsoftware.com/verses.htm - The Hebrew Bible Explorer • http://www.tanakhml.org - TanakhML Project website provides you with an Hebrew text browser that enables you to travel over the whole Tanakh in its fully vocalised and cantillated version. King James Version is also included - either as a stand-alone text or as a parallel one - to support your readings. TanakhML Project aims at providing scholars with efficient tools for travelling over the Bible in Hebrew, as well as with a common descriptive language for describing the structure of the Bible according to the Jewish masoretic tradition. • http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/cgi-bin/602/bible.pl - Hebrew Tanakh & Greek Septuagint • http://www.bibles.org.uk - Pentateuchus: Diligenter Revisus Juxta Massorah Atque Editiones Principes Cum Variss Lectionibus E Mss Atque Antiquis Versionibus Collectis A C.D. Ginsburg, LL.D. - Torah Hebrew text of The British British & Foreign Bible Society edited by Dr Christian David Ginsburg • Neviim Rishonim : Hebrew text of The British British & Foreign Bible Society edited by Dr Christian David Ginsburg, Neviim Akharonim : Hebrew
  2. 2. text of The British British & Foreign Bible Society edited by Dr Christian David Ginsburg, Ketuvim : Hebrew text of The British British & Foreign Bible Society edited by Dr Christian David Ginsburg • http://www.bibles.org.uk - Westminster Leningrad Codex Version 4.2 - The text of Westminster Leningrad Codex (WLC) in Michigan encoding format • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Tanakh : Torah, Prophets, Writings: Massoretic Text according to Jacob ben Chayim and C.D. Ginsburg with 3701 textual notes, containing information from the massorah, ancient editions and targumim • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Second Rabbinic Bible 1524-1525, Jacob ben Chayim. • http://www.scripture4all.org/OnlineInterlinear/Hebrew_Index.htm - Online Hebrew-English Interlinear of the OT • Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia - published by Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft. Every Bible scholar must own a copy. Hebrew text of the Tanakh based on Codex Leningrad with critical apparatus • Facsimile Edition of Codex Leningrad - Every Bible scholar / serious Bible student must own a copy! The Leningrad Codex is the oldest complete codex of the Hebrew Bible -- a codex being a book form, as opposed to scrolls; the other existing ancient codex, the Aleppo Codex has a few sections missing; it may be older, but the incomplete nature (especially as it is missing part of the Torah) make its use limited • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Samaritan Pentateuch2. Peshitta - Syriac Old Testament • Peshitta Texts of The Hebrew Bible and Apocrypha (Courtesy of the Peshitta Institute, Leiden) - The texts are intended to be identical to those published in the printed editions (The Old Testament in Syriac according to the Peshitta Version, edited on behalf of the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament, Brill, Leiden, in progress.) The main texts of this edition are primarily the so-called BTR text, i.e. the text of MS Milan, Ambrosian Library, B.21 inferiore (=7a1), revised as described in the introduction to those volumes.3. Septuagint (LXX) - Greek Old Testament • http://septuagint.org/LXX/ • http://www.ccel.org/bible/brenton/ - English translation of the Septuagint by Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brenton (1807-1862) originally published by Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., London, 1851] • http://www.bibles.org.uk/pdf/bibles/Greek/LXX-morph.pdf - The Septuagint (LXX) With Morphological Data by Alfred Rahlfs4. Aramaic / Syriac New Testament (Peshitta / Peshitto)
  3. 3. • http://aramaicnewtestament.org - Interlinear of the original Aramaic New Testament. The first HTML Estrangela text of the Peshitta New Testament online • http://aramaicnewtestament.com • http://aramaicnewtestament.net • http://aramaicnewtestament.info • http://aramaicnewtestament.com • http://peshitta.info - English -Aramaic interlinear of the Syriac New Testament • http://www.peshitta.org - Interlinear of the original Aramaic / Syriac text of the New Testament Peshitta by Paul Younan. • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/peshitta/james_murdock/ - English translation of Peshito by James Murdock • http://www.peshitta.net/peshitta/index.php - This is based on the Aramaic Peshitta and is a continuing project of the Nasrani Bible Society • http://www.syriac-resources.com/ - The Syriac Bible software is designed to enable its user to search in the Syriac Bible (Peshitta). It shows the results with apostle name and verse number. Syriac Dictionary and Arabic translation of Peshitta • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/aramaic/ & http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/peshitta/- Interlinear of the Aramaic New Testament with English translation & commentary. Currently available the Gospel of Matthew, Mark, & John.5. Greek New Testament (Η ΚΑΙΝΗ ΔΙΑΘΗΚΗ / Novum Testamentum Graece) • http://greeknewtestament.net - Greek New Testament • http://greeknewtestament.org - A Greek New Testament Project coming soon. Currently pointing to Ultimasurfs Greek NT • http://www.greeknewtestament.com/ - Parallel Greek New Testament - Stephens 1550 Textus Receptus, Scrivener 1894 Textus Receptus, Byzantine Majority, Alexandrian, Hort and Westcott editions with Latin Vulgate and 9 English translations • http://www.zhubert.com/ - Greek New Testament and Hebrew Tanakh browser online • http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/biblon/biblon2000.html - Biblon 2000 Greek New Testament Project • http://www.greekbible.com/ - The Online Greek Bible • http://www.ccel.org/a/anonymous/gnt/mp3/ - FREE audio Greek New Testament in MP3 format for downloading. Greek New Testament (Westcott and Hort edition), narrated by Marilyn Phemister. Total size: 594MB • http://www.helding.net/greeklatinaudio/ & http://www.greeklatinaudio.com/index.html - Internet New Testament Audio Recording Project - A matter of interest to students of NT Greek & Latin. This web site offers free MP3 audio-files of high-quality recorded readings of the NT in fluid koine Greek & vulgate Latin • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Greek New Testament (With Morphological Data)
