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# Critical reasoning

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# Critical reasoning

This presentation is an introductory one for critical reasoning. It introduces the topic and its tips can be used to solve CR questions

This presentation is an introductory one for critical reasoning. It introduces the topic and its tips can be used to solve CR questions

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### Critical reasoning

1. 1. Critical Reasoning<br />Put on your<br />Thinking<br />Caps!<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
2. 2. A Reasoning Teaser<br />Socrates arrives at a bridge guarded by a powerful lord, Plato, and begs to be allowed to cross. Plato replies:<br />I swear that if the next utterance you make is true I shall let you cross, but if it is false I shall throw you in the water.<br />Socrates replies:<br />You are going to throw me in the water.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
3. 3. A Reasoning Teaser<br />Socrates arrives at a bridge guarded by a powerful lord, Plato, and begs to be allowed to cross. Plato replies:<br />I swear that if the next utterance you make is true I shall let you cross, but if it is false I shall throw you in the water.<br />Socrates replies:<br />You are going to throw me in the water.<br />What happens next?<br />Is Socrates thrown in the water or not?<br />If Plato does not throw him in the water, Socrates has spoken falsely and should be thrown in; but if he is thrown in, Socrates has spoken truly and should not be thrown in.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
4. 4. A Reasoning Teaser<br />Socrates arrives at a bridge guarded by a powerful lord, Plato, and begs to be allowed to cross. Plato replies:<br />I swear that if the next utterance you make is true I shall let you cross, but if it is false I shall throw you in the water.<br />Socrates replies:<br />You are going to throw me in the water.<br />What happens next?<br />Is Socrates thrown in the water or not?<br />If Plato does not throw him in the water, Socrates has spoken falsely and should be thrown in; but if he is thrown in, Socrates has spoken truly and should not be thrown in.<br />This is what we call a PARADOX.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
5. 5. Key Terms: Revised<br />Premise<br />Each CR argument contains at least one premise. Premises are pieces of information that provide evidence used to support the conclusion of the argument. For the purposes of Critical Reasoning arguments, premises are facts not subject to dispute.<br />Conclusion<br />The conclusion is the endpoint of the line of reasoning of an argument. Think of it as the result of the argument. The line of reasoning leading to a conclusion is often where errors in logic are made.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
6. 6. Key Terms: Revised<br />Assumption<br />Assumptions are unstated facts and logical connections in an argument. In order for the conclusion of an argument to be true, the assumptions upon which that argument is based must also be true.<br />Argument<br />Central to every CR question is the argument. An argument is an ordered line of reasoning composed of premises, assumptions, and a conclusion. Understanding the elements of an argument is essential to performing well in this section.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
7. 7. Deductive Logic vs. Critical Reasoning: A comparative<br />Have a look at the argument below:<br />1. Most actors are celebrities.<br />2. Aamir is an actor.<br />3. Therefore Aamir is a celebrity.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
8. 8. Deductive Logic vs. Critical Reasoning: A comparative<br />Have a look at the argument below:<br />1. Most actors are celebrities.<br />2. Aamir is an actor.<br />3. Therefore Aamir is a celebrity.<br /><ul><li>The argument above is Deductively invalid as it is not consistent.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
9. 9. Deductive Logic vs. Critical Reasoning: A comparative<br />Have a look at the argument below:<br />1. Most actors are celebrities.<br />2. Aamir is an actor.<br />3. Therefore Aamir is a celebrity.<br /><ul><li>The argument above is Deductively invalid as it is not consistent.
10. 10. The argument above is a fairly good Critical Reasoning (CR)argument as the conclusion is more than likely to occur.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
11. 11. Deductive Logic vs. Critical Reasoning: A comparative<br />Have a look at the argument below:<br />1. Most actors are celebrities.<br />2. Aamir is an actor.<br />3. Therefore Aamir is a celebrity.<br /><ul><li>The argument above is Deductively invalid as it is not consistent.
12. 12. The argument above is a fairly good Critical Reasoning (CR)argument as the conclusion is more than likely to occur.
