Art and Affective Computing: Holistic approach


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Women&Technologies: Research and Innovation. Nell'ambito del prestigioso WCC, (World Computer Congress), una conferenza nella conferenza dedicata alle donne e alle tecnologie, con un particolare focus su ricerca e innovazione. Presentazione per l'intervento a distanza di Nik Nailah Binti Abdullah (Information Systems Architecture Research Division, National Institute of Informatics, Tokyo, Japan), intitolato "Art and Affective Computing: Holistic approach"

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Art and Affective Computing: Holistic approach

  1. 1. Art and Affective Computing: Holistic approach Nik Nailah Binti Abdullah National Institute of Informatics, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Japan. [email_address]
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Women in ICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotype gender issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seek history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dichotomy view of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invent future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic approach to technology, not a new movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective computing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several distinguished women as inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul>
  3. 3. Women in ICT Stereotype gender issues
  4. 4. Gender issues <ul><li>“The under-representation of women in science and technology adds to the gender differences and inequalities in this field…” </li></ul><ul><li>Gender equality and empowerment of women through ICT (United Nations, 2005). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stereotypical ideas about women and technologies <ul><li>“ The problem is worse in Africa than in any other region. Many (predominantly male) math and science teachers in Africa hold outmoded views that girls can’t think or work scientifically and that science is too mechanical and technical for girls, thus discouraging female students..” </li></ul><ul><li>Paving the Way for Girls to Achieve Excellent in Science and Math: science, technology and math education (STME) clinic for girls. (Quaisie, Georgina, 1996) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Stereotypical ideas about technologies <ul><li>“ We tend to see the ICT sector as a realm of society that is unfriendly and dominated by men. We associate technology with men and assume that its production, application and maintenance are areas that fall more easily into the male domain. In these ways we ourselves sometimes play an unconscious role in reproducing the gendered nature of our society and the ICT sector at large. These internal barriers to participating in the ICT sector must also be overcome” </li></ul><ul><li>Engendering ICT policy: guidelines for action. (African Information Society-Gender Working Group. 1999) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Seek history Technology in its’ traditional sense
  8. 8. Seek history <ul><li>“ Technology is generally ‘black-boxed’ in that the human (or more usually male) work that goes into its production is obscured by technological determinism which separates out technological ‘development’ from the ‘social’ sphere and produces technologies (and their ‘effects’) as ‘inevitable’ and usually desirable (as ‘progress’)…” </li></ul><ul><li>Moving In, Moving Up Moving Out: A Survey of Women in ICT', Symposium on Gender and ICT: Working for Change (Moore et al, 2005) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Either/or dichotomy idea of technology <ul><li>Knowledge representation of technology as either/or </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modeled as If..Then (technology then user/social) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of technology should include user in the loop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When user is included, a more holistic approach to technology study is needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence need to be modeled as both/and framework (technology+user/social). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Invent the future
  11. 11. The ‘holistic’ study of technology <ul><li>In real world practice , building and understanding technology is a connection between the two: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard approach (logics, mathematics) and ‘holistic’ approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach as a course subject in technologies is lacking. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g.,Social science, anthropology, arts, psychology, literature. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. An example of a holistic study of technology <ul><li>&quot;Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-machine Communication&quot; (1987) by Lucy Suchman , an anthropologist and winner of 2002 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major contribution to the foundation of Human-Computer Interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes situated cognition, ethnographic analysis, conversational analysis and Participatory Design techniques for the development of interactive computer systems. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The ‘holistic’ study of technology <ul><li>By meaning of ‘holistic’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that all the properties of a given system (e.g., biological, chemical, social, mental, linguistic) cannot be determined or explained by its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. ( Wikipedia ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Affective computing <ul><li>Branch of AI that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deals with the design of systems and devices that can recognize, interpret, and process human emotions ( Wikipedia ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion or other affective phenomena ( MIT media lab: Affective Computing Group ). </li></ul></ul>Becomes more complex when it is build as a technology for the Web!
  15. 15. Affective computing <ul><li>A study that combines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engineering and computer science with psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, sociology, education, psychophysiology, value-centered design, ethics, arts….or even anthropology! </li></ul></ul>When combining all the disciplines above then one needs to view the technology with a holistic approach!