  4. 4. - The Robinson-Pierpont Majority Text • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Greek New Testament (With Morphological Data) - Scrivener 1894 Textus Receptus • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Greek New Testament (With Morphological Data) - Stephanus 1550 Textus Receptus • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - The Greek New Testament - Stephanus 1550 Received Text with 6360 textual notes, containing the complete collation of the four major recensions • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Greek New Testament - Tischendorf 8th edition with critical apparatus and without critical apparatus • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - The New Testament In The Original Greek Text - The Text established by Ivan Panin by means of Bible numerics • http://www.scripture4all.org/OnlineInterlinear/Greek_Index.htm - Online Greek-English Interlinear of the NT • http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/~fisher/gnt/chapters.html & http://www- users.cs.york.ac.uk/~fisher/gnt/search.html - This is a browsable, Web-based interface to the Greek New Testament • Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition - Every New Testament scholar must own a copy. Edited by Barbara & Kurt Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce Manning Metzger • The Greek New Testament - Fourth Revised Edition with Dictionary - edited by Kurt Aland, Bruce M. Metzger, etc for United Bible Society • http://www.evagelio.gr/ - The Bible in Modern Greek6. Latin Vulgate & Vetus Latina • http://vulgate.net - St. Jeromes Latin Vulgate (405 A.D.) • http://vulgate.org - Latin Vulgate with Douay-Rheims English translation side by side • http://www.gutenbergdigital.de - The Göttingen Gutenberg Bible (ca. 1454) published by Johann Gutenberg. All 1282 pages of both volumes • http://www.vatican.va/archive/bible/nova_vulgata/documents/nova- vulgata_index_lt.html - Nova Vulgata- Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio. Sacrosanti Oecumenici Concilii Vaticani II Ratione Habita Iussu Pauli PP. VI Recognita Auctoritate Ioannis Pauli PP. II Promulgata. Editio Typica Altera • http://www.fh- augsburg.de/~harsch/Chronologia/Lspost04/Hieronymus/hie_v000.html - Vulgata - Hieronymiana Versio. Vetus Testamentum, Novum Testamentum, et Apogryphi • http://www.intratext.com/X/LAT0001.htm - Hieronymi Vulgata: Hyeronimiana versio • http://www.drbo.org/lvb.htm - Latin Vulgate Bible originated about the year 382 A.D. Pope Damasus was the first to draw up a list of the inspired books for the Roman Council. He commissioned St Jerome to translate the original Greek and Hebrew texts into Latin. With Douay-Rheims English Bible translation of the Latin Vulgate • http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/efts/ARTFL/public/bibles/vulgate.search.html -
  5. 5. ARTFL Project: Latin Vulgate Bible Search Engine • http://www.vetuslatina.org/ - Resources for the study of the Old Latin Bible • Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Latine - Latin Vulgate New Testament edited by Kurt Aland & Barbara Aland7. Aramaic Targum - Translation of the Hebrew Tanakh into Aramaic • http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/targumsearch.html - Search Aramaic Targums of Onqelos, Pesudo-Jonathan, Neofiti, fragments of Targum, with Masoretic text of Tanakh, and Syriac Peshitta. • http://www.tulane.edu/~ntcs/pj/psjon.htm - The English translation of Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch With The Fragments of the Jerusalem Targum From the Chaldee By J. W. Etheridge, M.A. First Published 1862 • http://targum.ultimasurf.com - English translation of Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan Ben Uzziel On the Pentateuch with Aramaic text8. Hebrew Lexicon, Dictionary & Grammar • http://milon.morfix.co.il/ - Milon Morfix Online Hebrew/ English & English/Hebrew Dictionary • http://www.laits.utexas.edu/hebrew/ - The Hebrew Program is part of the Department of Middle Eastern Studies. The program offers undergraduate and graduate degrees and concentrates on Modern Hebrew. Students may choose to focus on Biblical Hebrew as well. Tutorials and Video clips are available. • http://www.faithofgod.net/davar/davar.htm - DAVAR is a free hebrew dictionary/lexicon, running on Windows95/98/ME/NT/W2000/XP platform. It can be a helpful tool for study of Old Testament language as well as modern ivrit • http://www.hebrew4christians.com/ - Here you’ll find basic information about the Hebrew alphabet, vowels, and Biblical Hebrew grammar so that you can better understand the Scriptures from a Hebraic point of view. In addition to learning Biblical Hebrew grammar, this site provides information about common Hebrew blessings and Jewish prayers, the Tanakh, the Jewish holidays, and various meditations from a Messianic point of view • http://www.milingua.com/HebrewBeginnersFree/BeginnersFree.htm - Free Hebrew Lessons for Beginners • http://www.milingua.com/Dictionary/_Dictionary.htm - Free Hebrew Dictionary / Milon • http://www.milingua.com/a_moreInfo/aHebrewWordInfo.htm - A Hebrew Word a Day. The free daily "word" edition is usually an entire vocabulary lesson on a certain concept. It includes a main word, related words, terms, expressions and examples, which introduce many more words • The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Unabridged 2- Volume Study Edition) - by Ludwig Koehler, Walter Baumgartner, M. E. J. Richardson (translator). The 3rd edition of Koehler & Baumgartners Hebrew dictionary is widely regarded as the most up-to-date dictionary for