13. 13. Additional premises can strengthen and weaken the original argument, in case of an CR argument.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
14. 14. Deductive Logic vs. Critical Reasoning: A comparative<br />Have a look at the argument below:<br />1. Most actors are celebrities.<br />2. Aamir is an actor.<br />3. Therefore Aamir is a celebrity.<br /><ul><li>The argument above is Deductively invalid as it is not consistent.
15. 15. The argument above is a fairly good Critical Reasoning (CR)argument as the conclusion is more than likely to occur.
16. 16. Additional premises can strengthen and weaken the original argument, in case of an CR argument.
17. 17. For logicians, the term ‘valid’ is only applicable to Deductive arguments.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
18. 18. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
19. 19. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />Step 1: Identify the Premise<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
20. 20. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />Step 1: Identify the Premise<br />Premise Indicator words:<br />because since for for example<br />In that given that as indicated by due to <br />owing to we know this by this can be seen from for the reason that <br />The premises of the argument are: ‘A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands.’<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
21. 21. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
22. 22. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />Step 2: Identify the Conclusion<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
23. 23. A practical Approach to Critical Reasoning questions<br />Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship. <br />Step 2: Identify the Conclusion<br />Conclusion Indicator words:<br />thus therefore hence consequently as a result<br />so accordingly clearly must be that <br />shows that conclude that follows that for this reason <br />The conclusion of the argument is: ‘They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.’ <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
24. 24. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
25. 25. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 3: Identify the assumption<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
26. 26. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 3: Identify the assumption<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>An assumption is an unstated premise of the argument: that is, an integral component of the argument that the author leaves for granted and unsaid.
27. 27. In other words, the Argument can be analogized to a house; the Premises are like walls, the conclusion is like the roof, and the Assumptions are like the foundation (the hidden part of the structure).</li></ul>Identify the Assumption Answer: <br />In this case, the girl assumes that anyone who holds hands has to be <br />a girlfriend-boyfriend (that is in a relationship). <br />No that wise an assumption, is it?<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
28. 28. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
29. 29. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 4: Weaken the argument<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
30. 30. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 4: Weaken the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>The key to weaken an argument is to undermine the conclusion, not necessarily destroy it.
31. 31. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to weaken the argument:<br />Weaken attack undermine refute counter<br />Challenge damage call into question argue against cast doubt<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
32. 32. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 4: Weaken the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>The key to weaken an argument is to undermine the conclusion, not necessarily destroy it.
33. 33. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to weaken the argument:<br />Weaken attack undermine refute counter<br />Challenge damage call into question argue against cast doubt<br /><ul><li>One way to weaken an argument is to attack the assumption of the argument.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
34. 34. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 4: Weaken the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>The key to weaken an argument is to undermine the conclusion, not necessarily destroy it.
35. 35. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to weaken the argument:<br />Weaken attack undermine refute counter<br />Challenge damage call into question argue against cast doubt<br /><ul><li>One way to weaken an argument is to attack the assumption of the argument.</li></ul>Weaken the argument Answer: <br />All we need to say is something as simple as this:<br />A cousin was helping another by holding her hand. <br />(This way they do not have to be in a relationship)<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
36. 36. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
37. 37. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 5: Strengthen the argument<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
38. 38. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 5: Strengthen the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>Strengthen questions ask you to support the argument in any way possible. Speaking in numerical terms, any answer choice that strengthens the argument, whether by 1% or by 100%, is correct.
39. 39. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to strengthen the argument:<br />Strenghten support helps most justifies<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
40. 40. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 5: Strengthen the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>Strengthen questions ask you to support the argument in any way possible. Speaking in numerical terms, any answer choice that strengthens the argument, whether by 1% or by 100%, is correct.
41. 41. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to strengthen the argument:<br />Strenghten support helps most justifies<br /><ul><li>One way to strengthen an argument is to support the assumption of the argument.</li></ul>www.wordpandit.com<br />
42. 42. Sample Argument:<br />A girl said to her friend: See that boy and girl. They are holding hands in public. They must be committed to each other and must be in a relationship.<br />Step 5: Strengthen the argument<br />Keep in mind:<br /><ul><li>Strengthen questions ask you to support the argument in any way possible. Speaking in numerical terms, any answer choice that strengthens the argument, whether by 1% or by 100%, is correct.