  16. 16. Where women come in <ul><li>Recent statistics (2004-2005) by Women in Science indicates high number of women graduates (Bachelor/Masters) in the following studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts (visual arts, design/applied arts) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Where women come in <ul><li>Some broad generalization that women are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simultaneous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>holistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>imaginative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>holistical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But it doesn’t matter even if they generalize about us! These are good qualities for the future technologies! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Invent the future <ul><li>For example, studies in anthropology, ethnography, arts, and psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require one to be-intuitive ( e.g., doing anthropology ), observant ( e.g., doing anthropology, and psychology ) imaginative ( e.g., doing arts ), tolerance to ambiguity (e.g., anthropology, psychology of emotions ), holistic… </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Invent the future <ul><li>Reversing stereotypes about gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Also need to reverse stereotypes about technologies and the approach to studying technologies (new ideas combine with traditional ones). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Invent the future: The Web is my world Communities In Africa Communities In Asia Communities In Europe Communities In North America Communities in South America A field of application for affective computing Is HCI e.g.,emotion monitoring agents Notes of observations: 1.What is the community of housewives using blog in Asia like? 2. What is the community of housewives using blog in Europe like? 3. What kind of other tools do they do use to organize their activities? 4. What is the common problem/needs exhibited? What sort of affective design can we build to improve their activities? 5. How do we design that the tool is equally ‘aesthetic ’?
  21. 21. Affective computing in HCI <ul><li>When one crosses over to HCI, studying people and technology on the Web crosses boundaries to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of practice, cultures, and understanding how tools are used as part of the community/culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Intel people and practices research group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Invent the future Anthropology the study of humanity. origins in the natural sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences Arts creations, and expressions appealing or attractive to the mind of an individual. &quot;art&quot; may be used to cover all or any of the arts, e.g, painting, music, literature Psychology of emotions Study of emotion from a mental and physiological state associated with feelings, thoughts, and behaviours. Holistic approach, not a new movement
  23. 23. Invent the future <ul><li>Women is privileged for the next generation of ICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more “systematic” approach to studying technologies on the Web is needed where holistic approach combines with traditional approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is when we need women in arts, in psychology, and in anthropology to create the next generation for ICT. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Several distinguished women as inspiration
  25. 25. Women in Anthropology <ul><li>Ruth Benedict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ her view of human cultures as 'personality writ large’” (Wikipedia) Patterns of culture, 1934. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Women in Anthropology <ul><li>Margaret Mead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Her use of cross-cultural comparison to highlight issues within Western society contributed greatly to the heightened awareness of Anthropology and Ethnographic study in the USA (Wikipedia) Coming of Age in Samoa, 1928. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Women in Anthropology <ul><li>Niara Sudarkasa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Africanist anthropologists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring the African- American experience. (1995) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Women in Arts <ul><li>Frieda Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican painter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>influenced by indigenous cultures of Mexico as well as by European influences that include Realism, Symbolism, and Surrealism. </li></ul></ul>Frida Kahlo, Self-portrait ( Wikipedia )
  29. 29. Women in Arts <ul><li>Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>was an American painter and printmaker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impressionism movement </li></ul></ul>Tea, 1880 ( Wkipedia )
  30. 30. Women in Arts <ul><li>Tamara de Lempicka (May 16, 1898 - March 18, 1980), </li></ul><ul><ul><li>born Maria Górska in Warsaw, Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was a Polish Art Deco painter </li></ul></ul>The Musician, 1929 ( Wikipedia )
  31. 31. Women in Psychology of Emotions <ul><li>Magda B. Arnold (1903-2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>first contemporary theorist to develop appraisal theory of emotions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lisa Feldman Barrett </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social psychologist and researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specializing in affective science and human emotion. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phoebe Ellsworth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>professor in social psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emotion, psychology and law, person perception, cross-cultural psychology, and research methods. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Perspectives
  33. 33. Women and technologies <ul><li>We need a different perspectives into studying technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not just technical- it’s revolving around people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need a systematic approach to introduce technology from ‘user’s perspective’ to engage more women in the field. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Women and technologies <ul><li>We need more women! </li></ul><ul><li>And Women can have ICT as an exciting study of people and tools! (and in some form as an expression to support people and tools) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Thank you!