  6. 6. the Old Testament & related literature in classical Hebrew & Aramaic. The complete & unabridged translation is being prepared in 4 volumes by an international team of Hebrew & Old Testament scholars, & will undoubtedly become the standard modern English dictionary for Biblical Hebrew. The dictionary contains the complete vocabulary of the Hebrew Bible, extended with variants from the Oriental & Samaritan textual traditions, the Ben Sira fragments, the Dead Sea Scrolls, etc • The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon - by Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, Charles Briggs. Since it first appeared in the early part of the 20th century, BDB has been considered the finest & most comprehensive Hebrew lexicon available to the English-speaking student. Based upon the classic work of Wilhelm Gesenius, the "father of modern Hebrew lexicography," BDB gives not only dictionary definitions for each word, but relates each word to its Old Testament usage & categorizes its nuances of meaning. BDBs exhaustive coverage of Old Testament Hebrew words, as well as its unparalleled usage of cognate languages & the wealth of background sources consulted & quoted, render BDB & invaluable resource for all students of the Bible • http://www.adath-shalom.ca/gk_cont.htm - Gesenius Hebrew Grammar As Edited And Enlarged By The Late E Kautzsch Professor of Theology In The University of Halle, Second English Edition. Revised In Accordance With The Twenty-Eighth German Edition (1909) By A. E. Cowley, Oxford at The Clarendon Press, 1910 • Gesenius Hebrew Grammar - by William Gesenius. This second English edition of Gesenius Grammar, edited and enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch, stands alone as the definitive reference work on Hebrew grammar. It is revised in accordance with the 28th German edition by A.E. Cowley, and includes a facsimile of the Siloam inscription • A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: v. 1, pt. 1. Orthography and phonetics; v. 1, pt. 2. Morphology; v. 2, pt. 3. Syntax (Subsidia Biblica, 14/1-14/2) - by Paul Jouon, T. Muraoka. As important as William Gesenius Hebrew grammar9. Aramaic/Syriac Lexicon , Concordance & Grammar • http://www.atour.com/~lexicon/ - Aramaic Lexicon and Concordance • http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/outline_lexicon_search.html - Type a word in the "lemma" box and select one of the currently available dialects (General, Babylonian Talmudic, Christian Palestinian Aramaic) • http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/searching/engoutlex.html - Outline Lexicon Search. ENGLISH - ARAMAIC • http://www.cwru.edu/univlib/preserve/Etana/JAST.DICv1/JAST.DICv1.html - facsimile of "A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (Volume 1) by Marcus Jastrow • http://www.cwru.edu/univlib/preserve/Etana/JAST.DICv2/JAST.DICv2.html - facsimile of "A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature (Volume 2) by Marcus Jastrow • http://www.bethmardutho.org/support/syriacdict/download/ - Download
  7. 7. Syriac Dictionary (based on the Syriac Electronic Data Retrieval Archive (SEDRA) by George A. Kiraz, distributed by the Syriac Computing Institute) • http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/jastrow/ - A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature by Marcus Jastrow • http://www.bethmardutho.org/ebetharke/samples/DJVU/BYU019LexiconToT heSyriacNewTestament.djvu - Download William Jennings s Lexicon To The Syiac New Testament. Need to install DjVu browser Plug-in from LizardTech • http://www.beith-morounoye.org/syriac/index1.html - Introduction to the Syriac-Aramaic language • http://www.assyrianlanguage.com/ - Learn Assyrian Aramaic • http://www.learnassyrian.com/ - Learn Aramaic Online. Learn to speak the Syriac-Aramaic language through music. Read and write to build your vocabulary • Syriac & Aramaic - Syriac & Aramaic - Whats the difference? • A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature - by Marcus Jastrow. A classic & still standard resource, Marcus Jastrows monumental dictionary remains unique in that it covers both the Hebrew & Aramaic languages in the literature of the rabbinic period. This indispensable dictionary of targumic & rabbinic literature includes thousands of entries in fully vocalized Hebrew & Aramaic, with references to the original texts, clear English definitions, & the full range of meanings & usages in the sources. It is organized alphabetically by actual form but includes also reference to a words root, with abundant cross- references. Complete in one volume, in original largeprint format, sturdy binding, & with an index of Scriptural quotations, it is the most comprehensive single-volume dictionary available for reading early Jewish texts • Lexicon To The Syriac New Testament - by M.A. William Jennings • Lexical Tools to the Syriac New Testament - by George Anton Kiraz. A useful tool for the teacher & student of beginning Syriac. It presents the common words which must be learned, lists of homographs, & verbal conjugation tables. The book is supplemented with a skeleton grammar by Sebastian Brock • http://dolabani.noturo.com/Default.aspx?lang=eng - Dolabanis Syriac Lexicon10. Greek Lexicon, Dictionary & Grammar