43. 43. Following are some examples of words or phrases used to indicate that your</li></ul>task is to strengthen the argument:<br />Strenghten support helps most justifies<br /><ul><li>One way to strengthen an argument is to support the assumption of the argument.</li></ul>Strengthen the argument: All we need to say is something as simple as this:<br />In modern times, holding hands in public has become the symbol of relationships.<br />(This way they do not have to be in a relationship)<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
44. 44. PRACTICE QUESTIONS<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
45. 45. Q1. Bicycles are safer than scooters. 50 percent of scooter accidents result in death, while only 10 percent of bicycle accidents result in death. <br />Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument above?<br />Bicycles are inspected more often than scooters. <br />The number of bicycle accidents is several hundred thousand times higher than the number of scooter accidents.<br />Many bicycle owners are known not to stop on traffic lights whereas a most scooter owners follow the regulation. <br />Scooter accidents are generally the fault of car owners, who bang into them and not those of the ones driving the scooters. <br />Bicycles do not carry pillions generally but scooters do. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
46. 46. Q1. Bicycles are safer than scooters. 50 percent of scooter accidents result in death, while only 10 percent of bicycle accidents result in death. <br />Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument above?<br />Bicycles are inspected more often than scooters. <br />The number of bicycle accidents is several hundred thousand times higher than the number of scooter accidents.<br />Many bicycle owners are known not to stop on traffic lights whereas a most scooter owners follow the regulation. <br />Scooter accidents are generally the fault of car owners, who bang into them and not those of the ones driving the scooters. <br />Bicycles do not carry pillions generally but scooters do. <br />Correct Answer: B <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
47. 47. Q2. A world-renowned painter recently won a lawsuit against an ice-cream manufacturer for commiserating another graphic designer to design the ice-cream’s packing in a style similar to the painter. Because of the judgment of the case, manufacturers will have to stop asking graphic designers now to copy the freely available designs of famous painters. And the end result will an increase in the cost of package design as employing the services of known artists would cost more than those of graphic designer that merely imitate their style. <br />The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? <br />People cannot distinguish between an original work and its imitation. <br />Manufacturers will continue to use well-known painting styles in their packaging. <br />Ice-ream manufacturers around the country are shocked by this judgment. <br />Manufacturers will continue to use graphic artists to imitate the artistic style of famous painters.<br />The sale of the product depends on its packaging. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
48. 48. Q2. A world-renowned painter recently won a lawsuit against an ice-cream manufacturer for commiserating another graphic designer to design the ice-cream’s packing in a style similar to the painter. Because of the judgment of the case, manufacturers will have to stop asking graphic designers now to copy the freely available designs of famous painters. And the end result will an increase in the cost of package design as employing the services of known artists would cost more than those of graphic designer that merely imitate their style. <br />The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? <br />People cannot distinguish between an original work and its imitation. <br />Manufacturers will continue to use well-known painting styles in their packaging. <br />Ice-ream manufacturers around the country are shocked by this judgment. <br />Manufacturers will continue to use graphic artists to imitate the artistic style of famous painters.<br />The sale of the product depends on its packaging. <br />Correct Answer: B <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
49. 49. Q3. Navneet Pencils manufactures and sells the same pencils as Camlin does. Employee wages account for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing pencils at both factories. Navneet is seeking a competitive edge over Camlin’s supply. Therefore, to promote this end, Navneet’s should lower employee wages. <br />Which of the following, if true, seriously weakens the argument above? <br /> <br />Because they make a small number of specialty artist’s pencils, pencil manufacturers cannot receive volume discounts on raw materials. <br />Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work and this reduced quality would lead to lowered sales. <br />Navneet’s Pencils has taken away twenty percent of Camlin’s Supply business over the last year. <br />Camlin’s Supply pays its employees, on average, ten percent more than does Navneet’s Pencils. <br />Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work for is the only industry. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
