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Root Cause Analysis: Understand Why Electronic Parts Fail In Your Wind Turbine

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Can’t understand why certain performance problems keep recurring with your wind turbines? Let PSI Repair Services show you the importance of identifying the source of electronic-related performance problems with root cause analysis. As a leading Independent Service Provider (ISP) in the wind energy industry, PSI uses innovative methods to determine the root cause of failures and then engineers custom solutions to resolve these problems. In this informative webinar, PSI will provide real-world examples of how its powerful root cause analysis methods have helped resolve recurring failures of electronic parts and systems. In addition, you will see how diagnostic data can be used to develop improvements and replacements for underperforming components. Don’t miss out on this valuable event.

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Root Cause Analysis: Understand Why Electronic Parts Fail In Your Wind Turbine

  1. 1. Root Cause Analysis: Understand Why Electronic Parts Fail In Your Wind Turbine
  2. 2. q  This webinar will be available afterwards at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Q&A at the end of the presentation q  Hashtag for this webinar: #WindWebinar Before We Start
  3. 3. Michelle Froese Moderator Windpower Engineering & Development John Greulich Director of Sales PSI Repair Services, Inc. Aaron Lawson Project Manager PSI Repair Services, Inc. Root Cause Analysis: Understand Why Electronic Parts Fail In Your Wind Turbine
  4. 4. #WindWebinar http://info.psi-repair.com/wind-root-cause-analysis
  5. 5. #WindWebinar OUR LIVONIA CAMPUS
  6. 6. #WindWebinar OUR CAPABILITIES REPAIR SERVICES ENGINEERING SERVICES ONLINE SERVICES SURPLUS SERVICES •  ELECTRONIC •  MECHANICAL •  BALL SCREW •  RAC® REPAIRABLE ASSET CONTROL •  BUY SURPLUS PARTS •  SELL SURPLUS PARTS •  ELECTRONIC DESIGN •  MECHANICAL DESIGN •  MANUFACTURING •  FAILURE ANALYSIS
  7. 7. #WindWebinar •  Ford Motor •  Bosch •  General Motors •  Chrysler •  Delphi •  Hyundai •  Denso •  Thyssenkrupp •  Toyoda •  Honda •  EDPR •  EDF Renewable Energy •  NextEra Energy, Inc. •  Iberdrola •  Invenergy •  MidAmerican Energy •  NavAir •  Raytheon •  Naval Surface Warfare •  Naval Air Warfare •  Defense Logistics Agency •  Tobyhanna Army Depot •  NavSup Weapons Systems •  Wyle •  DRS OUR CUSTOMERS AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY WIND ENERGY INDUSTRY MILITARY INDUSTRY
  8. 8. #WindWebinar •  Texas Instruments •  Western Digital •  Cypress •  IBM •  Intel •  Freescale •  Samsung •  Maxim •  Seagate •  Triumph •  Chromalloy Gas Turbine •  Boeing •  Honeywell •  Kwikset •  Lufkin •  Corning •  SKF •  Black& Decker •  Briggs & Stratton •  Timken •  Honeywell •  Alcoa •  Eaton OUR CUSTOMERS SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY AEROSPACE INDUSTRY MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
  9. 9. #WindWebinar WHEN YOU THINK ISP, THINK PSI •  Hydraulic actuators •  Hydraulic pump •  Proportional valves •  Pitch motors •  Encoders •  Gear boxes – light duty •  Transducers COMPONENT REPAIRS •  Printed circuit board •  PLC •  Thyristors •  MET boards •  SCADA •  Pitch controls •  Monitors and displays ELECTRONIC REPAIRS •  Current controllers •  Anemometers •  IGBT banks •  Power converters •  Inverters PSI is a leading independent service provider (ISP) to the wind industry. PSI offers component repair and engineering services for these component failures and more:
  10. 10. #WindWebinar The highest-level cause of a problem is called the Root Cause. WHAT IS: A ROOT CAUSE ROOT CAUSE HIGHER-LEVEL CAUSE FIRST-LEVEL CAUSE VISIBLE PROBLEM SYMPTOM
  11. 11. #WindWebinar A Root Cause is “the evil at the bottom” that sets in motion the entire cause-and-effect chain causing the problem(s). Our goal is to permanently eliminate these through design improvements. Root Cause Examples for Electronics: •  Faulty or weak components •  External causes, e.g. power issues •  Poorly designed circuits, underrated components WHAT IS: A ROOT CAUSE
  12. 12. #WindWebinar Root Cause Analysis (RCA) is a term that describes techniques and tools used to uncover causes of problems. WHAT IS: A ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS CAUSE CAUSE CAUSE CAUSE PROBLEM SYMPTOMS The symptom is just the Tip of the iceberg!