  8. 8. • http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/resolveform?display=&lang=greek - Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek (from Perseus site)• http://www.kypros.org/cgi-bin/lexicon - Greek-English & English-Greek Dictionary / Lexicon• http://www.ccel.org/s/smyth/grammar/html/toc.htm - Herbert Weir Smyths Greek Grammar (First Edition)• http://www.extra.rdg.ac.uk/lxx/Visitor/wordlist.asp - The Greek Bible in Graeco-Roman worlld. Demetrios Database is a database of Septuagint Greek. This database is an ongoing project by the University of Reading and is continually being expanded .• http://www.biblicaltraining.org/classes/greek/greek_f.html - Summary Lectures on The Basics of Biblical Greek, by Dr. Bill Mounce. These summary lectures were given at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary during the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001. This course will take you through the basics of biblical Greek, from the alphabet to noun and verbal grammar. The lectures correspond to the second edition of the textbook, Basics of Biblical Greek, which is due out July 2003.• http://www.ibiblio.org/koine/greek/lessons/ - Little Greek 101: Learning New Testament Greek. This is an evolving online textbook for beginning New Testament Greek• http://www.ntgreek.org/learn_nt_greek/grkindex.htm - Learn New Testament Greek.• http://www.theology.edu/greek01.htm - Elementary New Testament Greek. by Jim West, ThD.• http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~ancgreek/ancient_greek_start.html - Ancient Greek Tutorials, by Donald J. Mastronarde with the assistance of the Berkeley Language Center of the University of California, Berkeley.• http://www.xanthi.ilsp.gr/filog/ - Filoglossia: Learning Modern Greek as a foreign language. Level: Beginners• http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/100/author_id/38/ - Greek Grammar by William W. Goodwin. Goodwin’s Greek Grammar stands with Hadley’s Greek Grammar as one of the most widely used and longest running Greek Grammars in America. The grammar has gone through many editions and reprints for over 130 years, with the last major edition appearing in 1930.• http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/105/author_id/39/ - First Greek Book by John Williams White. Download this free beginners Classical Greek textbook. Just as the name says, First Greek Book is a beginning Greek textbook.• http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/139/author_id/61/ - A Brief Introduction to New Testament Greek by Samuel G. Green. This New Testament grammar, for beginners, features 128 pages of instruction, lessons and lexicon. An answer key for the lessons is also available.• http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/51/author_id/11/ - Greek Prose Composition by North and Hillard. This classic 275 page Greek Composition book has been in use throughout the world for over 100 years. The book features brief lesson overviews followed by English to Greek composition exercises. A key is
  9. 9. also available to check your work. In the appendix the Greek student will find useful tables of verb stems, prepositions and particles. This book is suitable for both beginners and intermediate learners. • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/142/author_id/63/ - Greek Grammar by Herbert Weir Smyth. Smyths Greek Grammar is an essential reference grammar for intermediate and advanced learners. Smyths Greek Grammar for Colleges was first published in 1920 and it has been the default source of reference and citation ever since. At just under 800 pages the grammar is both broad and thorough in its treatment of Greek Grammar. It features countless valuable examples to support discussions and there is both a Greek- English and English-Greek index for handy reference. This grammar is an absolute must-have for any serious classical scholar • http://www.textkit.com/tutorials/ - Learn Greek and Latin with Textkit Tutorials. These tutorials are submitted by Textkit visitors and the tutorials address a variety of Greek and Latin language topics for beginners, intermediates and advanced learners • http://kwoodward.net/greek/template/xample13.htm - Enchiridion. A user- friendly site for reading Ancient Greek by Elaine Woodward & Marianne Pagos • http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/Greek- english/index124.html - Greek English Dictionary. Ελληνας - Άγγλος. λεξικό & μετάφραση • http://www.ccel.org/g/goodwin/greekgrammar/htm/TOC.htm - A Greek Grammar by William W. Goodwin • A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature - Edited by Walter Bauer & Frederick William Danker. This is an invaluable reference work & a tool indispensable for the study of early Christian literature • Thayers Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Coded with Strongs Concordance Numbers - by Joseph Thayer. For over a century, Thayers has been lauded as one of the best NT lexicons available. Both accessible & thorough, it is a work suited for the student of New Testament Greek. Thayers provides dictionary definitions for each word and relates each word to its New Testament usage and categorizes its nuances of meaning. Its exhaustive coverage of New Testament Greek words, as well as its extensive quotation of extra-biblical word usage and the wealth of background sources consulted and quoted, render Thayers an invaluable resource together with Walter Bauers Lexicon11. Latin Lexicon, Dictionary, & Grammar