50. 50. Q3. Navneet Pencils manufactures and sells the same pencils as Camlin does. Employee wages account for forty percent of the cost of manufacturing pencils at both factories. Navneet is seeking a competitive edge over Camlin’s supply. Therefore, to promote this end, Navneet’s should lower employee wages. <br />Which of the following, if true, seriously weakens the argument above? <br /> <br />Because they make a small number of specialty artist’s pencils, pencil manufacturers cannot receive volume discounts on raw materials. <br />Lowering wages would reduce the quality of employee work and this reduced quality would lead to lowered sales. <br />Navneet’s Pencils has taken away twenty percent of Camlin’s Supply business over the last year. <br />Camlin’s Supply pays its employees, on average, ten percent more than does Navneet’s Pencils. <br />Many people who work for manufacturing plants live in areas in which the manufacturing plant they work for is the only industry. <br />Correct Answer: B<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
51. 51. Q4. In some cities, many writers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since writing must be useful, writers must exercise their craft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason, writing is not an art. <br />Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion? <br /> <br />Some books are written to be placed in research labs where they will not be used by anyone. <br />Some writers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of the products they produce. <br />Writers should be more concerned with the practical utility of their products than they currently are. <br />Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products. <br />An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the objects’ practical utility. <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
52. 52. Q4. In some cities, many writers have been winning acclaim as artists. But since writing must be useful, writers must exercise their craft with an eye to the practical utility of their product. For this reason, writing is not an art. <br />Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reason given for that conclusion? <br /> <br />Some books are written to be placed in research labs where they will not be used by anyone. <br />Some writers are more concerned than others with the practical utility of the products they produce. <br />Writers should be more concerned with the practical utility of their products than they currently are. <br />Artists are not concerned with the monetary value of their products. <br />An object is not an art object if its maker pays attention to the objects’ practical utility. <br />Correct Answer: E<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
53. 53. 5. Unlike the price of gold, the price of silver has fallen considerably in the last year. Thus, although the retail price of jewelry made with silver other than gold has not yet fallen, it will inevitably fall. <br /> Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? <br /> <br />Changes in retail prices always lag behind changes in raw-material prices.<br />The price of gold is typically higher than that of the same volume of silver. <br />The operating costs of the average retail jewelry shop have remained constant during the last year. <br />The cost of mining all expensive metals other than gold has increased in the last year. <br />The cost of processing silver has increased during the last year.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
54. 54. 5. Unlike the price of gold, the price of silver has fallen considerably in the last year. Thus, although the retail price of jewelry made with silver other than gold has not yet fallen, it will inevitably fall. <br /> Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above? <br /> <br />Changes in retail prices always lag behind changes in raw-material prices.<br />The price of gold is typically higher than that of the same volume of silver. <br />The operating costs of the average retail jewelry shop have remained constant during the last year. <br />The cost of mining all expensive metals other than gold has increased in the last year. <br />The cost of processing silver has increased during the last year.<br />Correct Answer: E<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
55. 55. 6. Physician: In itself, exercise does not cause heart attacks; rather, a sudden increase in an exercise regimen can be a cause. When people of any physical condition suddenly increase their amount of exercise, they also increase their risk of heart attack. As a result, there will be an increased risk of heart attack among employees of this company due to the new health program.<br /> <br />The conclusion drawn by the physician follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?<br />(A) Employees will abruptly increase their amount of exercise as a result of the new health program.<br />(B) The exercised involved in the new health program are more strenuous than those in the previous health program.<br />(C) The new health program will force employees of all levels of health to exercise regularly.<br />(D)The new health program constitutes a sudden change in the company’s policy<br />(E) All employees, no matter what their physical condition, will participate in the new health program.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
