Mapping of icing in Sweden!        On the influence from icing on wind                 energy production      !            ...
Outline!Ÿ  The meso-scale model WRF!Ÿ  Calculations of icing!Ÿ  Icing map!Ÿ  Production loss due to icing!Ÿ  Future d...
Icing!Ÿ  ISO standard – atmospheric icing on structures!        •  ice loads are important in the design of masts,       ...
Icing conditions!Ÿ  Temperatures below freezing!                                                    in-cloudŸ  cloud or ...
Mesoscale model!Ÿ  The meso-scale refers to the time and spatial scale of the features    resolved by the model. The mode...
16.08.2011   6
dM/dt > 10g/hr!   dM/dt > 50g/hr!
Model verification!Ÿ  A project funded by Energimyndigheten:                                         !  Ÿ  ice measuremen...
Modeling of ice load!Ice load:   model (blue)   observed (red)Ice load:   model (blue)   observed (red)                   ...
Sublimation!         SUBLIMATION   MELTING
Modeling of ice load!Ÿ  The model describes:!     •  timing of ice accumulation!     •  timing of sublimation and melting...
Power production!Ÿ  Icing will change the    aerodynamic properties of    the WT blade. !Ÿ  Result in reduced power    o...
Power production!Ÿ  Power curve May 2010!                            14
Power production!Ÿ  Power curve November 2009!                                 15
Estimating production loss! Power [% of rated]                              16
Estimating production loss!Ice load:   model (blue)   observed (red)                    100%Production loss:    50%   mode...
Power production index!Power index [%]                                            18
Future development!Ÿ  Meso-scale model:!   Ÿ  Further development of the meso-scale model and optimize       the use of ...
Thank you!                        !Wind and icing map are now available for Sweden:            www.vindteknikk.no      !  ...
Mapping of icing in Sweden – On the influence from icing on wind energy production
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Mapping of icing in Sweden – On the influence from icing on wind energy production

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Presentation by Øyvind Byrkjedal, Kjeller Vindteknikk on Winterwind 2012, session 3a. "Mapping of icing in Sweden – On the influence from icing on wind energy production"

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Mapping of icing in Sweden – On the influence from icing on wind energy production

  1. 1. Mapping of icing in Sweden! On the influence from icing on wind energy production ! Øyvind Byrkjedal ! Kjeller Vindteknikk oyvind.byrkjedal@vindteknikk.noWintewind 2012, Skellefteå 07.02.2012
  2. 2. Outline!Ÿ  The meso-scale model WRF!Ÿ  Calculations of icing!Ÿ  Icing map!Ÿ  Production loss due to icing!Ÿ  Future development! 2
  3. 3. Icing!Ÿ  ISO standard – atmospheric icing on structures! •  ice loads are important in the design of masts, powerlines, other structures in cold climate! 3
  4. 4. Icing conditions!Ÿ  Temperatures below freezing! in-cloudŸ  cloud or fog containing small water droplets! icingŸ  Something to freeze to!Ÿ  Lifting of airmasses ! condensation height wind west east 4
  5. 5. Mesoscale model!Ÿ  The meso-scale refers to the time and spatial scale of the features resolved by the model. The model resolves low-pressure systems and fronts.Ÿ  WRF – Weather Research and ForecastingŸ  The model describes the atmosphere dynamics (wind, temperature and humidity), and includes physical description of radiation, cloud formation, precipitation, snow, surface processes, etc.Ÿ  The model performes calculations in the time domain, no steady- state modelŸ  Typical model resolution down to 1km x 1km 5
  6. 6. 16.08.2011 6
  7. 7. dM/dt > 10g/hr! dM/dt > 50g/hr!
  8. 8. Model verification!Ÿ  A project funded by Energimyndigheten: ! Ÿ  ice measurements at 8 sites! Ÿ  production data from 3 wind farms!Ÿ  This has lead to a large improvement in our knowledge about icing and its effect on wind power production! 9
  9. 9. Modeling of ice load!Ice load: model (blue) observed (red)Ice load: model (blue) observed (red) 10
  10. 10. Sublimation! SUBLIMATION MELTING
  11. 11. Modeling of ice load!Ÿ  The model describes:! •  timing of ice accumulation! •  timing of sublimation and melting!Ÿ  The model underestimates large ice loads!Ÿ  Some icing events found in the model but not from observations.!Ÿ  Uncertainty also for the observations.! 12
  12. 12. Power production!Ÿ  Icing will change the aerodynamic properties of the WT blade. !Ÿ  Result in reduced power output.! 13
  13. 13. Power production!Ÿ  Power curve May 2010! 14
  14. 14. Power production!Ÿ  Power curve November 2009! 15
  15. 15. Estimating production loss! Power [% of rated] 16
  16. 16. Estimating production loss!Ice load: model (blue) observed (red) 100%Production loss: 50% model (blue) observed (red) 0% 17
  17. 17. Power production index!Power index [%] 18
  18. 18. Future development!Ÿ  Meso-scale model:! Ÿ  Further development of the meso-scale model and optimize the use of the model for icing calculations! Ÿ  Forecasting of icing!Ÿ  Production loss calculations! Ÿ  Calculation of ice loads directly on the blade! Ÿ  Calculations of the aerodynamic change of the WT blade and its effect on power yield!Ÿ  More data needed!! Ÿ  Data on droplet sizes and distributions! Ÿ  The production loss model is tuned to the available data at a limited number of sites. This is a limitation, how well will other sites be represented?! 19
  19. 19. Thank you! !Wind and icing map are now available for Sweden: www.vindteknikk.no ! 20

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