  10. 10. • http://www.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/Latin/ - This dictionary is an improvisation based on a word-list originally from Lynn H. Nelson of the University of Kansas • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/108/author_id/13/ - Latin For Beginners by Benjamin L. DOoge. Learn Latin with this free latin grammar. DOoge designed this beginners grammar to prepare the student for reading Caesar. The grammar consists of seventy-nine lessons divided into three parts • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/113/author_id/41/ - Beginners Latin Book by Collar and Daniell. Learn to read Latin with this excellent beginners Latin grammar book • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/53/author_id/12/ - A Latin Grammar by Charles E. Bennett. Learn Latin with the help of this grammar book. For intermediates, this 287 page grammar provides a good overview of basic grammar with brief lessons and examples • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/98/author_id/12/ - A New Latin Prose Composition by Charles E. Bennett. Learn Latin with this 299 page companion to Charles Bennetts A Latin Grammar. Requires Allen and Greenoughs grammar in order for the student to read the principles behind each of the exercises. • http://www.textkit.com/learn/ID/109/author_id/42/ - New Latin Grammar by Allen & Greenough. This Latin grammar is made available for free and full download. Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges is the most widely used Latin reference grammar in America. First appearing in 1888, the grammar underwent a significant revision in 1903 • Oxford Latin Dictionary - 50 years in the making, the Oxford Latin Dictionary is the first Latin-English dictionary based on a fresh reading of original sources & is a comprehensive & authoritative reference work for students, teachers, professionals, & general readers interested in classical languages and literature, ancient history, medieval studies, languages, art history, ancient philosophy, religion, archaeology, law, medicine, & natural science.12. Old Testament Manuscripts & The Dead Sea Scrolls • http://dss.ultimasurf.com - Hebrew Tanakh with the Dead Sea Scroll fonts. Designed to help Bible scholars and students to read the Dead Sea Scrolls • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/7a1 - Images of Syriac Codex Ambrosiano. Translatio Syro Pescitto Veteris Testamenti ex codice Ambrosiano by A. M. Ceriani • http://rosetta.reltech.org/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/TC/FieldOrigenv1 - Origens Hexapla. Origenis Hexaplorum : quae supersunt sive veterum interpretum graecorum in totus Vetus Testamentum fragmenta, vol. 1 by Fridericus Field • http://rosetta.reltech.org/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/TC/FieldOrigenv2 - Origens Hexapla. Origenis Hexaplorum : quae supersunt sive veterum interpretum graecorum in totus Vetus Testamentum fragmenta, vol. 2 by Fridericus Field • http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Taylor-Schechter/ - The Genizah Collection is a window on the medieval world of the Mediterranean area. Its 140,000
  11. 11. manuscripts fragments, mainly in Hebrew and Arabic, shed light on the mundane as well as the religious and cultural activities of that world • http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Taylor-Schechter/GOLD/ - The Genizah On-Line Database ( GOLD) This database contains selected Genizah material. The material includes cataloguing, bibliographical details, and digital images of fragments • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/Freer-DtJosh - Facsimile of the Washington Manuscript of Deuteronomy and Joshua in the Freer Collection • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/FreerOT1 - The Old Testament Manuscripts in the Freer Collection. Part I: The Washington Manuscript of Deuteronomy and Joshua • http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil- fak/ifa/NRWakademie/papyrologie/PTheol2.html - Scan images of Papyrus 967 (200 A.D.). It covers the Books of Daniel (including Bel & the Dragon and Susannah) and Esther of the Septuagint. • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/TischendorfSinv1 - Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus : I: Prolegomena. Commentarius. Tabulae by Constantine von Tischendorf • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/TischendorfSinv2 - Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus : II: Veteris Testamenti Pars Prior by Constantine von Tischendorf. Chronicles - Malachi • http://alpha.reltech.org:8083/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/BibleMSS/TischendorfSinv3 - Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus : III: Veteris Testamenti Pars Posterior by Constantine von Tischendorf. Psalms - Job • http://www.ao.net/~fmoeller/qumdir.htm - Facsimile of Qumran Great Isaiah Scroll • http://www.ao.net/%7Efmoeller/habdir.htm Pesher to Habakkuk - Analysis of a Qumran Commentary of the Text of Habukkuk and Related Discussion of Commentary • http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/scrolls/toc.html - Scrolls from the Dead Sea (Library of Congress Exhibition). Enoch scroll, Hosea Commentary, the Prayer of King Jonathan Scroll, Leviticus Scroll , Sabbath Sacrifice Scroll, Psalms Scroll • http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/5/5.9/ - 10 items are listed here out of a collection of 58 Dead Sea Scroll fragments from 12 different scrolls, with the scroll jar and inkwell in addition. • http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/4/4.1/411.html - The Hebrew and Aramaic Bible • http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/SCR/Scrolls.html - The Dead Sea Scrolls Project was established by the Oriental Institute during the months that followed the freeing of the scrolls (autumn 1991). The project was originally staffed by Dr. Norman Golb, Professor of Jewish History and Civilization, Dr. Michael Wise, Assistant Professor of Aramaic13. New Testament Manuscripts