56. 56. 6. Physician: In itself, exercise does not cause heart attacks; rather, a sudden increase in an exercise regimen can be a cause. When people of any physical condition suddenly increase their amount of exercise, they also increase their risk of heart attack. As a result, there will be an increased risk of heart attack among employees of this company due to the new health program.<br /> <br />The conclusion drawn by the physician follows logically if which one of the following is assumed?<br />(A) Employees will abruptly increase their amount of exercise as a result of the new health program.<br />(B) The exercised involved in the new health program are more strenuous than those in the previous health program.<br />(C) The new health program will force employees of all levels of health to exercise regularly.<br />(D)The new health program constitutes a sudden change in the company’s policy<br />(E) All employees, no matter what their physical condition, will participate in the new health program.<br />Correct Answer: A<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
57. 57. 7. Economist: Technology now changes so rapidly that workers need periodic retraining. Such retraining can be efficient only if it allows individual companies to meet their own short-term needs. Hence, large governmental job retraining programs are no longer a viable option in the effort to retrain workers efficiently.<br /> <br />Which one of the following is an assumption required by the economist’s argument?<br />(A) Workers did not need to be retrained when the pace of technological change was slower than it is currently.<br />(B) Large job retraining programs will be less efficient than smaller programs if the pace of technological change slows.<br />(C) No single type of retraining program is most efficient at retraining technological workers.<br />(D) Large governmental job retraining programs do not meet the short-term needs of different individual companies.<br />(E) Technological workers are more likely now than in the past to move in order to find work for which they are already trained.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
58. 58. 7. Economist: Technology now changes so rapidly that workers need periodic retraining. Such retraining can be efficient only if it allows individual companies to meet their own short-term needs. Hence, large governmental job retraining programs are no longer a viable option in the effort to retrain workers efficiently.<br /> <br />Which one of the following is an assumption required by the economist’s argument?<br />(A) Workers did not need to be retrained when the pace of technological change was slower than it is currently.<br />(B) Large job retraining programs will be less efficient than smaller programs if the pace of technological change slows.<br />(C) No single type of retraining program is most efficient at retraining technological workers.<br />(D) Large governmental job retraining programs do not meet the short-term needs of different individual companies.<br />(E) Technological workers are more likely now than in the past to move in order to find work for which they are already trained.<br />Correct Answer: D<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
59. 59. 8. Thirty years ago, the percentage of the British people who vacationed in foreign countries was very small compared with the large percentage of the British population who travel abroad for vacations now. Foreign travel is, and always has been, expensive from Britain. Therefore, British people must have, on average, more money to spend on vacations now than they did 30 years ago.<br /> <br />The argument requires assuming which one of the following?<br />(A) If foreign travel had been less expensive 30 years ago, British people would still not have had enough money to take vacation abroad.<br />(B) If travel to Britain were less expensive, more people of other countries would travel to Britain for their vacations.<br />(C) If the percentage of British people vacationing abroad was lower 30 years ago, then the British people of 30 years ago must have spent more money on domestic vacations.<br />(D) If more of the British people 30 years ago had had enough money to vacation abroad, more would have done so.<br />(E) If British people are now wealthier than they were 30 years ago, then they must have more money to spend on vacations now than they did 30 years ago.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
60. 60. 8. Thirty years ago, the percentage of the British people who vacationed in foreign countries was very small compared with the large percentage of the British population who travel abroad for vacations now. Foreign travel is, and always has been, expensive from Britain. Therefore, British people must have, on average, more money to spend on vacations now than they did 30 years ago.<br /> <br />The argument requires assuming which one of the following?<br />(A) If foreign travel had been less expensive 30 years ago, British people would still not have had enough money to take vacation abroad.<br />(B) If travel to Britain were less expensive, more people of other countries would travel to Britain for their vacations.<br />(C) If the percentage of British people vacationing abroad was lower 30 years ago, then the British people of 30 years ago must have spent more money on domestic vacations.<br />(D) If more of the British people 30 years ago had had enough money to vacation abroad, more would have done so.<br />(E) If British people are now wealthier than they were 30 years ago, then they must have more money to spend on vacations now than they did 30 years ago.<br />Correct Answer: D<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