  13. 13. #WindWebinar Failure Root Cause Edges of Tire Worn Under Inflation Center of Tire Worn Over Inflation Knife Stuck in Sidewall You Really Upset Someone! EXAMPLE: FAILED TIRES
  14. 14. #WindWebinar 5 WHYS is a technique used to explore the cause-and-effect relationships underlying a particular problem. The primary goal is to determine the root cause of a problem by repeating the question "WHY?" TOOLS OF RCA: 5 WHYS?
  15. 15. #WindWebinar BELT BEYOND LIFE BELT BROKEN ALTERNATOR NOT WORKING BATTERY DEAD CAR WON’T START MAINTENANCE NOT PERFORMED SCHEDULE PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE TOOLS OF RCA: 5 WHYS? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? WHY? ROOT CAUSE CORRECTIVE ACTION
  16. 16. #WindWebinar Pareto Analysis is a technique used for the selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. It uses the Pareto Principle (also known as the 80/20 rule). Doing 20% of the work can generate 80% of the benefit of doing the entire job. TOOLS OF RCA: PARETO ANALYSIS OR RED-X 80% RESULTS 20% EFFORT
  17. 17. #WindWebinar = 80% of the failures These are the most critical problems to address. TOOLS OF RCA: PARETO ANALYSIS OR RED-X
  18. 18. #WindWebinar The Fishbone Diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. Also known as: Ishikawa Diagram Herringbone Diagram Cause-and-Effect Diagram TOOLS OF RCA: FISHBONE DIAGRAM
  19. 19. #WindWebinar TOOLS OF RCA: FISHBONE DIAGRAM
  20. 20. #WindWebinar •  Extend MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) •  Save LABOR costs •  Prevent turbine DOWNTIME •  Less EXPENSIVE than OEM solutions •  Avoid major RETROFITS or overhauls •  Prevent CATASTROPHIC failures before they happen WHY RCA: IS SO CRITICAL TO O&M BUDGETS
  21. 21. #WindWebinar . CASE STUDIES:
  22. 22. #WindWebinar 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% Percent of Total Cumulative Percentage 80% Majority of Failures Related to IGBT CASE STUDY: YAW MOTOR MODULE
  23. 23. #WindWebinar Problem: •  35 AMP modules failing OEM Solution: •  Retrofit cabinets with 45 AMP module PSI Solution: •  Upgrade 35 AMP module to 45 AMP CASE STUDY: YAW MOTOR MODULE
  24. 24. #WindWebinar Issues with OEM Solution: •  New unit is wider •  Cabinets require modifications •  Retrofit labor is costly •  Larger units are costly Result: •  Expensive solution CASE STUDY: YAW MOTOR MODULE
  25. 25. #WindWebinar Upgrades consisting of: •  30 AMP IGBT replaced with 45 AMP device •  Recalibrate current sense resistors •  This provides additional current handling for peak energy CASE STUDY: YAW MOTOR MODULE
  26. 26. #WindWebinar 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 # Parts Replaced Cumulative % 80% Mark CASE STUDY: PITCH BATTERY CHARGER
  27. 27. #WindWebinar Testing Data: VA ratings exceeded of all style transformers at nominal input voltage. CASE STUDY: PITCH BATTERY CHARGER
  28. 28. #WindWebinar Original Design Problems: •  High failure rate •  Common component failures •  Transformer power exceeded •  Ambient temperature exceeded CASE STUDY: PITCH BATTERY CHARGER
  29. 29. #WindWebinar Transformer Failure Analysis: Primary winding failed due to excess power and ambient temperature. CASE STUDY: PITCH BATTERY CHARGER
  30. 30. #WindWebinar Upgrades Consist of: •  Higher power transformer and custom adapter board •  Higher temperature IC’s •  Other high failure parts include electrolytic capacitors replaced on each unit CASE STUDY: PITCH BATTERY CHARGER
  31. 31. #WindWebinar What happened? The Automatic Lubrication System failed. WHY? The power supply failed. WHY? The power supply has burned components. WHY? The components got too hot. WHY? The power supply produces a lot of heat. WHY? The power supply is an inefficient design. WHY? The power supply is old technology. Solution? Design an efficient power supply! CASE STUDY: AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION SYSTEM FIVE WHYS?