  12. 12. • http://www.uni- muenster.de/NTTextforschung/Handschriften_Bibelmuseum.html - Digital collection of New Testament manuscripts atInstitut für neutestamentliche Textforschung• http://www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/~gv0/Papyri/P.Heid._Uebersicht.html - Griechische Papyri der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung. A large collection of digital images of the hundreds of papyrus fragments at the Institut für Papyrologie of the University of Heidelberg.• http://www.nb.no/baser/schoyen/contentnew3.html - Checklist of 600 ancient manuscripts by Martin Schøyen• http://www.csntm.org/Manuscripts.aspx - Two of the manuscripts (Codex 669 & Miniscule 2813) are from a private collection in America; one (Lectionary 1683) is from the Institut fuer neutestamentliche Textforschung in Muenster, Germany• http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~wie/Vaticanus/index.html - Comments of Codex Vaticanus Graece 1209, B/03 by Wieland Willker• http://www.ifrance.com/bezae/index.html - Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis• http://rylibweb.man.ac.uk/data1/dg/text/frag2.htm - This small fragment of St. Johns Gospel, less than nine centimetres high and containing on the one side part of verses 31-33, on the other of verses 37-38 of chapter xviii is one of the collection of Greek papyri in the John Rylands Library, Manchester. It was originally discovered in Egypt.• http://www.princeton.edu/~dcskemer/APISJames1.html - New Testament: Epistle of St. James ii:26-iii:9. AM 4117 (=P.Oxy. IX 1171), late III c. AD.• http://www.princeton.edu/~dcskemer/APISJames2.html - p20 - N.T. Epistle of St. James II.16-18, 22, 24-25, III.2-4. GD 7742 (=P.Princeton II 15), V c. AD• http://www.lib.umich.edu/pap/exhibits/papyri_james/05_02.jpg - p46 - end of Romans & beginning of Hebrews• http://www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/tc_pap66.html - p66 Papyrus Bodmer II 200 C.E John 1:1-14• http://www.earlham.edu/~seidti/iam/tc_pap75.html - p75 Papyrus Bodmer XV 175-225 C.E. contains parts of Luke and John• http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil- fak/ifa/NRWakademie/papyrologie/Karte/II_080.html - p86 - Evangelium nach Matthäus 5, 13-16; 22-25• http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil- fak/ifa/NRWakademie/papyrologie/Karte/IV_170.html - p87 - Philemonbrief 13-15; 24-25• http://www.csad.ox.ac.uk/POxy/papyri/vol50/pages/3523.htm - p90 P.Oxy. L 3523- Gospel of John 18:36 - 19:7• http://www.onb.ac.at/sammlungen/papyrus/aktuell/news1.htm - p116 is a new fragment of the Epistle to the Hebrews 2:9-11 and 3:3-6• http://www.theology.bham.ac.uk/postgrad/cetr/verbum/index2.htm - Vetus Latina - Resources for the study of the Old Latin Bible. The Vulgate took many years to become established as the principal Latin Bible. In the meanwhile, the Old Latin versions continued to be used. Some of these
  13. 13. translations are preserved in Bible manuscripts, in the writings of the Church Fathers and in early Christian liturgies • http://www.papyrology.ox.ac.uk/index.html - POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online. A guide and online database for the Oxyrhynchus Papyri • http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/records/778.html - P.Duk.inv. 778 was formerly P.Rob.inv. 41. Amulet consisting of papyrus fragments from Egypt. Contains Matthew 6:9-13 (the Lords Prayer including the doxology) on the back and Psalm 90 from the Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament, on the front, both with variants. The crosses preceding the Psalm & following the Lords prayer show that the recto was written first. • http://rosetta.reltech.org/TC/extras/tischendorf-sinaiticus.html - The Discovery of Sinaitic Manuscript. This extract is taken from Constantin von Tischendorf, When Were Our Gospels Written? An Argument by Constantine Tischendorf. With a Narrative of the Discovery of the Sinaitic Manuscript (New York: American Tract Society, 1866) • http://www.bbaw.de/forschung/turfanforschung/dta/n/dta_n_index.html - Digitales Turfan-Archiv: Christlich-soghdische Texte in nestorianischer Schrift • http://www.bibles.org.uk/ - Codex Alexandrinus OT Facsimile and Codex Alexandrinus NT, Codex Sinaiticus Facsimile, Codex Sinaiticus Pseudo- Facsimile, Codex Vaticanus Facsimile, Codex Vaticanus Pseudo Facsimile, Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis14. Apostolic Fathers, Ante-Nicene Church Fathers, Nicene Church Fathers, and Post Nicene Church Fathers • http://www.ccel.org/l/lake/fathers/toc.htm - Greek text of Barnabas, Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, Hermas, Epistle to Diognetus, Didache based on the text of the Loeb Classical Library • The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations - Edited by J.B. Lightfoot & J.R. Harmer. The Apostolic Fathers, the earliest extant Christian writings outside the New Testament, are a primary resource for the study of early Christianity. These writings provide significant and unparalleled insight into the Christian movement during a critical transitional stage in its