1. China leverages computer network attack and exploitation techniques, harvesting information critical to building a modern nation-state and "informationalized", technical military forces.
2. China adapted ancient stratagems for CNA & CNE operations.
3. China can claim plausible denial for nation-sponsored hacking activities, hiding within the sea of everyday hackers.
4. On the other hand, north Korea must take CNA & CNE operations outside its country's boundaries.