61. 61. 9. Some teachers claim that students would not learn curricular content without the incentive of grades. But students with intense interest in the material would learn it without this incentive, while the behavior of students lacking all interests in the material is unaffected by such an incentive. The incentive of grades, therefore, serves no essential academic purpose.<br /> <br />The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument<br />(A) take for granted that the only purpose of school is to convey a fixed body of information to students<br />(B) takes for granted that students who are indifferent to the grades they receive are genuinely interested in the curricular material<br />(C) fails to consider that the incentive of grades may serve some useful nonacademic purpose<br />(D) ignore the possibility that students who lack interest in the curricular material would be quite interested in it if allowed to choose their own curricular material<br />(E) fails to consider that some students may be neither fascinated by nor completely indifferent to the subject being taught<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
62. 62. 9. Some teachers claim that students would not learn curricular content without the incentive of grades. But students with intense interest in the material would learn it without this incentive, while the behavior of students lacking all interests in the material is unaffected by such an incentive. The incentive of grades, therefore, serves no essential academic purpose.<br /> <br />The reasoning in the argument is flawed because the argument<br />(A) take for granted that the only purpose of school is to convey a fixed body of information to students<br />(B) takes for granted that students who are indifferent to the grades they receive are genuinely interested in the curricular material<br />(C) fails to consider that the incentive of grades may serve some useful nonacademic purpose<br />(D) ignore the possibility that students who lack interest in the curricular material would be quite interested in it if allowed to choose their own curricular material<br />(E) fails to consider that some students may be neither fascinated by nor completely indifferent to the subject being taught<br />Correct Answer: E<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
63. 63. 10. Last year a large firm set a goal of decreasing its workforce by 25%. Three divisions, totaling 25% of its workforce, were to be eliminated and no new people hired. These divisions have since been eliminated and no new people have joined the firm, but its workforce has decreased by only 15%.<br /> <br />Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the difference in the planned versus the actual reduction in the workforce?<br />(A)The three divisions that were eliminated were well run and had the potential to earn profits.<br />(B)Normal attrition in the retained divisions continued to reduce staff because no new people were added to the firm.<br />(C)Some of the employees in the eliminated divisions were eligible for early retirement and chose that option.<br />(D)As the divisions were being eliminated some of their employees were assigned to other divisions.<br />(E) Employees in the retained divisions were forced to work faster to offset the loss of the eliminated divisions.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
64. 64. 10. Last year a large firm set a goal of decreasing its workforce by 25%. Three divisions, totaling 25% of its workforce, were to be eliminated and no new people hired. These divisions have since been eliminated and no new people have joined the firm, but its workforce has decreased by only 15%.<br /> <br />Which one of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the difference in the planned versus the actual reduction in the workforce?<br />(A)The three divisions that were eliminated were well run and had the potential to earn profits.<br />(B)Normal attrition in the retained divisions continued to reduce staff because no new people were added to the firm.<br />(C)Some of the employees in the eliminated divisions were eligible for early retirement and chose that option.<br />(D)As the divisions were being eliminated some of their employees were assigned to other divisions.<br />(E) Employees in the retained divisions were forced to work faster to offset the loss of the eliminated divisions.<br />Correct Answer: D<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
65. 65. 11. Every year, new reports appear concerning the health risks posed by certain substances, such as coffee and sugar. One year an article claimed that coffee is dangerous to one’s health. The next year, another article argued that coffee has some benefits for one’s health. From these contradictory opinions, we see that experts are useless for guiding one’s decisions about one’s health.<br /> <br />Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument above?<br />(A) The argument takes for granted that coffee is dangerous to one’s health.<br />(B) The argument presumes, without providing warrant, that one always wants expert guidance in making decisions about one’s health.<br />(C) The argument fails to consider the nature of expert opinion in areas other than health.<br />(D) The argument presumes, with out providing justification, that because expert opinion is trustworthy in one case, it must therefore be trustworthy in all cases.<br />(E) The argument fails to consider that coffee may be harmful to one’s health in some respects and beneficial in others.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
