Ohio History Review
When reviewing these slides focus more on the big
ideas. Dates are important, but the the key ideas
are more important.
You can also review pages 50-109 in your book,
but this slideshow gives the key information we
have studied in class.
The Paleoindian Era
1) Paleoindians are considered
the earliest Ohioans.
2) Archaeological evidence
suggests that the Paleoindian
Culture started in Ohio around
9000 B.C. or about 11,000 years
Artist rendition of Paleo-Indians
3) Paleoindians were hunter-
after a hunt. gatherers. They didn’t know
how to farm. So they moved
around frequently for survival.
• lived in what is now Ohio from about 3,000 years ago
to about 2,000 years ago.
• are considered to be Ohio’s ﬁrst farmers. This helped
the Adena to settle in an area instead of having to
move frequently like the Paleoindians. This also gave
the Adena the time to do other things like create
pottery and build mounds.
• settled in areas near rivers, most likely because the
rivers gave them a fresh water supply and ﬁsh for a
• lived in Ohio from about 2,000 years ago to 1,500 years
• like the Adena, the Hopewell settled near rivers and
were also farmers.
• The Hopewell also built mounds.
• There is evidence that the Hopewell were also “long-
distance” traders. In and near Hopewell mound sites,
archaeologists have found tools and art made from
materials like obsidian and mica that are not naturally
found in Ohio.
The Fort Ancient People
• About 1,000 years ago a newer mound building culture
called the Fort Ancient People lived in Ohio.
• They lived a life that many archaeologists think was
very similar to the Hopewell, but they had much larger
villages and built much larger mounds.
Images of Great
in Adams County.
The mounds created and
left by the Moundbuilders
most likely had lots of
purposes. Archaeologists believe these mounds could have
been burial mounds, used for religious ceremonies, and
possibly used as a calendar device (tracking shadows that
parts of the mounds made)
The Historic Tribes
There were differences
From the early in these tribes, but
1700s until the mid there were also many
1800s, the “historic” similarities. The
tribes lived in Ohio. similarities include:
These tribes were
generally peaceful 1) Settlements near
with each other and rivers.
often times became 2) Family life that
allies with each included close
other during relationships with
conﬂicts with white grandparents, cousins,
settlers. aunts and uncles.
3) A belief that they
When white explorers and settlers started coming were caretakers of
into what is now Ohio, the tribes learned about new land, not owners of the
ideas, foods, clothing and weapons. At ﬁrst the land.
relationship bet ween the tribes and the settlers was 4) A culture grounded in
good, but later there was a great deal of conﬂict. respect.
Conﬂict in Ohio 1795
Treaty of Greenville
Americans Create a zone in
1750 to 1795 Northwest Ohio for Tribes.
French Trading 1763 1787
with Historic Tribes French Surrender their claim Ohio becomes part
(French had established for Ohio Country to England of Northwest Territory
forts in Ohio Country)
1754 -1763 1776-1783 1785-1794
French and Indian War American Revolution Frontier Wars
Virginia Company 1794
Claims Ohio Country Battle of Fallen Timbers
Indians side with French Indians side with British Indians have no Allies
against British against Colonists in ﬁght against the Americans
The “Road to Statehood”
The Northwest Ordinance
1) In 1787, The U.S. Congress passed the
Northwest Ordinance which created the
2) Ohio’s ﬁrst “American” settlement was
Marietta. Cleveland and Cincinnati came
3) To become a state, an area needed:
1) government leaders chosen by
the U.S. Congress.
2) to have 5,000 white males in the
area so a vote for a legislature could
3) a total of 60,000 residents so
that a state constitution could be
In the Northwest Territory, settlers had guaranteed
1) The freedom of speech.
2) The right to worship as they pleased.
3) The right to a trial by jury.
The Northwest Territory would also be a place where
people could NOT own slaves.