PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 3 Excretory system

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PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 3 Excretory system

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PMR Form 3 Science Chapter 3 Excretory system

  1. 1. Chemical Processes in the BodyUse upOxygenGlucoseAmino AcidsWaterNutrientsProduceCarbon dioxideWaterUreaHeat Water, Mineral salts, Urea, Carbon Dioxide, HeatToxic Chemicals
  2. 2. Excretory Organs in HumanUrinary System Lungs Skin Why waste products must be excreted out of the body??? Liver
  3. 3. 2
  4. 4. Location of the Kidney
  5. 5. Kidney Function• Detoxify blood• Increase calcium absorption – calcitriol• Stimulate RBC production – erythropoietin• Regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance – renin
  6. 6. Structure of the Urinary System • 2 Kidneys • 2 Ureters • Bladder • Urethra
  7. 7. The Blood Supply to the Kidney
  8. 8. The Urinary System
  9. 9. Filtration systemin the Kidney Filtration Mineral salts Sugar Amino Acids Waste-Urea Reabsorption All Sugar All amino acids Mineral Salts Water
  10. 10. Function of the Kidney• Filter blood in order to remove cellular waste products from the body.• Maintain chemical composition, pH and water level• At any given time, 20 % of blood is in the kidneys. Humans can function with one kidney.• If one ceases to work, the other increases in size to handle the workload.
  11. 11. Cellular waste• urea – (a nitrogenous waste produced in the liver from the breakdown of protein. It is the main component of urine)• uric acid – (usually produced from breakdown of DNA or RNA)• creatinine – (waste product of muscle action).
  12. 12. Composition of Chemicals in the Body Substance Blood in renal Kidney Urine artery tubules (filter system) Glucose 2.0 2.0 0Mineral salts 10.0 10.0 17.0Amino acids 0.9 0.9 0 Protein 88.0 0 0 Urea 0.5 20.0 20.0RBC & WBC 47% 0% 0
  13. 13. Kidney failure• Urinary Tract Infection• Kidney Stone• Kidney Infection• Diabetic Nephropathy• Hypertension• Glomerulonephritis• HIV nephropathy
  14. 14. Kidney Stone
  15. 15. Treatment of Kidney Failure -Dialysis-• ½ of patients with kidney disease eventually require dialysis• Diffuse harmful waste out of body• Control BP• Keep safe level of chemicals in body• If dialysis cannot work, the patient has to undergo kidney transplant
  16. 16. Hemodialysis• 3-4 times a week• Takes 2-4 hours• Machine filters blood and returns it to body
  17. 17. Peritoneal Dialysis• Abdominal lining filters blood• 3 types – Continuous ambulatory – Continuous cyclical – Intermittent

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