history. This updated edition of Holmess 1992 Greek-English diglot edition of the Apostolic Fathers is arguably the best collection of these writings available. In 1992 Michael Holmes systematically reviewed the Greek (& in a few instances the Latin) texts originally edited by J. B. Lightfoot and J. R. Harmer in 1891. While Lightfoot and Harmer produced a magnificent work for their time, advances in the past century, including new manuscript discoveries, dictate that their work be updated. Holmes provided that updated edition complete with a critical apparatus to substantiate his textual decisions. • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/early-church-fathers/eusebius-caesarea/ - Eusebius Pamphillus, Bishop of Caesarea, Father of Church history - Proof of the Gospel, Preparation of the Gospel, etc • Eusebius Ecclesiastical History - Translated by C.F. Cruse. Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History is one of the classics of early Christianity & of equal stature with the works of Flavius Josephus. Eusebius chronicles the events of
  14. 14. the first 3 centuries of the Christian church in such a way as to record a vast number of vital facts about early Christianity that can be learned from no other ancient source. When Eusebius wrote his Ecclesiastical History, his vital concern was to record facts before they disappeared, & before eye-witnesses were killed & libraries were burned & destroyed in persecutions by Rome. He faithfully transcribed the most important existing documents of his day so that future generations would have a collection of factual data to interpret. Thus Eusebius (c. A.D. 260-340) richly deserves the title “father of Church history” • Eusebius Ecclesiastical History: Books I-V (Loeb Classical Library) - Greek text of Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Caesarea with translation by Kirsopp Lake15. Flavius Josephus • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/josephus - The complete works of Josephus. Translated by William Whiston • http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg %2C0526%2C004&query=init.&vers=original - Greek edition of Flavius Josephus, De bello Judaico libri vii (ed. B. Niese) • http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg %2C0526%2C001&query=init.&vers=original - Greek edition of Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae (ed. B. Niese) • http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Aabo%3Atlg %2C0526%2C002&query=init.&vers=original - Greek edition of Flavius Josephus, Josephi vita (ed. B. Niese) • http://www.dabar.org/Wars-of-Jews-Greek/Belli-b1-000.html - Greek edition of LOEB Classical Library. Josephus War of The Jews. Book 1 • The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition - Translated by William Whiston. This renowned reference book has served scholars, pastors, students, and those interested in the background of the NT for years. The insight given into the Essene community, the destruction of Jerusalem & the interpretations & traditions of the OT in first century Judaism is invaluable. The outlook of Josephus, a late first century Pharisee & historian, on Jesus & the NT documents is enlightening & provocative. As an original reference, The Works of Josephus is essential to a full understanding of the first century, the time of Christ & the NT16. Misnah & Pirke Avot • http://chaver.com/Mishnah/TheMishnah.htm - The structured color coded edition of Mishnah , Hamishnah CDarchah . All six orders of the Mishnah are now freely available here in Hebrew (iso-8859-8-i) HTML • Mishnah - English translation by Herbert Darnby • The Misnah: A New Translation - English translation by Jacob Neusner • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/pirkeavot - Pirkei Avoth (Hebrew: Chapters of the Fathers, ‫ ) פרקי אבות‬or simply Avoth is a tractate of the Mishna
  15. 15. composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. It is the second-last tractate in the Mishnaic order Nezikin17. Talmud • http://www.e-daf.com/ - Online copy of original Talmud (in Gif format), page by page • http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Talmud/talmudtoc.html - English translation of Talmud • http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm - The Babylonian Talmud translated by Michael L. Rodkinson • http://jnul.huji.ac.il/dl/talmud/ - Online Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts. Misnah & Talmud18. Journals • http://www.sbl-site.org/ - Society of Biblical Literature • http://rosetta.reltech.org/TC/TC.html - TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism is an electronic journal dedicated to the study of the Jewish and Christian biblical texts. Articles on any aspect of the textual criticism of the Jewish and Christian scriptures (including extracanonical and related literature) are discussed. • http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/ - Hugoye : Journal of Syriac Studies • http://www.jaas.org/ - Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies • http://www.bsw.org/index.php?l=10 - BSW Journal publishes scientific works by scholars interested in making available their work through the World Wide Web. • http://www.bsw.org/index.php?l=71 - Biblica, published since 1920 by the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome is a research journal and appears four times a year. It is dedicated to biblical studies on the Old and New Testament, and intertestamentary literature, and covers fields of reseach, such as exegesis, philology, and history • http://www.bsw.org/index.php?l=72 - The FILOLOGÍA NEOTESTAMENTARIA journal is the result of initiative taken by the Area de Filología Griega of the Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigüedad y de la Edad Media, University of Cordoba. Within its Scope lies every aspect of New Testament Greek philology, that is, textual criticism, grammar, semantics, lexicography and eventually semiotics, and its relationship with Classical or Hellenistic Greek. • http://www.ibiblio.org/bhebrew/ - B-Hebrew is an e-mail conference of academic professionals, teachers, students, clergy and laity, people of any faith, devoted to a better understanding of the Hebrew Bible. • http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/ - B-Greek is a mailing list for scholars and students of Biblical Greek. • http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS/jhs-article.html - Journal of Hebrew Scriptures