66. 66. 11. Every year, new reports appear concerning the health risks posed by certain substances, such as coffee and sugar. One year an article claimed that coffee is dangerous to one’s health. The next year, another article argued that coffee has some benefits for one’s health. From these contradictory opinions, we see that experts are useless for guiding one’s decisions about one’s health.<br /> <br />Which one of the following most accurately describes a flaw in the argument above?<br />(A) The argument takes for granted that coffee is dangerous to one’s health.<br />(B) The argument presumes, without providing warrant, that one always wants expert guidance in making decisions about one’s health.<br />(C) The argument fails to consider the nature of expert opinion in areas other than health.<br />(D) The argument presumes, with out providing justification, that because expert opinion is trustworthy in one case, it must therefore be trustworthy in all cases.<br />(E) The argument fails to consider that coffee may be harmful to one’s health in some respects and beneficial in others.<br />Correct Answer: E<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
67. 67. 12. Mystery stories often feature a brilliant detective and the detective’s dull companion. Clues are presented in the story, and the companion wrongly infers an inaccurate solution to the mystery using the same clues that the detective uses to deduce the correct solution. Thus, the author’s strategy of including the dull companion gives readers a chance to solve the mystery while also diverting them from the correct solution.<br /> <br />Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?<br />(A) Most mystery stories feature a brilliant detective who solves the mystery presented in the story.<br />(B) Mystery readers often solve the mystery in a story simply by spotting the mistakes in the reasoning of the detective’s dull companion in that story.<br />(C) Some mystery stories give readers enough clues to infer the correct solution to the mystery.<br />(D) The actions of the brilliant detective in a mystery story rarely divert readers from the actions of the detective’s dull companion.<br />(E) The detective’s dull companion in a mystery story generally uncovers the misleading clues that divert readers from the mystery’s correct solution.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
68. 68. 12. Mystery stories often feature a brilliant detective and the detective’s dull companion. Clues are presented in the story, and the companion wrongly infers an inaccurate solution to the mystery using the same clues that the detective uses to deduce the correct solution. Thus, the author’s strategy of including the dull companion gives readers a chance to solve the mystery while also diverting them from the correct solution.<br /> <br />Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?<br />(A) Most mystery stories feature a brilliant detective who solves the mystery presented in the story.<br />(B) Mystery readers often solve the mystery in a story simply by spotting the mistakes in the reasoning of the detective’s dull companion in that story.<br />(C) Some mystery stories give readers enough clues to infer the correct solution to the mystery.<br />(D) The actions of the brilliant detective in a mystery story rarely divert readers from the actions of the detective’s dull companion.<br />(E) The detective’s dull companion in a mystery story generally uncovers the misleading clues that divert readers from the mystery’s correct solution.<br />Correct Answer: C<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
69. 69. 13. In speech, when words or sentences are ambiguous, gesture and tone of voice are used to indicate the intended meaning. Writers, of course, cannot use gesture or tone of voice and must rely instead on style; the reader detects the writer’s intention from the arrangement of words and sentences.<br /> <br />Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the information above?<br />(A) The primary function of style in writing is to augment the literal meanings of the words and sentences used.<br />(B) The intended meaning of a piece of writing is indicated in part by the writer’s arrangement of words and sentences.<br />(C) It is easier for a listener to detect the tone of a speaker than for a reader to detect the style of the writer.<br />(D) A writer’s intention will always be interpreted differently by different readers.<br />(E) The writer’s arrangement of words/sentences completely determines the aesthetics of writing.<br /> <br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
70. 70. 13. In speech, when words or sentences are ambiguous, gesture and tone of voice are used to indicate the intended meaning. Writers, of course, cannot use gesture or tone of voice and must rely instead on style; the reader detects the writer’s intention from the arrangement of words and sentences.<br /> <br />Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the information above?<br />(A) The primary function of style in writing is to augment the literal meanings of the words and sentences used.<br />(B) The intended meaning of a piece of writing is indicated in part by the writer’s arrangement of words and sentences.<br />(C) It is easier for a listener to detect the tone of a speaker than for a reader to detect the style of the writer.<br />(D) A writer’s intention will always be interpreted differently by different readers.<br />(E) The writer’s arrangement of words/sentences completely determines the aesthetics of writing.<br /> <br />Correct Answer: B<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
