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Wisp Bosnia


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Wisp Bosnia

  1. 1. WISP: Assignment 2BOSNIA<br />Done By:<br />Tan Kian Tuck (S10049760B)<br />Koh Sui Xiong (S10047038K)<br />Sum Zheng Wei Samuel (S10047737H)<br />
  3. 3. Background information<br /> Bosnia and Herzegovina has historically been a multi-ethnic state.<br /> In 1990, the population of the country was approximately<br />43% Bosniacs (Muslims)<br />31% Serbians<br />17% Croatians<br /> However since that time, the Bosniac population has declined and Serb has risen because of the ethnic cleansing by Serbian army<br />
  4. 4. Background Information<br /> In November 1990, the first multi-party election took place and the three largest nationalist parties won<br />Party of Democratic Action<br />Serbian Democratic Party<br />Croatian Democratic Union<br /> Power was divided along the ethnic lines<br />President of Socialist Republic of Bosnia Herzegovina was a Bosiac<br />President of the Parliament was a Serbian<br />Prime minster was a Croatian<br />
  5. 5. Conflicts Increasing Events<br /> A war does not takes place suddenly. It needed something to trigger and these were some events that indirectly led to the war.<br /> In 1955-1958: The Yugoslav state encouraged Bosniacs to move and immigrate to Turkey by banning Muslim religion and allowing an easy and quick procedure for releasing from Yugoslav citizenship.<br />In 1991: Bosniac’s actors set up Moslem Ethnic Council. However this body was never been recognized by Serbian authorities.<br />
  6. 6. Main Factors<br />Race and Religion<br />Three main races<br />Bosniacs, Serbs, Croats<br />Bosnian Muslims & Croatian Christians<br />Basic Division<br />All protecting their own “ethnic rights”<br />Real minorities practically non-existent, the Jews<br />
  7. 7. Main Factors<br />Social Inequalities<br />Bosniacs no citizenship (1963)<br />Only given if declared as Serbs<br />Islam was not even recognized at one point of time (1963)<br />Votes held by the Bosniacs not recognized (1991)<br />Votes based on geographic residence<br />Bosnian language not recognized (until year 2000)<br />
  8. 8. Social Inequality<br /> Refers to a lack of social equality whereby individuals do not have equal social status.<br /> Before the Bosnian war started, Bosnian Muslims in Eastern Bosnia had already suffered from social inequality such as:<br />Removed from their employment<br />Be Ostracized<br />Freedom to move was restricted<br />
  9. 9. Main Factors<br />Prejudices Leading To Discrimination<br />Races<br />Serbs thought of other races as “lower” people<br />“Ethnic Cleansing”<br />Women<br />Controversial stereotypes of women as dedicated mothers or seductive models<br />Presented either as mother/wife/housewife, old woman, or show business figure<br />
  10. 10. Ethnic Cleansing<br /> The initial stages of the operation typically consists of systematic and brutal removal through:<br />Abductions<br />Killings of high profile political and business personalities in the area<br /> It was done with the aim of depriving the community targeted as a whole of political, social and economic leadership and support.<br />
  11. 11. Treatment of Women<br />General Treatment Of Women<br />Women nearly invisible<br />Only appear when one goes to the entertainment, fashion or TV section<br />When analysts are asked to comment on social/political events, 90% of the time men<br />Underrepresented at higher levels of decision-making in the media<br />Rarely chief editors, general managers or decision makers<br />Print media marginalize women in dominating areas<br />Judged on looks, and not achievements<br />
  12. 12. Treatment of Womem<br /> In Bosnia, studies found that there are controversial stereotypes of women as:<br />Dedicated mothers<br />Seductive models<br />Items in print media about women are often presented incorrectly<br />Often happens in reporting crimes committed by women as they were almost automatically declared guilty<br />
  13. 13. Other Factors<br />Economic<br />Largely Agricultural based<br />Only industrialized nearing 1990s<br />Weak<br />Serbians came into contact with most development<br />Lead to securing of advanced military technology and equipment<br />Largely the cause of Serbs sense of superiority <br />
  14. 14. Other Factors<br />Political<br />Bosniacs boycott elections (1992, 1993)<br />Declarations of independence, Sovereign states<br />Bosnia-Hercegovina and Croatia (1993)<br />Serbs opposed independence<br />Immediate cause of destruction in the nation<br />
  15. 15. Other Factors<br />Allport&apos;s Scale of Prejudice<br />Scale 1: Antilocution<br />means a majority group freely make jokes about a minority group.<br />Scale 2: Avoidance<br />People in a minority group are actively avoided by members of the majority group.<br />Scale 3: Discrimination<br />Minority group is discriminated against by denying them opportunities and services and so putting prejudice into action.<br />Scale 4: Physical Attack<br />The majority group vandalize minority group things, they burn property and carry out violent attacks on individuals or groups.<br />Scale 5: Extermination<br />The majority group seeks extermination or removal of the minority group.<br />the Rwandan Genocide and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia.<br />
  17. 17. Discrimination<br />There are similar discriminations between Bosnia and Today Singapore, however they are not obvious in reality.<br />The main discrimination that is similar are the following:<br />Gender discrimination<br />Racial discrimination<br />Different discrimination found in Singapore and not in Bosnia.<br />Age discrimination<br />
  18. 18. Gender Discrimination<br />In present Singapore, gender discrimination still exist but not many people have seen it.<br />The discriminated gender are the women.<br />Most of them are limited to low-paying jobs.<br />Happen in both periphery and core industry.<br />Caused by statistical discrimination, pre-existing structural differences and sexism.<br />
  19. 19. Racial Discrimination<br />Singapore is a Chinese dominated , country, thus, other minority group such as Malays and Eurasians will experience some racism.<br />Malays are often singled out as a “socially and economically underachieving” community in Singapore.<br />Racial discrimination leads to the racial riots in 1964 which also known as Prophet Muhammad Birthday Riots, 1964 Racial Riots, and 1964 Sino-Malay Riots.<br />
