Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction

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Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction

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  • Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 4 Plant Reproduction

    1. 1. Plant Reproduction
    2. 2. Reproduction of plants Plants Non- Flowering flowering By Flowers & Vegetative Spores Cones Seeds reproduction formation
    3. 3. Plant Asexual Reproduction Above ground Stems arch over and take root at the tips, forming new plants (Forsythia, Raspberry and Strawberry) Horizontal above ground stems are called stolons
    4. 4. Plant Asexual Reproduction Underground stems that serve for food storage and reproduction. Rhizomes, bulbs, corms and tubers
    5. 5. Plant Asexual Reproduction Leaves—Mitosis along the meristems at the leaf margins produce tiny plantlets that fall off and can take up an independent existence.
    6. 6. Advantages OfVegetative Propagation The young plant uses the food resources of the parent plant, while it is developing. Only one parent plant is involved. Good and desirable parental characters are retained in the offspring. The new plant formed matures more rapidly than the plant which grows from seeds. A large number of desired varieties of plant are produced in a very short time.
    7. 7. Disadvantages OfVegetative Propagation No new varieties are produced. Over crowding of the vegetative produced plants leads to severe competition for survival among them. Lack of variety leads to reduce resistance to disease and changes in the environment. Colonization of the new localities is unlikely. Thus the plants are not widely distributed.
    8. 8. The life cycle of aflowering plant 4. Pollination 3. Flower blossom 5. Fertilization 2. Plantdevelopment & maturation 6. Seed/Fruit formation 1. Germination 7. Seed dispersal
    9. 9. Seed Structure Seed coat / Testa Forms a tough Plumule protective layer Embryo shoot Embryo – grows into seedlingsCotyledon / Food storeProvides the embryo Radicleplant with food. Embryo root
    10. 10. Seed Germination
    11. 11. Plant grow & mature
    12. 12. The Parts of a Flower Most flowers have four parts:This is a bisexual plant!! sepals, petals, stamen, carpels / pistil
    13. 13. Carpel Stamen
    14. 14. PetalsColourful to attract the insects pollinators
    15. 15. SepalsProtect the flower budCarry out photosynthesis
    16. 16. Nectariesgive out sugary liquid to attract insects
    17. 17. Stamen- Pollen grains -Anther - Filament
    18. 18. Pistils- Stigma- Style- Ovary- Ovule • Receive Style • Protect ovule pollen • Supports • Ovule becomes seed grains stigma after fertilization Stigma Ovary
    19. 19. Pollen Pollen grainsMale gametes Stigma Pollen tube Ovary OvuleFemale gametes
    20. 20. PollinationPollination involves the transfer of pollen (male gamete) from the anther to the stigma (outermost female part)
    21. 21. Types of pollination
    22. 22. Self pollinationNo variation
    23. 23. Types of pollinationCross – Pollination  Pollen of a plant pollinates another plant.  Still genetically the same, with variations
    24. 24. Advantages of Cross Pollination Better Quality Fruits Healthier Plants Resistant to disease
    25. 25. Increase the chance of Cross-pollination
    26. 26. Plant pollinators - Animals
    27. 27. Plant pollinators - Wind
    28. 28. Unpollinated PollinatedFlowers flowers
    29. 29. Insect Pollinated Plants
    30. 30. Some flowers provide food (e.g., nectar orpollen) to their pollinators Honey bee collecting pollen and nectar
    31. 31. Wind Pollinated Plants
    32. 32. Pollination Comparison Structure Wind Insect Pollinated Pollinated Size Small Large Petals dull bright colour Scent none scented Pollen light sticky Stamen dangling outside inside flower Stigma feathery sticky Nectar none makes sugar
    33. 33. Pollen grain and Fertilisation
    34. 34. Formation of Pollen Tube
    35. 35. Pollination >>> Fertilization