71. 71. 14. Bureaucratic mechanisms are engineered to resist change. Thus, despite growing dissatisfaction with complex bureaucratic systems, it is unlikely that bureaucracies will be simplified.<br /> <br />The claim that bureaucratic mechanisms are engineered to resist change plays which one of the following roles in the argument?<br />(A) It is a premise offered in support of the claim that it is unlikely that bureaucracies will be simplified.<br />(B) It is a conclusion for which the only support offered is the claim that dissatisfaction with complex bureaucratic systems is growing.<br />(C) It is cited as evidence that bureaucratic systems are becoming more and more complex.<br />(D) It is used to weaken the claim that bureaucracies should be simplified.<br />(E) It is a conclusion for which the claim that bureaucracies are unlikely to be simplified is offered as support.<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
72. 72. 14. Bureaucratic mechanisms are engineered to resist change. Thus, despite growing dissatisfaction with complex bureaucratic systems, it is unlikely that bureaucracies will be simplified.<br /> <br />The claim that bureaucratic mechanisms are engineered to resist change plays which one of the following roles in the argument?<br />(A) It is a premise offered in support of the claim that it is unlikely that bureaucracies will be simplified.<br />(B) It is a conclusion for which the only support offered is the claim that dissatisfaction with complex bureaucratic systems is growing.<br />(C) It is cited as evidence that bureaucratic systems are becoming more and more complex.<br />(D) It is used to weaken the claim that bureaucracies should be simplified.<br />(E) It is a conclusion for which the claim that bureaucracies are unlikely to be simplified is offered as support.<br />Correct Answer: A<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
73. 73. 15. Philosopher: Scientists talk about the pursuit of truth, but like most people, they are self-interested. Accordingly, the professional activities of most scientists are directed toward personal career enhancement, and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth. Hence, the activities of the scientific community are largely directed toward enhancing the status of that community as a whole, and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth.<br /> <br />The reasoning in the philosopher’s argument is flawed because the argument<br />(A) Improperly infers that each and every scientist has a certain characteristic from premise that most scientists have that characteristic<br />(B) Improperly draws an inference about the scientific community as a whole from a premise about individual scientists<br />(C) Presumes, without giving justification, that the aim of personal career enhancement never advances the pursuit of truth<br />(D) Illicitly takes advantage of an ambiguity in the meaning of “self-interested”<br />(E)Improperly draws an inference about a cause from premises about its effects<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />
74. 74. 15. Philosopher: Scientists talk about the pursuit of truth, but like most people, they are self-interested. Accordingly, the professional activities of most scientists are directed toward personal career enhancement, and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth. Hence, the activities of the scientific community are largely directed toward enhancing the status of that community as a whole, and only incidentally toward the pursuit of truth.<br /> <br />The reasoning in the philosopher’s argument is flawed because the argument<br />(A) Improperly infers that each and every scientist has a certain characteristic from premise that most scientists have that characteristic<br />(B) Improperly draws an inference about the scientific community as a whole from a premise about individual scientists<br />(C) Presumes, without giving justification, that the aim of personal career enhancement never advances the pursuit of truth<br />(D) Illicitly takes advantage of an ambiguity in the meaning of “self-interested”<br />(E)Improperly draws an inference about a cause from premises about its effects<br />Correct Answer: B<br />www.wordpandit.com<br />

### Editor's Notes

• Copicohen page 9 and see also Chapter 9 for further examples
• Copicohen page 9 and see also Chapter 9 for further examples
• Copicohen page 9 and see also Chapter 9 for further examples
• Copicohen page 9 and see also Chapter 9 for further examples
• Copicohen page 9 and see also Chapter 9 for further examples
• Page 258 CR bible for detailing assumption, for this example go on explaining specific assumptions, and assumptions which are implicit.
• Page 258 CR bible for detailing assumption, for this example go on explaining specific assumptions, and assumptions which are implicit.
• Page 258 CR bible for detailing assumption, for this example go on explaining specific assumptions, and assumptions which are implicit.
• Page 173 CR bible to give examples in FM
• Page 173 CR bible to give examples in FM
• Page 173 CR bible to give examples in FM
• Page 173 CR bible to give examples in FM
• Page 173 CR bible to give examples in FM
• Page 221 CR bible for gyaan
• Page 221 CR bible for gyaan
• Page 221 CR bible for gyaan
• Page 221 CR bible for gyaan
• Page 221 CR bible for gyaan