  16. 16. 19. Software • http://www.e-sword.net/ - Free download of Hebrew Tanakh, Septuagint, Greek New Testament, Latin vulgate, dictionaries, and commentaries (Pocket PC version is also available for downloading) • http://www.online-bible.com/winonlinebible.html - Free download of Hebrew Tanakh, Greek New Testament, Septuagint, and Latin Vulgate • http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/international/bylanguage/syriac.html - This script was developed for Aramaic (which is also called Syriac or Assyrian). Like Arabic and Hebrew, this script is written right to left and has consonants only. This script is particuarly associated with the Assyrian Christian, Chaldean Christian, or Syrian Christian church.20. English Bibles • http://kjv.ultimasurf.com - King James Bible with Apocrypha. Translated in 161121. Rabbi Moses Maimonides (Rambam) • http://www.jnul.huji.ac.il/v-exhibitions/rambam/eng/foreword.html - Mishnah, Avot, Talmud, Mishneh Torah, Responsa, Commandment, Guide For The Perplexed (Moreh ha-Nevukhim), Epistle to the Yemenite Jews (Iggeret Teman), Resurrection, Letter on Forced Conversions, Perek Helek, Treatise on Logic, Medical Writings, Epistles22. Bible Trivia • http://www.ultimasurf.net/bible/trivia.htm - Take a Bible test to see whether you are a Bible scholar!23. Bible Code • http://www.biblecodedigest.com/ - Bible Code Digest: Isaac Newton Bible Code Research Society - Presenting compelling empirical evidence that the Bible was written by an intelligence far beyond the abilities of mankind24. Commentary • http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~wie/TCG/index.html - An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels by Wieland Willker. This commentary discusses the 1000 most important textual variants of the Gospels, plus about 500 minor ones, on about 2200 pages • http://www.dabar.org/RHCharles/Revelation/contents.htm - A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on The Revelation of St. John by R.H. Charles. Volume 125. Textual Criticism • http://www.bible.org/page.asp?page_id=2439 - Textual Criticisim Series (Real Audio Video). Dr. Daniel B. Wallace has been visiting churches for the past few years, giving a short series on the history of the transmission of the New Testament--from the pens of the apostles to the printed page. The first part of the series shows how textual critics go about determining the original text from the 5,500 existing Greek manuscripts. Its an interactive exercise: The audience first takes on the role of ancient scribes, then modern textual critics: they actually create manuscripts that they later need to sift through, trying to
  17. 17. get back to the original wording of the text. In two hours, lay folks get a very good feel for what textual criticism is all about• Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible - Emanuel Tov. Emmanuel Tov is J. L. Magnes Professor of Bible at Hebrew University, Jerusalem. He is editor-in- chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls publication project, & his publications include The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research (2nd ed. 1997), The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Na.hal .Hever (DJD, 1990), The Dead Sea Scrolls on Microfiche (1992–93), & The Greek & Hebrew Bible: Collected Essays on the Septuagint (1999). Emmanuel Tov of Hebrew University• The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica - Ernst Wurthwein. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. This book is ostensibly an introduction to Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, a standard work giving the text of the Hebrew Bible & a list of variants & plausible emendations. It serves that function superbly, but it is also one of the best books ever written on the textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible• The Text of the New Testament an Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism - Kurt Aland & Barbara Aland. If youre a serious Bible student, and want to know which manuscripts are the most "weighty", & why certain readings are chosen over other variant reading to go in the NT Text we have today then this is the book for you!• The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration - Bruce Manning Metzger. For more than 25 years the standard account of the compilation and transmission of the NT, this text offers a comprehensive survey of ancient & newly-discovered manuscripts, & considers both the science & art of textual criticism as applied to the interpretation of manuscripts. Containing references to more than 150 additional books & articles dealing with Greek manuscripts, early versions, & critical studies of witnesses to the text of the NT, it covers a variety of textual problems & provides an objective account of the several schools of textual methodology