Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 9 Anatomy of the Sun

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Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 9 Anatomy of the Sun

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  • Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 9 Anatomy of the Sun

    1. 1.  110 times bigger than the Earth 333 420 times heavier than Earth 150 million km away from the Earth Sunlight takes 8 minutes to reach the Earth Less dense than Earth 4.6 billion years old Another 5.5 billion lifespan
    2. 2. 70% H28% He The sun is made up of gases Temps: 15 million K at core / 5000 K at surface The sun gives off energy in all wavelengths of the ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM (Visible light, Infrared, X ray, gamma rays, etc)
    3. 3.  A medium sized, medium temperature (yellow) star in the middle of its life cycle.(Yellow dwarf) Because the sun is made of gas, no sharp boundaries exist between its various layers. Can be divided into four parts:  Solar interior (core)  Photosphere Sun atmosphere  Chromosphere  Corona
    4. 4.  Photosphere - Lower atmosphere - Visible wavelengths - 300 km thick - Temps. 6000 degrees Chromosphere - Middle atmosphere - Reddish – H atoms emit energy in red spectrum -Seen at Eclipses - 10 000 km thick - Temps. 6000 – 20 000 degrees Corona - Whitish blue - Upper atmosphere - Extends mill. Kms out - Millions of degrees (heated up by solar flares) - Becomes the source of solar wind
    5. 5.  The Sun’s Outer Atmosphere Too thin for us to see Extends out thousand of kilometers Prominescence appears here
    6. 6.  The Sun’s Outer Atmosphere Too thin for us to see Extends out thousand of kilometers Prominescence appears here
    7. 7.  From Latin word meaning crown Between 1 to 5 million degrees Celsius Only visible during an eclipse Particles (called solar wind) move far beyond our solar system to an area called the heliopause 1 500 000 degress
    8. 8.  Also too faint for us to see Only visible during a solar eclipse Reddish pink in color 10 000km thick 6000 - 20 000 degrees Turbulence causes solar flares
    9. 9.  Atmosphere of the Sun Means “sphere of color” Reach 20,000 degrees Celsius Only visible during eclipses Narrow red ring
    10. 10.  The layer of the sun that we can see The “surface” of the sun The sun does not have a solid surface, just a giant ball of gas (hydrogen and helium)
    11. 11. Surface of the SunMeans “sphere of light”Most of the light wesee comes from thephotosphereAbout 6,000 degreesCelsius at the baseSunspots formedProminescenceSolar flares
    12. 12.  Core Fusion takes place ~ 15 million K Radiation Zone -Highly compressed gas -Energy travels by being emitted & absorbed as Electromag. waves -1 – 15 mill K -Takes 100,000 yrs for energy to travel through (dense) Convection Zone -Hot plasma closer to interior (1 million K) rises, cools (6000 K), and sinks in circular currents
    13. 13.  Center of the Sun Very Dense and hot (about 15 million degrees Celsius) Hydrogen atoms collide to form helium atoms (called nuclear fusion) Photons from core take 11,000 years to move from core to surface of the sun!
    14. 14. • A dark spot on the sun that is cool in contrast to the surrounding photosphere.
    15. 15. • A dark spot on the sun that is cool in contrast to the surrounding photosphere.• Appear dark because of their temperature, which is about 1500 K less than that of the surrounding solar surface.• Present due to strong Magnetic field
    16. 16. Appear to move across the Sun – rotation
    17. 17.  Caused by magnetic field Slow down emission of heat from sun core Lasts for a few hours Different sizes in pairs
    18. 18. The Active Sun – Solar Flares• Brief outbursts; normally last about an hour; appear as a sudden brightening of the region above a sunspot cluster.• Release enormous amounts of energy in the form of ultraviolet, radio, and X-ray radiation.• Auroras are bright displays of ever-changing light caused by solar radiation (from flares) interacting with the upper atmosphere in the region of the poles.
    19. 19. •Violent energyexplosion in Sunspotgroups•Release gases andcharged particles intothe air•Electrons, Visible light,X-ray and UV rays•Up to 5 million degrees
    20. 20. • Huge cloudlike structures consisting of chromospheric gases.• Exploding from the Sun’s surface• Ionized gases trapped by magnetic fields that extend from regions of intense solar activity.• Temperature: 10 000 degrees
    21. 21.  Immense clouds of glowing gases  Shoot up to 100 000 km from Sun surface Cause hydrogen and Helium to escape Will be cooled down and attracted back to Sun surface
    22. 22. http://umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/eit/images/Sun_and_earth.jpg
    23. 23. Creation of Winds•Called solar winds – continuous stream ofelectrically charged particles that are given off bya magnetic field around the sun.•Given off where the magnetic field loops out intospace instead of looping back into the sun.•Takes about 4.5 days to reach Earth.•Solar winds affect the entire solar system. Theycan even cause electronic disruptions onEarth.
    24. 24. For a star to remain stable the force of GRAVITY must be balanced by the force of PRESSURE.  Gravity – pulls sun inward (collapsing  Thermal Pressure – pushes outward (keeping the sun from collapsing)  Cause of Pressure is heat from fusion•When the sun runs out of “fuel”: When fusion stops  Heat decreases  Pressure decreases  GRAVITY WINS! (The star will collapse w/out Pressure pushing outward) Our sun will be stable for ~ 5 billion more years
    25. 25. •Fusioncontinues toproduce heavierelements andrelease energyuntil IRON ismade.•Fusion stopswith IRON.•Elementsheavier than Ironcan only bemade during thesupernovaexplosion.•The star willcollapse orexplode.
    26. 26. 1. Label the A Atmospheric Layers. 2. Give description of each layer. B (Gives off D 3. Label the visible light) interior layers. E 4. Give description of each FC layer.Normally not visible.Gives of red light

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