  20. 20. Continuation from racial discrimination<br />The four official groups in Singapore coexisted peacefully since its independence in 1965<br />Does not mean that racial discrimination and intolerance are non-existent.<br />Due to everyday social tensions and discomforts arising from living with cultural difference are rarely officially acknowledged.<br />The term racism is entirely absent from official discourse and public debate in Singapore.<br />
  21. 21. Age Discrimination<br />The discrimination did not happen in Bosnia but in Singapore.<br />It occurs when a decision is made on the basis of a person’s age.<br />Due to The Age Discrimination Employment Act developed in 1967, employer are not allowed to have discrimination against according to their age when it comes to: “term, condition or privilege of employment”.<br />
  22. 22. Prejudice<br />The prejudices that are found in Singapore are as followed:<br />Foreign Talent<br />PRC<br />Bangladesh<br />All the above prejudice are not similar to the one happen in Bosnia.<br />
  23. 23. Foreign Talent<br />Some will look down on Singaporeans thinking we do not have the capability or knowledge.<br />Mostly occupying the highest paid position and the lowest paid position.<br />Different treatment when comes to a foreigners and a locals.<br />
  24. 24. PRC<br />Also know as People’s Republic of China<br />Taking over Singaporean jobs as they can accept a lower pay.<br />They way they speak.<br />Their Chinese accent is different from Singapore Chinese.<br />Attitude.<br />Some have bad attitude thinking that they are always right and forget they are in another country.<br />Language Barrier.<br />Mostly do not understand English, thus, unable to communicate.<br />
  25. 25. Bangladesh<br />Due to smell<br />Some people don’t like them as they do not smell good.<br />Their skin color<br />Having prejudice because they are black or brown in color.<br />Mostly taking up construction jobs.<br />Most people think of construction jobs as lowly jobs.<br />
  26. 26. If unchecked by 2061<br />The future of Singapore might change as the discrimination or prejudice become worse.<br />Another racial riot between races or gender might happen.<br />Thus will result in social fractures and divisions<br />
  27. 27. PART CWhat can be done to prevent the imagined future from becoming a reality?<br />
  28. 28. Brainstorming<br />Creating public awareness of the issues through different means.<br />Medias<br />Dramas / Plays / Acts<br /> Alerting Singaporeans about the low birth rate issues and methods to prevent families from having only one child.<br />Adopting babies <br />Baby Bonuses <br />
  29. 29. Racial Inequality<br />Facts:<br />In the older days, there use to be racial riots. The Malays felt that they are not being treated equally. For example, Chinese are richer and they have a larger population in Singapore<br />In present, Government try to promote racial equality. They provide the Malays with study incentives such as no school fee paid. Racial harmony day is also celebrated.<br />
  30. 30. Racial Inequality Solutions<br />Organized campaign to promote racial harmony.<br />Organized more job fair prioritize for women so that they are not being discriminated against.<br />Promote gender equality in all races in Singapore.<br />By having games of having both gender participating.<br />
  31. 31. Racial Inequality Solutions<br />Races equality measures<br />HDB – remain the percentages of different races <br />Organizing events that require different races to be working together<br />Talks and campaign on different races to let the people understand each other differences and culture<br />Make it illegal to discriminate on different races<br />
  32. 32. Gender Inequality<br />Facts:<br />Women in the past are being treated as salve. They have no right to reject what they are being told to do by males. For example, female can not doesn’t choose their husband, it’s the husband that choose the wife.<br />In modern world, women are treated more equally than the past. Some women are getting high position in company and have proven they can be better than male.<br />
  33. 33. Gender Inequality Solution<br />Talks on how capable women can be in modern world<br />For female, focusing mainly on young girls<br />Show them what women can achieve <br />Start to build up their confidence from young, let them believe they can do it<br />Show that women aren’t inferior as compare to guys, showing examples<br />
  34. 34. Gender Inequality Solutions<br />Women incentives<br />Advantages in term of living condition, eg. Work incentives for women<br />Giving them more incentives that won’t make them feel inferior<br />Protective measures against discrimination<br />
  35. 35. Low Birth Rate<br />Government are encouraging families into having more children. One method is giving baby bonus for first 4 children born in a family.<br />
  36. 36. Low Birth Rate Solutions<br />Promote high birth rate<br />Give better child incentives<br />Talks to non-children family, showing them the joy and advantages of having children<br />Government provide more subsidies for children, will provide more for poor family<br />
  37. 37. Lack of Water Source<br />Securing water sources<br />Facts:<br />Singapore is a small country without much water resources, therefore we have to get water from neighboring countries. However, Singapore have now started on producing new water as another source of water<br />
  38. 38. Lack of Water Source Solutions<br />Securing water sources<br />Build good relationship with more neighboring countries with water resource<br />Trade agreement with other countries for water sources, act as a backup plan if Malaysia break off water contract talks<br />Keeping good relationship with Malaysia<br />
  39. 39. Genetic Engineering Solutions<br />Available only if a family already have a child and want another children of different gender<br />Impose a limit to the number of males and female born per year, balancing the ratio<br />Increase the fees of using genetic engineering significantly to prevent large amount of people using it<br />
  40. 40. Thank You<br />Done By:<br />Tan Kian Tuck (S10049760B)<br />Koh Sui Xiong (S10047038K)<br />Sum Zheng Wei Samuel (S10047737H)<br />
  41. 41. References<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /> **<br />