  32. 32. #WindWebinar •  Drop in replacement unit •  Custom designed •  Higher efficiency = low heat •  High reliability •  Low cost CASE STUDY: AUTOMATIC LUBRICATION SYSTEM
  33. 33. #WindWebinar FAILED UNITS ENVIRONMENT MATERIALS PEOPLE Shipping Damage ESD Damage Low MTBF Bad Design Poor Ratings Power Surges Low Temp High Temp CASE STUDY: RFID TAG READER
  34. 34. #WindWebinar Root Causes of Main Failures: •  Component temperature exceeded •  Poor antenna design •  Poor antenna matching circuit CASE STUDY: RFID TAG READER
  35. 35. #WindWebinar Poorly Designed OEM Antenna Antenna Redesign and Optimization Copper Tape Style Non-Optimized Style Multiple Designs Simulated and Tested In-House Prototypes Production Design with Coax Cable SPICE Simulations CASE STUDY: RFID TAG READER
  36. 36. #WindWebinar •  Custom designed and optimized antenna •  Range increased from 2.5cm to 5cm •  Higher temperature components •  Coax cable to antenna •  Brighter LEDs •  Over 1,000 field installations CASE STUDY: RFID TAG READER
  37. 37. #WindWebinar What did the customer like most about the new design? •  Increased range? •  Longer life? •  NO? Brighter LEDs can be seen more easily Original LEDs CASE STUDY: RFID TAG READER
  38. 38. #WindWebinar WHY? OLD TECHNOLOGY TRANSISTORS WHY? POOR QUALITY CAPS WHY? CAP ESR TOO HIGH WHY? TRANSISTORS GENERATE TOO MUCH HEAT WHY? CAPS LEAKED AND SHORTED TRACES WHY? TEMPERATURE WAS EXCEEDED WHY? IT HAS BURNED CAPS WHY? THE PCB IS BURNED WHAT HAPPENED? PITCH DRIVE FAILED WHY? AMBIENT TEMP GETS TOO HIGH 5 WHYS? Multiple Paths and Multiple Root Causes CASE STUDY: PITCH MOTOR DRIVE
  39. 39. #WindWebinar Problems with original design: •  Extremely short life: <2 years in most cases •  Catastrophic failures – Many units non-repairable •  Units up tower in hub – Expensive to replace •  Poorly rated capacitors and transistors •  Inefficient design generates excess heat •  Damaged threads on ground lug hole CASE STUDY: PITCH MOTOR DRIVE
  40. 40. #WindWebinar New Design Features: •  Higher efficiency: 25ºC cooler than OEM •  Allows repair of catastrophic failures •  FETs with lower on resistance •  Capacitors handle higher ripple current •  Thicker copper traces on PCB •  Over 3,000 field installations •  MTBF reduced by over 80% CASE STUDY: PITCH MOTOR DRIVE Steel Inserts create more durable ground lug threads.
  41. 41. #WindWebinar CASE STUDY: CURRENT CONTROLLER 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Pareto Analysis: Large variation in failures VRCC Rotor Current Controller
  42. 42. #WindWebinar •  Component rotates with generator •  High vibration environment •  Short MTBF •  High ambient temperatures CASE STUDY: CURRENT CONTROLLER
  43. 43. #WindWebinar Original Design Problems: •  Broken solder joints on capacitors •  High vibration during operation •  DC-DC converter failures •  Rotating component is poorly balanced CASE STUDY: CURRENT CONTROLLER
  44. 44. #WindWebinar Upgrades: •  Tab style mechanical connections on snubber capacitors •  Through hole solder joints eliminated •  Resistant to damage from vibration •  Repaired units balanced with custom, mechanically secured weights. •  Improved DC-DC converters New PSI Snubber Board Design CASE STUDY: CURRENT CONTROLLER
  45. 45. #WindWebinar WHEN YOU THINK ISP, THINK PSI To learn more about Wind Energy Life Cycle Solutions, visit http://info.psi-repair.com/wind-root-cause-analysis, or call John Greulich at 734-853-5360.
  46. 46. Questions? Root Cause Analysis: Understand Why Electronic Parts Fail In Your Wind Turbine John Greulich Director of Sales PSI Repair Services, Inc. john.greulich@psi-corp.com Aaron Lawson Project Manager PSI Repair Services, Inc. alawson.rsi@psi-corp.com Michelle Froese Moderator Windpower Engineering mfroese@wtwhmedia.com
  47. 47. Thank You q  This webinar will be available at www.windpowerengineering.com & email q  Tweet with hashtag #WindWebinar q  Connect with Windpower Engineering & Development q  Discuss this on EngineeringExchange.com

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