    36. 36. After FertilisationOnce fertilization has taken place thezygote (fertilized ovule)becomes a seed,and the ovary becomes a fruit.The petals die and fall off.The plant seeds are in the fruit.
    37. 37. Development of the seed and fruit Ovule >>>> seed Tissues of the ovary >>>> fruit
    38. 38. Development of the seed and fruit
    39. 39. Development of the seed and fruit There are many kinds of fruits Carpels Flower Stigma Stamen Ovule Carpel Each (fruitlet) Stigma segment develops Seed from the carpel of Stamen one flower Pea Raspberry PineappleSimple fruit - single carpel of Aggregate fruit - many separate Multiple fruit - many carpelsone flower carpels of one flower of many flowers
    40. 40. What are fruits like?The fruits can be: - soft & fleshy - hard & dry• What fruits can you think of?• What are their seeds like?
    41. 41. Soft & Fleshy Fruits
    42. 42. Hard & Dry Fruit
    43. 43. Seed Dispersal- why?Seeds must be carried away (dispersed /scattered) from the parent plant to:• Reduce overcrowding• Reduce competition for: - Water - Light - Nutrients
    44. 44. How birds and animals help seeddispersalBirds and animals eat the fruits and excrete the seeds away from the parent plant.
    45. 45. Development of the seed and fruit Fruits aid seed dispersalMany dry fruits are wind dispersed
    46. 46. Development of the seed and fruit Fruits aid seed dispersalSome dry fruits are animal dispersed
    47. 47. Development of the seed and fruit Fruits aid seed dispersalMany fleshy fruits are animal dispersed
    48. 48. Development of the seed and fruit Fruits aid seed dispersalSome fruits disperse seeds explosively (e.g., some mistletoes)
    49. 49. Development of the seed and fruit Fruits aid seed dispersalSome fruits make seeds buoyant, to aid dispersal by water
    50. 50. Seed DispersalDispersal Description Seeds/method Fruits Wind Seeds are designed to travel as far as possible. May have extensions which act as parachutes or wings. Fruits may be shaken like a pepper pot.
    51. 51. Seed Dispersal Dispersal Description Seeds/ method Fruits Animal Some have little hooks (external) or sticky substances so they stick onto the animal’s fur, are carried away and rubbed off later. Some carried away by animals and dropped.
    52. 52. Types of Seeds
    53. 53. Dicotyledonous Seed
    54. 54. Stages of Seed GerminationAbsorption of Testa Radicle Grows Lateral rootswater through Ruptures downwards formed micropyle Plumule Cotyledons is Hypocotyl Hypocotyl exposed to pulled above straighten lengthens sunlight ground 1st foliage Second leaves Photosynthesis leaves exposed
    55. 55. Seed Germination Process
    56. 56. Cotyledon Hypogeal remains underground Types of seedgermination Cotyledon Epigeal above the ground
    57. 57. Conditions for Seed Germination
    58. 58. GM Crops & Foods
    59. 59. FoodCrisis
    60. 60. Advantages of GM foods(1) Pesticide alternative Crop loss due to pests can be financiallycrippling for farmers which is the reason most farmers usepesticides. As an alternative to pesticides, crops such as corn andsoybeans can be genetically altered to resist pests - making thefarmer, the consumer and the environmentalist happy.(2) Disease resistance There are many diseases - includingfungi, viruses and bacteria - that can attack crops. With new GMtechnology, scientists can create crops that are genetically resistant tothese attackers.(3) Cold tolerance In order to prevent cold temperatures from killingcrops, scientists can take a gene that causes cold water fish to produce"antifreeze", and place it into certain plants that are susceptible tofrost.(4) Drought resistance Genetically altering crops to resist droughtand grow in otherwise non-ideal conditions (like poor soilquality), farmers are able to grow crops in areas that were previouslyunsuitable for agriculture.(5) Adding nutritional value Scientists are able to identifynutritional deficiencies in specific parts of the world, and geneticallyenhance the corn in order to satisfy the nutritional need.

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